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Prescnteh to 

of ilie 

PtiilJersity of 'S^oronto 


L.V. Mills, Esq., 
50 Indian Tr&il, 
Toronto, Ontario. 

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in 2009 with funding from 

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Arts, Sciences, an) General Literature 


rn NEW MAPS AND ORIGINAL American articles by eminent WRITERf! 



By W. H. IePUY, D.D.. LL.D., 
Bbinoing Eac, Volume Up to Dats. 

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yblopa3dia Brilannica. 
Vol. VI. — (CLi-DAY). 

/Toial number of 


/Alex. BuoBA'istetary.ScottisbMeUoro- 
Society. '\ 

-•^OA. liev Canon J. S. 
' Webstek, AthenKam 

}. Ssiim. !.I. D"'Kir fit "Annals of Indian 
iUtrotion, 1868-( ff" 
Rijllit Hon. Lo'>"GisiBOKPE, Q.C. 

40100X8, and J. Clauds 

CO.\L H. Baderman, F I nS.oyal School of Mines. 

COBUEN. Henbt RicBARtl,, p. 

COCHIN CHINA. C. MacN iiiociiKS deGeographie. 

COFKEE. James Paton, Cori^pr^n Galleries. Glasgow 

COFKER-DAIIS. David Sn \r;oN, C.E. 

0)LEOPTERA. JoHNGiBSdH-dnstnalMuseoni, Edin. 

QLERIDGE. Rev. 0. D. B.,,t M.A. 

OLOMBIA. U. A. Webste j. 

OLOSSIANS lU-v. W SAr.^jf,, Smith. Principal, 

$t Aldan's College, Birkei.^ie, 
<OM£T. J. RissELL Hind, )' h., Superintendent of 

Ihe "Nautical Almaoaa " ,^ 
"OMMERCE. Robert Som '''^ Author of ■"Trade 

Unions. '* .'■ 

OKMUNISM Mrs Fawceti', 
OKPANY. Edmtjkd RonFin'St LL.D , MP , Pro 
fessor o/ Roman Law. Univr'ny College, London. 
n\PASS. F. H. Bptler. M. H. 
OME. Jon;* MoRLBY, M.P.,1 iitor of the " Men of 

Letters " Series. '' 

pNDILLAC. Rev D. BAUsitlii M.A. 
jONDORCET. Robert Fun , DO., Profesjor of 

Divinity, University of Ediiumgh. 
ONFUCIUS. Rev. James Leo U Professor of Chinese 

University of Oxford. 1 

OECRESS. Hji-'.-rv Reeti, Cr 
O^JIO SECTIONS. H. M. Ta^^ob, FeUow of Trinity 
College, Cambridge. i 

HNECTICUT. W. G. A rROig Hartford, Conn. 
WSTANTINE. W. Brow.; >^si„th. 
WSTANTINOPIiE. Eev. C. CnETis, Chaplain to 

British Embassy, Pera. 
NTRABAND. W. C. Smith. V a. Advocate. 
OKERY. J. C. BucKMASTE * Vm,>^u) Keuaington 

Museum, London. 
•OLIE. K Wilson. ' 

PER. James Paton. 
TS. 8. Birch, LL.D., D.C.L -rt- 
'YRIOHT. Prof. Ed. Robei S:„ . (American) 
E. S. Drone. ;ef! 

lALS. Prof. H- A. Nicholson ot 
lEA. H. A. Webster, ' i?. 
ftlNTH. Pebot Gardner, Briii , Museum. 
RK. R. Cablfikld, LL.D .,,. 

RN LAWS. R Somers. y 

RNEILLE. George Saintsbub ^^ 
RNELlOa W. Cavb Thomas. ^^ 
ORNWALL. R J. Kino. . 

•3R0NAT10N. Rev. a H. REVN.l>i',.i 
l.ilEGGlO. W. M. RossETTl. ' 

iSMOQONY Bev. Prof. CHinip 

Articles. 761 

COSTUME. A. SnjABT Murray and Rev. Charles 


COTTON. Isaac Watts, Chairman of Otton Supply 

Association, Manchester. 
COUNCIL. D. Patrick. 
COUSIN. John Veitch, LL.D.. Professor of Logicanc 

Rhetoric, University of Glasgow. 
COWLEY. Edmund W. Gosse, Author of "New Poeroi 
COX. W. B. Scott. 

CRANACH. J A. Ceowe, Author of " Painting in Italy.' 
CUANMER W. Bro\v>-ino Smith. 
CREEDS. Very Rev. Pnncipal Tcllocb. 
CREMATION. W. C. Smith, LL.B. 
CRETE. E. H. BiTNBCBY, Author of ' ' History of Ancient 
CRIBBAGE. Henry Jones. [Geography.' 

CRICKET. H. F. Wilkinson. 
CRIME. L. 0. Pike, Author of "History of Crime In 

CRIMEA. Commander J. B. Telfeb, R.N. 
CRIMINAL LAW. Prof. Ed- Robebtson. 
CROMWELL. OLfVER. Alex. Nicolson, LL. D. 
CROQUET. Henby Jokes. 
CROSS. Rev. Chakles Boutell. 
CROUP. Dr J. 0. Affleck. 
CRUSADES. Rev. Sir Geo. W. Cox, Bart 
CRUSTACEA. Henry Woodwabd, F.RS.. Britijb 

CRYPT. Rev. Canon Venables. 
CRYSTALLOGRAPHY. James Nicol, late Professo- 

of Natural History, University of Aberdeen. 
CUBA. Keith Johnston. 
OUCKOO. Alfred Newton, Professor of Zoology, etr 

University of Cambridge. 
CUDWORTH. Prof. R. Flint, D.D 
CUMBERLAND. H. I. Jenkinson and J. C. Ward 
CUMBERLAND (Bishop). Prof. Fllst. 
CUMBERLAND (Dramatist). A. W. Ward, Profes- 
sor of English Literature, Owens College, Manchester. 
OUKVE. Abthub Cayley, LLD., F.R.S., Sadlerian 

Professor ol Mathematics, Cambridge. 
CUTTLEFISH. Prof. H. A. Nicholson. 
CUYP. J. A. Crowe, Author of "Painting in Italy." 

CYRUS. Rev. Prof. A, H. Sayce. Queen'sCollege.Oxfonl 
DACCA. Hon. W. W. Hunter, LL.D., Director 

General of Indian Statistics. 
DAHOMEY. Colonel W. K. Eu.Es, C B 
DALHOUSIK George Smith, LL.D., Editor of 

"Annals of Indian Administration." 
DALLING Charles Kent. 
DALTON. F. H. Butler. 
DAMASCUS. J. L Porteb. D.D.. LLD.. Profesb.n 

of Biblical Criticism. Belfast 
DANCE. W. C. Smith. LLB. 
DANTE. Oscar Bbownino. M.A., Fellow of Eiug't 

College. Cambridge. 
DANTON. John Morley, M.P. 
DARIUS. Rev Prof Savck. 
DAVID. Prof W. Robertson Smitb. LL.D 



\ 6 










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to difTorcnces of absolute Leigbt, lliough of the greatest 
possible practical importance, yet leave untouched a whole 
lield of climatological research — a field embracing the mean 
temperature of different hours of the day at different 
heights, for an explanation of which we must look to the 
physical contiguration of the earth's surface and to the 
nature of that surface, whether rock, sand, black soil, or 
covered with vegetaticn. 

Under this head by far the most important class of con- 
ditions are those which result in extraordinary modifica- 
tions, amounting frequently to subversions, of the law of 
the decrease of temperature with the height. This will 
perhaps be best explained by supposing an extent of 
country diversified by plains, valleys, hills, and table-lands 
to be unJer atmospheric conditions favourable to rapid 
cooling by nocturnal radiation-. Each part being under 
the sumo meteorological conditions, it is evident that terres- 
trial radiation will proceed over all at the same rate, but 
the effects of radiation will be felt in different degrees and 
intensities in different places. As the air in contact with 
the declivities of hills and rising grounds becomes cooled 
by contact with the cooled surface, it acquires greater 
density, and consequently flows dov.-n the slopes and 
ttccumulatoa on the low-lying ground at their base. It 
follows, therefore, that places on rising ground are never 
exposed to the full intensity of frosts at night; and the 
higher they ore situated relatively to the immediately 
surrounding district the less are they exposed, since their 
relative elevation provides a ready escape downwards for 
the cold air almost as speedily as it is produced. On the 
other hand valleys surrounded by hills and high grounds 
not only retain their own cold of radiation, but also serve 
as reservoirs for the cold heavy air which pours down 
upon thorn from the neighbouring heights. Hence mist is 
frequently formed in low situations whilst adjoining 
eminences are clear. Along low-lying situations in the 
valleys of the Tweed and other rivers of Great Britain 
laurels, araucarias, and other trees and shrubs were 
destroyed during the great frost of Christmas 1860, whereas 
the same species growing*on relatively higher grounds 
escaped, thus showing by incontestible proof the great and 
rapid increase of temperature with height at places rising 
above the lower parts of the valleys. 

This highly interesting subject has been admirably eluci- 
dated by the numerous meteorological stations of Switzerland. 
It is there observed in calm weather in winter, when the 
ground becomes colder than the air above it, that sjstcms 
of descending currents of air set in over the whole face 
of the country. The direction and force of these descend- 
ing currents follow the irregularities of the surface, and like 
currents of water they tend to converge and unite in the 
valleys and gorges, down which they flo- • like rivers in their 
beds. Since the place of these air-currmta must be taken 
by others, it follows that on such occasii ns the temperature 
of the tops of mountains and high grounds is relatively 
high because the counter-currents come fr^m a great height 
and are therefore warmer. Swiss vilL , are generally 
built on eminences rising out of the sidr ' the mountains 
with ravines on both sides. They are i - admirably pro- 
tected from the extremes of cold in wj..ter, because the 
descending cold air-currents are diverted aside into the 
ravines, and the counter-currents are constantly supplying 
warmer air from the higher regions of the atmosphere. 

Though the space filled by the down-flowing current of 
cold air in the bottom of a valley is of greater extent than 
the bed of a river, it is yet only a difference of degree, the 
apace being in all cases limited and well defined, so that 
in rising above it in ascending the slope the increased 
warmth is readily felt, and, as we have seen, in extreme 
f.-Mts the destruction to trees and shrubs is seen rapidly to 

diminish. The gradual narrowing of a vaUey lends to a 
more rapid lowering of the temperature for the obvious 
reason that the valley thereby resemblea a basin almost 
closed, being thus a receptacle for the cold air-currents 
which descend from all sides. The bitterly cold furious 
gusts of wind which are often encountered in mountainous 
regions during night are simply the out-rush of cold air 
from such basins. 

The two chief causes which tend to counteract these 
effects of terrestrial radiation are forests and sheets of 
water. If a deep lake fills the basin, the cold air which 
is poured down on its surface having "cooled the surface 
water, the cooled water sinks to a greater depth, and thus the 
air resting over the lakes is little if at all lowered in tem- 
perature. Hence deep lakes may be regarded as sources 
of heat during winter, and places situated near their outlet 
are little exposed to cold gusts of wind, while places on 
their shores are free from the severe frosts which are 
peculiar to other low-lying situations. The frosts of winter 
are most severely felt in those localities where the slopes 
above them are destitute of vegetation, and consist only of 
bare rock and soil, or of snow. If, however, the slopes be 
covered with trees, the temperature is warmer at the ba»« 
and up the sides of the mountain, — the beneficial influence 
of forests consisting in the obstacle they offer to the 
descending currents of cold air and in distributing the cold 
produced by terrestrial radiation through a stratum of the 
atmosphere equalling in thickness the height of the trees. ' 

Hence as regarijs strictly local climates, an intelligent 
knowledge of which is of great practical value, it follows 
that the best security against the severity of cold in 
winter is afforded where the dwellings are situated on a 
gentle acclivity a little above the plain or valley ijrom which 
it rises with an exposure to the south, and where the ground 
above is planted with trees. When it is borne in mind that 
in temperate climates, such as that of Great Britain, the 
majority of the deaths which occur in the winter months 
are occasioned or at least hastened by low temperatures, it 
will be recognized as of the most vital importance, especially 
to invalids, to know what are the local situations which 
afford the best protection against great cold. In truth, 
mere local situations may during periods of intense coW 
have the effect of maintaining a temperature many degrees 
above that which prevails close at hand — a difference which 
must mitigate suffering and not unfrequently prolong life. 

In addition to mere elevation and relative configuration 
of surface, the land of the globe brings about important 
modifications of climate in the degree in which its surface 
is covered with vegetation or is a desert waste. Of all 
surfaces that the earth presents to the influences of solar 
and terrestrial radiation an extent of sand is accompanied 
with the most extreme fluctuations of climate, as these ar« 
dependent on the temperature and moisture of the air; 
whilst on the other hand, extensive forests tend to mitigate 
the extremes of temperature and distribute its daily^ 
changes more equably over the twenty-four hours. 

As regards the influence of the sun's heat on the tempera- 
ture of the air, attention is to be given almost exclusively 
to the temperature of the extreme upper surface of the 
earth heated by the snti with which the air is in 
immediate contact. Badly conducting surfaces, such as 
sand, will evidently have the greatest influence in raising 
the temperature of the air, for the simple reason that tl^e 
heat produced by the sun's rays being conveyed downwards 
into the soil with extreme slowness must necessarily remain 
longer on the surface, in other words, remain in immediate 
contact with the atmosphere. Similarly at night, the 
cooling effects of terrestrial radiation being greatest on 
Bandy surfaces, the climate of sandy deserts is characterized 
by nights of comparatively great cold. These dailj 


Biternatlons of heat and culd are still further intensified by 
the great dryness of the air over extensive tracts of sand. 
In warm countries the surface temperature of sandy deserts 
often rises to 120°, 140°, or even to 200°, and the shade 
temperature has been observed as high as 125'. It is this 
hot air, loaded with particles of sand still notter, and driven 
onwards by furious whirlwinds, which forms the dreaded 
simoon of the desert ; and the irritating and enervating 
sirocco of the regions bordering the Mediterranean is to be 
traced to the same cause. It is in the deserts of Africa, 
Arabia, Persia, and the Punjab that the highest tempera- 
ture on the globe occurs, the mean summer temperature of 
theso regions rising to and exceeding 95°. Tlie extreme 
surface of loam and clay soils is not heated during day 
Bor cooled during night in so high a degree as that of 
•andy soils, because, the former being better conductors, 
the heat or the cold is more quickly conveyed downward, 
»,nd therefore not allowed to accunHilate on the surface. 

When the ground is covered with vegetation the whole 
of the sun's heat falls on the vegetable covering, and as 
none of it falls directly on the soil its temper.iture does not 
rise so high as that of land with no vegetable covering. 
Tlie temperature of plants exposed to the sun does not rise 
BO high as that of soil, because a, portion, of the sun's heat 
is lost in evaporation, and the heat cannot accumulate on 
the surface of the leaves as it does on the soil. Hence the 
essential difference between the climates of two countries, 
the one well covered with vegetation, the other not, lies in 
this, that the heat of tlie day is more equally distributed 
over the twenty-four hours in the former case, and there- 
fore less intense during the warmest' part of the day. 

But the effect of vegetation on the distribution of the 
temperature during the day is most markedly shown in the 
case of forests. 'Trees, like other bodies, are heated and 
cojled by radiation, but owing to tlieir slow conducting 
power the times of the daily maximum and minimum 
temperature do not occur till some hours after the same 
phases of the temperature of tlie air. Again, the effects 
of radiation are in the case of trees not chiefly confined to 
& surface stratum of air a very few feet in thickness, but 
M already remarked, are to a very large extent diffused 
through a stratum of air equalling, in thickness at least, 
the height of the trees. Hence the conserving influence 
of forests on climate, making the nights warmer and the 
days cooler, imparting, in short, to the climates of districts 
clad with trees something of the character of insular 
climates. Evaporation proceeds slowly from the damp 
Boil usually found beneath trees, since it is more or less 
screened from the sun. Since, however, the air under the 
trees is little agitated or put in circulaUon by the wind, 
the vapour arising from the soil is niosily left to accumu- 
late among the trees, and hence it is probable that forests 
diminish the evaporation, but increase the humidity, of 
climates within their influence. The humidity of forests 
is further increased by the circumstance that when rain 
falls less of it pas.sc3 immediately along the surface into 
streams and rivers ; a considerable portion is at once 
taken up by the leaves of the trees and percolates the soil, 
owing to its greater friability in woods, to the roots of the 
'irees, whence it is drawn up to the leaves, and tliere eva- 
porated, thus adding to the humidity of the atmosphere. 
• Much has been done by Dr Marsh and others in 
lucidation of tlie influence on climate of forests and the 
tenudation of trees, in so far as that can be done by the 
■arying depths of lakes and rivers and other non- 
nstrumental observations. Little comparatively has been 
done anywhere in the examination of the great practical 
fj«estion of the influence of forests on climate, by means 
of carefully devised and conducted observations made 
will) thermometers, the evaporating dish, or tbs raia 

gauge. The most extensive inquiry on the subject yet set 
ou foot has been for some years conducted in the forcste 
of Bavaria under the direction of Professor Ebermeyer, 
and a like inquiry was begun in Germany in 1875, — the 
more important results being that during the day, particu- 
larly in the warm months, the temperature in the forest is 
considerably lower than outside in the open country, there 
being at the same time a slow but steady outflow of air 
from the forest ; and that during the night the tempera- 
ture in the forest is higher, while there is an inflow of air 
from the open country into the forest. The mean annual 
temperature in the forest increases from the surface of ths 
ground to the tops of the trees (where it is observed t» 
approximate to what is observed in the open country), » 
result evidently due to the facility of descent to the surfacs 
of the cold air produced by terrestrial radiation, and t» 
the obstruction offered by the trees to the solar influence 
at the surface. The mean annual temperature of lh« 
woodland soil from the surface to a depth of 4 feet is. from 
2° to 3° lower than that of the open country. A series of 
observations was begun at Carnwath, Lanarkshire, in 
1^T.;•, at two stations, one outside a wood, and the other 
inside the wood in a small grass plot of about 50 feet 
diameter clear of trees. From these valuable results have 
been obtained relative to the difl'erences in the daily marct 
of temperature and the different rates - of humidity, the 
most important being the substantial agreement of the 
mean annual temperature of the two places. The estab- 
lishment of a station, with underground thermometer^ 
which it is proposed to erect under the shade of the tree* 
close to the station in the cleared space, will furnish dat* 
which will not only throw new light on the Cjuestions raised 
in this inquiry, but also on the movements and viscosity 
of the air and solar and terrestrial radiation. 

When the sun's rays fall on water they are not as in ths 
case of land arrested at the surface, but penetrate to » 
-considerable depth, which, judging from observations mad* 
by Sir Robert Christison on Loch Lomond, and from thost 
made on board the " Challenger," is probably in clear 
water about GOO feet. Of •all known substances watw 
has the greatest specific heat, this being, as compared wilV 
that of the soil and rocks composing the earth's crust, in ths 
proportion of about 4 to 1. Hence water is heated much 
more slowly by the sun's rays and cooled more slowly by 
nocturnal radiation than the laud. It is 'owing to these 
two essential differences between land and water with respect 
to heat that climates come to be grouped into the three 
great classes of oceanic, insular, and continental climates.. 

The maximum densities of fresh and salt water, whids 
are respectively 39°'l and 26° '2 (when the sea-water is th» 
average degree of saltuess), mark an essential distinction 
between the effects of sheets of fresh and salt water ok 
climate. The surface temperature of sea-water falls very 
slowly from 39°-l to 28°'4, its freezing point, because a» 
it falls the temperature of the whole water through its 
depths must fall ; whilst from 39°'l to 32° the surface 
temperature of fresh water falls rapidly because it is only 
the portion floating on the surface which requires to be 
cooled. If the bottom temperature of fresh water e.tcecd 
39°'I the cooling takes place also very slowly, since in thi» 
case the water through all its depth must be cooled down 
to 39''1 as well as that of the surface. 

The temperature at the greatest depths of Loch Lomond, 
which is practically constant at all seasons, is not 47°'8, 
the mean annual temperature of that part of Scotland, but 
42°, which happens to be the mean temperature of th* 
cold half of the year, or that half of the year when 
terrestrial radiation is the ruling element of the tempora.| 
ture. Thus, then, there is an immense volume of wafer 
at the bottom of this lake at a constant temper&t»r» 5*-| 

C L I yi A T E 

below that of the mean annual temperature of the locality. 
From this fulluw two important consequences, viz. — (1) 
Juring each winter no inconsiderable portion of the cold 
produced by terrestrial radiation is conveyed away from 
»hc surface to the depths of the lake, where it therefore no 
louger exercises any influence whatever on the atmosphere 
♦r on the climate of the district in lowering the tem- 
perature ; and (2) this annual accession of cold at these 
depths is wholly counteracted by the internal heat of the 
rulh. In corroboration of this view it may be pointed 
»ut that the water of the Rhone as it issues from Lake 
Ucneva is 3° 7 higher than that of the air at Geneva. 
Tbvis, the influence of lakes which do not freeze over 
is to mitigate in some degree the cold of winter over the 
dislrict where they are situated. This is well illustrated 
.VI a large scale by the' winter temperature of the lake 
tegioQ of North America. The influence of the sea is 
exactly akin to that of lakes. Over the surface of the 
ground slanting to the seashore the cold currents generated 
Ny radiation flow down to the sea, and the surface-water 
being thereby cooled sinks to lower depths. In the same 
nmnner no inconsiderable portion of the cold produced by 
ladiation in all latitudes over the surface of the ocean and 
tand adjoining is conveyed from the surface to greater 
depthj. The enormous extent to which this transference 
_goe!> on is evinced by the great physical fact disclosed to 
«s in recent years by deep sea obser^'9tions of temperature, 
Tiz., that the whole of the depths of the sea is filled with 
water at or closely approaching to the freezing point of 
fresh water, which in the tropical regions is from 40° to 
50° lower than the temperature of the surfacs. The with- 
drawal from the earth's surface in high latitudes of such 
an enoniious accumulation of ice-cold water to the depths 
•f the sea of tropical and subtropical regions, rendered 
possible by the present disposition of land and water over 
the globe, doubtless results in an amelioration to some 
extent of the climate of the whole globe, so far as that 
amy be brought about by a higher surface temperature in 
polar and temperate regions. 

Oceanic climates are the most equable of all climates, 
thowing fur the same latitudes the least differences between 
the mean temperatures of the different houi-s of the day 
and the different months of the year, and being at all times 
the least subject to violent changes of temperature. So far 
OS man Ls concerned, oceanic climates are only to be met 
witii on board sh>p. The hygienic value of these climates 
in the treatment of certain classes of chest and other 
•oroplaints is very great, and doubtless when better 
understood in their curative effects they will be more 
hrgely taken advantage of. It is, for instance, believed 
by many well qualified to form an opinion that they afford 
absolute, or all but absolute, immunity from colds, which 
are so often the precursors of serious complicated dis- 

The nearest approach to such climates on land is on 
Tery small islands such as Monach, which is situated about 
aoven miles to westward of the Hebrides, in the full sweep 
uf the westerly winds of the Atlantic which there prevail. 
The mean January temperature of this island, which is 
nearly in the latitude of Invemes."!, is 43°-4, being TS 
higher than the mean of January at Ventnor, Isle of 
Wight, 0°-8 higher than that of Jersey and Guernsey, and 
almost as high as that of Truro. Again, Stomoway, being 
•ituated on tho east coast of Lewis on the Minch, an 
inland arm of the Atlantic, has thus a less truly insular 
position than Monach. Its climate is therefore much less 
insular, and accordingly its mean temperature in January 
is 38°7, or 4*7 lower than that of Monach. From its 
position near the Moray Firth, on the east of Scotland, 
i>'uUod:u occupies a position still las insular ; b°Dce ita 

January temperature is only 37'1, being 1*C less than 
that of Stornoway, and 6' 3 less than that of Monach. 

On the other hand, the mean temperature of July is 
55°0 at Monach, 57* 8 at Culloden, 61*0 at Guernsey, 
and 62*6 at Ventnor. Thus the conditions of temperature 
at these stations are completely reversed in summer, for 
while in January Monach is V& warmer than Ventnor, in 
summer it is 7'6 colder. Since the prevailing winds in 
the British Isles are westerly, places on the east coast are 
less truly insular than are places similarly situated on the 
west, whence it follows that the winter and summer climates 
of the east coast approach more nearly the character of inland 
climates than do those of the west. 

The facts of the temperature at such places as Monach 
in Scotland and Valentia in Ireland discloee the existence 
of an all but purely oceanic climate along the coasts, 
particularly of the west, so distinct and decided, and 
extending inland so short a distance, that it would be 
impossible to represent it on any map of land isothermala 
of ordinary size. The only way in which it can be 
graphically represented is by drawing on the same map 
the isothermala of the sea for the same months, as 
Petermann has done on his chart "of the North Atlantic 
and continents adjoining. Such maps best lead to a 
knowledge of the true character of our seaside climates. 

Though it^s impossible to overestimate the climatological 
importance of seaside climates, as evinced by their curative 
effects. on man, and their extraordinary influence on the 
distribution of animal and vegetable life, it must be con- 
fessed that we are yet only on the threshold of a rational 
inquiry into their true character. Undoubtedly the first 
step in this large inquiry is the establishing of a string of 
about sis stations at various distances from a point close 
to high-water mark to about two miles inlond, at which 
observations at different hours of the day would be made, 
particularly at 9 .-vm. and 3 and 9 p.m., of the pressure, tem- 
perature, humidity, movements, and cheniisliy of the air7 

Our large towns have climates of a peculiar character, 
wliirh may be ssid to consist chiefly in certain disturbances 
in the diurnal and seasonal distribution of the temperature, 
an excess of carbonic acid, a deficiency of ozone, and the 
presence of noxious impurities. Systematic inquiries into 
the condition, and composition of the air of our large towns 
have been instituted this year (1876) in Paris and Glasgow, 
in which the ozone, ammonia, nitric acid, and germs present 
in different districts of these cities are regularly observed. 
There yet remain to be devised some means of making 
truly comparable thermometric and hygrometri-.; observa- 
tions in diflerent localities, including the more densely- 
peopled districts, for the investigation of what we may call 
tho arhficial climates peculiar to each district. AVhile such 
an inquiry,-at least in its earlier stages, must necessarily 
be regarded a.i a purely scientific one, it may fairly be 
expected to lead sooner or later to a knowledge of the 
causes which determine the course of many epidemics — 
why, for instance, diphtheria is more frequent and more 
fatal in the new than in the old town of Edinburgh, and 
why in some parts of Leicester diarrhoea is unknown an t 
fatal disease, while in other parts of the same town it rages 
every summer as a terrible pestilence among infants — and 
ultimately suggest the means by -which they may be 
stamped out when they make their appearance. 

It has been already pointed out (see Atmospheei) that 
prevailing winds are the simple result of the relative distri- 
bution pf atmospheric pressure, their direction and force 
being the flow of the air from a region of higher towards a 
region of lower pressure, or from where there is a surplus to 
where there is a deficiency of air. Since climate is practi- 
cally determined by the temperature and moisture of the air, 
and since these are dependent on the prevailing winds whitb 

C L I i\I A T E 

uom« charged with the temperature and moisture of the 
regions they have traversed, it is evident that isobaric 
charts, showing the mean pressure of the atmosphere, form 
the key to the climates of tiio different regions of the globe, 
particularly those dillereut climates. which are found to 
prevail in different regions having practically the same 
latitude and elevation. This principle is all the more 
importint when it is considered that the prevailing winds 
determine in u very great degree the currents of the ocean 
which exercise so powerful an inducnce on climate. 

Since winds bring with them the temperature of the 
regions they have traversed, southerly currents of air are 
warm winds, and northerly currents cold winds. Also 
since the temperature of the oceau is more uniform than 
that of the land, winds coming from th ocean do not cause 
•uch variations of temperature as wind from a continent. 
As air loaded with vapour obstructs both solar and terrestrial 
radiation, when clear as well as when clouded, moist ocean 
winds are accomi)anied by a mild temperature in winter 
and a cool temperature in summer, and dry winds coming 
from continents by cold winters and hot summers. Lastly, 
equatorial currents of air, losing heat as they proceed in 
their course, are thereby brought nearer the point of satura- 
tion, Olid consequently become (poister winds , whereas 
northerly currents acquiring greater heat in their progress 
become drier winds. 

It follows from these rehtions of the wind to temperature 
and moisture that the S.W. wind in the British Isles is a 
very moist wind, being both an oceanic and equatorial 
current ; whereai the N.E. wind, on the other hand, is 
peculiarly dry and parching, because it is both a northerly 
and continental current. Owing to the circumstance of 
atmospheric pressure diminishing frpm the south of Europe 
northwards to Iceland, it follows niat S W winds are the 
most prevalent in Great Britain ; and since this diminution 
of pressure reaches its maximum amount and persistency 
daring tlie winter months, SW winds are in the greatest 
preponderance at this season ; hence the abnormally high 
Winter temperature of these islands above wliat is due to 
mere latitude. The mean winter tempi^ature of Lerwick. 
Shetiaud, in respect of latitude alone would be 3', and of 
London 17°, but owing to the heat conveyed from the 
warm waters of the Atlantic across these islands by the 
winds, the temperature of Shetland is 30' and of Lond >n 
M'. In Iceland and Norway tlie abnormal increase of 
temperature in winter is still greater This inHuence of 
Itie Atlantic through the agency of the winds is so pre- 
ponderating that Ibe winter isothermals of Great Britain 
lie north and south, instead of the normal east and west 

This peculiar distribution of thewi;iter temperaiure of 
the British Isles has important beannjs on the treatment 
of diseases Sim-e the temperature of the whole of tbe 
eastern ebpe of Great Britain is the same, it is clear that 
to those for wbom.a milder winter climate is required a 
journey southward is attended with no practical advaLtage, 
unless directed to the west coast. As the temperature on 
the west 13 uniform from Shetland to Wales, Scotland is as 
favourable to weak constitutious during winter as any part 
of Eoglaod, except the south-west, the highest winter 
temperatures being found from the Isle of VVight we3tw.ard 
round the Cornish peninsula to the Bristol Channel ; and 
from Carnsoro Point in Ireland to Galway Bay the tempera- 
ture IS also high. 

The height and direction of mountain ranges form an 
important factor lo determining the climatic characteristic^ 
of prevailing winds. If the range be perpendicular to the 
winds, the effect is to drain the winds which cross them of 
tlieir moisture, thus rendering the winters elder and the 
sa.-nmers hotter at all places to leewiril, as compared with 

places 10 windward, by partially removing the protecting 
screen of vapour and thus e.vposing them more effectually 
to solar ami terrestrial radiation. To this cause much of 
the observed difference between the west and east climates 
of Great Britain is due. In Ireland, on the othtr hand, 
where the mountains are not grouped in ranges running 
north and .south, but in isolated masses, the difference 
between the climates of the east and west is very much 
less. In the east of the United States the prevailing 
winds in summer are S W' , and as the AUegtianies lie in 
the same "direction ihe temperature is little affected by 
these mountains, and the rainfall is pretty evenly dis- 
tributed on both sides of the range 

In Its climatological relations the distribution of rain 
over the globe presents us with a body of facts which lead, 
when intelligently interpreted, to a knowledge of the laws 
regulating the distribution of plants more quickly and 
certainly than do the facts of temperature. It is to tho 
prevailing winds we must look for an explanation of the 
rainfall, the bfoad principles of the connection being these; 
— I. The rainfall is moderately large when the wind has 
traversed a considerable e.xtent of ocean , 2, if the winds 
advance into colder regions the rainfall is largely increased, 
and if a range of mountains lie across their path the 
amount precipitated on tbe side facing the winds is greatly 
augmented but diminished over regions on the other side 
of the range . 3. if the winds, though coming from the 
ocean, have not traversed a considerable extent of it, the 
rainfall is not large , and 4, if the winds, even though 
having traversed a considerable part of the ocean, yet on 
arriving on the land proceed into lower latitudes, or 
regions markedly warmer, the rainfall is small or nil. It 
13 this last consideration which accounts for the rainless 
character of the summer climates of California, of Southern 
Europe, and uf Northern Africa. 

Tbe region extending from Alaska to Lower California 
presents more sudden transitions of climate, and climates 
more sharply contrasted with each other, than any other 
jiortion of the globe, this arising from the contour of its sur- 
face and the prevailing winds. A direct contrast to this is 
offered by the United States to the east of the Mississippi, 
a region characterized by a remarkable uniformity in the 
distribution of its rainfall in all seasons, which, taken in 
connection with its temperature, affords climatic conditions 
admirably adapted fur a vigorous growth of trees and for 
the great staple products of agriculture. India and tbe 
rejion of the Caspian Sea and tbe Caucasus Mountains 
also present extiaordinary contrasts of climate in all 
seasons, due to the prevailing winds, upper as well as 
lower winds, the relative distribution of land and water, 
and the physical configuration of tbe surface of the land 

In the above remarks the only question dealt with 
das been the average climate of localities end regions. 
There are, however, it need scarcely be added, vital 
elements of climate of which such a discussion can take no 
cognizance These are the deviations which occur from 
the seasonal averages of chmate. such as periods of extreme 
cold and heat, or of extreme humidity and dryness of air, 
liability to storms of wind, thunderstorms, fogs, and 
extraordinary downfalls of rain, hail, or enow An 
illustration will show the climatic difference here insisted 
on. The mean winter temperature of the Southern States 
of America is almost the same as that of Lower Egypt 
Lower Egypt is singularly free from violent alternations of 
temperature as well as frost, whereas these are marked 
features of the winter climate of the States bordering on 
the Gulf of Mexico. Robert Russell, in his Climate cf 
America, gives on instinci' of tbe temperature falling in 
Southern Texas with a norther from 81° to 18' m 41 
hourS: the norther b'^wing at the same time with great 

C L I— C L 1 

violence. A temperaluro of 18° accompanying a viuknt 
wind miy be regarUed a3 unknown in Great Britain. 

It w to the cyclone and anticyclcne (see Atmosphere) we 
must look for an explanation of thesa violent weather 
changes. Climatically, tki significance of the auticycloue 
or area of high pressure consists in the space covered for 
the time by it being oa account of its dryness and clear- 
ness more fully under the inUuenee of solar and terrestrial 
radiation, and consequently exposed to great cold in winter 
and great heat in summer ; and of tba cyclono or area of 
low pressure, in a moist warm atmosphere occupying its 
front and southern half, and a cold dry atmosphere its 
rear and northern half. 

The low areas of the American cyclones, as they proceed 
eastward a'ong the north shores cf the Gulf of Mexico, are 
often immediately followed to west and north-westward by 
areas of very high pressure, the necessary consequence of 
which is the setting in of a violent norther over the 
Southern States. Since similar barometric conditions do 
not occur in the region of Lower Egypt, its climate is freo 
from these sudden changes which are so injurious to the 
health even of the robust. Since many of the centres 
of the cyclones of North America follow the track of the 
lakes and advance on the Atlantic by the New England 
States and Newfoundland, these States and a large portion 
of Canada frequently experience cold raw easterly end 
uortherly winds. The great majority of European storms 
travel eastward with their centres to northward of Faro, and 
hence the general mildness of the winter climate of the 
British Isles. When it happens, however, that cyclonic 
oentres pass eastwards along the English Channel or through 
Belgium and North Germany, while high pressure prevails 
ia the north, the winter is characterized by frosts and 
snows. The wor.?t summer weatlier in Great Britain is 
when low pressures prevail over the North Sea, and the 
hottest and most brilliant weather when anticyclones lie 
over Great Britain and extend away to south and eastward. 

Low pressures in the Mediteriaiiean, along with high 
pressures to northward, are the conditions of the worst 
winter weather in the south of Europe. A cyclone in the 
Gulf of Lyons or of Genoa, and an anticyclone over Germany 
and Russia, have the mistral as their unfailing attendant, 
blowing with terrible force and dryness on the Mediter- 
ranean coasts of Spain, France, and North Ital). being 
alike in its origin and in its climatic qualities the exact 
counterpart of the uorlher of the Gulf of Mexico. It 
follows from the courses taken by the cyclones of the 
Mediterranean, and the anticyclones which attend on 
them, that also Algeria, Malta, and Greece are liable to 
violent alternations of temperature during the cold months. 

The investigation of this phase of climate, which can 
only be earned out by the examination of many thousands 
of daily weather charts, is as important as it is dilficult, 
since till It bo done the advantages and hazards offered by 
different sanataria cannot be compared and valued. It 
may in the meantime be enough to say that no pUco ony 
where in Europe or even in Algeria offers an immunity 
from the risks orismg from the occurrence of cold weather 
in winter at all comparable to that afforded by the climate.s 
of Egypt and Madeira. See Atmosphlbe, Meteorology, 
tud Physical GEOfiRAPiiY. (a. u ) 

CLINTON, a city of the United States, in Clinton 
County, Iowa, about 42 miles higher up than Davenport, 
on the Mississippi, which is crossed at this point by an iron 
drawbridge upwards of 4000 feet long It is a thriving 
place, with workshops for the Chicago and North-W-estern 
Railway, and an extensive trade in timber. Several news- 
pa(>er9 are published weekly Population in 1870, 6129 

CLINTON, a town of the United Slates, in Worcester 
•ountv, Massachusetts, on the Nashua Kiver, about 32 

miles west of Boston, at the junction of several railway 
lines. It is the seat of extensive manufacturing activity, 
chieSy expended in the production of cotton cloths, woollea 
carpets, boots and shoes, combs, and machinery. Tha 
Lancaster mills rank as perhaps the Jiest in the United 
States ; and the wire cloth company has the credit of being 
the first to weave wire by the power-loom. Population iii. 
1870, 5429. 

CLINTON, DeWitt (1769-1828), an American states- 
man, born at Little Britain, in the State of New York, was 
the son of a gentleman of English extraction who served as 
brigadier-geiieral in the war of independence, and of a lady 
belonging to the famous Dutch family of De Witts. He 
was educated at Colombia College; and in 1788 he was 
admitted to the bar. He at once joined the republican 
party, among the leaders of which was his ui;ci5, George 
Clinton, governor of New York, whose secretary hs became. 
At the same time ho held the ofBce of secretary to the 
board of regents of the university, and to the commissioners 
of fortifications. In 1797 he was elected member of the 
Assembly, in 1798 member of the Senate of the State of 
New York, and in 1801 member of the Senate of the 
United States. For twelve years, with two short breaks, 
which amounted only to three years, he occupied the 
position of mayor of New York. He was also again 
member of the Senate of New York from 1803 to 1811, 
and lieutenant-governor of the State from 1811 to 1813. 
In 1812 he became a candidate for the presidency ; but h« 
was defeated by Madison, and lost even his lieutenant- 
governorship. Throughout his whole career Clinton had 
been distinguished by his intelligent support of all schemes 
of improvement, and he now devoted himself to carrying 
out the proposal for the construction of canals from Lakes 
Erie and Champlain to the River Hudson. The Federal 
Government refused to undertake the work ; but some time 
after, in 1S15, the year in which he finally lust the 
mayoralty, he presented a nfemorial on the subject to the 
Legislature of New York, and the Legislature appointed a 
commission, of which he was made a member, to make 
surveys and draw up estimates. Having thus recovered 
his popularity, in 1816 Clinton was once more chosen 
governor of the State, in 1819 he was re-elected, and 
again in 1824 and 1826 In 1825 the Erie Canal was 
completed ; and he afterwards saw the work which owed 
so much to him carried on by the construction of im- 
portant branch canals. 

Do Witt Clinlon jiul lishcJ a. ilinnoir on the Antiquitia of IVcsUrn 
Hew York (18}8l. Leltcrs on the Aatural I/ialory and Internal 
Jicsouncs of New York (lS22).aud Speeches to the Legislature {i>^-2S). 
Hi9 life was written ly Hosack (1S29) and Renwick (1840); olJ ia 
I6J9 appeared Camiibill s'ii/e aud Writings cf De IVM Clinton. 

CLINTON. Henry Fynes (1781-1852), an English 
classical scholar, was born at Gamston, in Nottinghamshire. 
He was descended from the second earl of Linco'.n ; for 
.lome generations the name of his family was Fynu.-, but 
his father resumed the older family name of Clinton. 
Educated at Southwell school in his native county, at 
Westminster school, and at Christ Church College, Oxford, 
he devoted himself to the minute and almost uninterruplid 
study of classical literature and history. From ISOC to 
1826 he was MP. for Aldborough. 

Ilischitf Koiksare— fas.'i Uellema, a Civil and Literary Chrono. 
/o,;i/ cf Greece, which also coDtaiDs dissertations on poiofsof Gitcian 
l.iVtoryand Scriptural chronolccy (4 vols., 1824, 1827. 18"0, 1S34); 
and Foitx Komani. a Ciiii and Literary Chronology of J.^inc ami 
Constantinople from the Death cf jl vgustut to the Death of Ucridiua 
(2 vols., 1S45 aud 1851). In 1851 he published an epitome of the 
former, and an epitome of the latter appeartj in 1853. The Literary 
Remains of H. F C/iniim ueie published ly C. J. F. Clintou lo 

CLITHEROE, a manufacturing town and a muuic-:al 
and parliamentary borough of England, in the county of 


CLI— C L 1 

Lancashire, situated not far from lUc RibUle, at the foot of 
Pcudle Uills, about 28 niiJes by raQway ' north of 
Manchester. It has several suburbs, known ;ki Waterloo, 
Salford, aud Buwdlands, aud at the side of the river is the 
little village of Low Moor. Its principal buildings are the 
jjariah church of St Michael's, a grammar school founded 
jn 1554, the moothall, and the county court erected iu 
J 801; and its industrial establishments comprise cotton- 
mills, extensive printworks, paper-milk, foundries, and 
brick and lime works. The cotton manufacture alone 
employed upwards of 2000 people in 1871. Clitberoe 
was a borough by prescription as early as the 1 Uh century, 
and in 1138 it is mentioned as the scene of a battle be- 
tween th? Scotch and English. Its castle, probably built 
not long after, was a fortress of the Lacy family, and 
continued a defensible position till 1043, when it was dis- 
mantled by the Parliamentary forces. The Honor of Cli- 
theroe, for a long time a part of the duchy of Lancaster, and 
bestowed by Charles II. on General Monk, is now in the pos- 
session of the Buccleuch family. Population of the municipal 
borough in 1871, 8208 ; of the parliamentary, 11,786. 

CL1T0MA.CHUS, a leader of the New Academy, was a 
Carthaginian originally named Hasdrubal, who came to 
Athens about the middle of the 2d century B.C. He 
made himself well acquainted with Stoical and Peripatetic 
philosophy ; but he principally studied under Carneades, 
wbos9 views he adopted, and whom he succeeded as chief 
representative of the New Academy in 129 B.C. His 
works were some 400 in number; but we possess scarcely 
anything but a few titles, among which are De suslinendts 
ofeiisionibics, irfpl inoxv's (on suspension of judgment), and 
fffpi a'tpta-eav (an account of various philosophical sects). 
la 146 he wrote a philosophical treatise to console his 
countrymen after the ruin of their city. One of his works 
was dedicated to the Latin poet Lucilius, another to L. 
Ceneorinus, who was consul in 149 B.C. 

CLITOR, a town of ancient Greece,' in that'part of 
Arcadia which corresponds to the modern eparchy of 
Kalavryta. It stood in a fertile plain to the south of 
Mount Chelmos, the highest peak of the Aroanian Moun- 
tains, and not far from a stream of its own name, which 
joined the Aroanius, or Katzana. In the neighbourhood 
was a fountain, the waters of which were said to deprive 
those who drunk them of the taste for wine. The town 
was a place of considerable importance in Arcadia, and its 
inhabitants were noted for their love of liberty. It extended 
jta territory over several neighbouring towns, and in the 
Theban war fought against Orchomenos. As a member of 
the Achxan league it suffered siege at the hands of the 
^tolians, and was on several occasions the seat of the 
federal assemblies. The ruins, which bear the common 
name of Paleopoli, or Old City, are still to be seen about 
threo miles from a village that preserves the ancient 
designation. The greater part of the walls and several of 
the circular towers with which they were strengthened can 
be clearly made out ; and there are also remains of a small 
Doric temple, the columns of which were adorned with 
etrange capitals. 

, OLIVE, RoBEET (1725-1774), Baron.Clive of Plassy, in 
the peerage of Ireland, was the statesman and general who 
founded the empire of British India before ho was forty 
years of age. He is now represented by the Powis family, 
hia son having been noado carl of Powis in the peerage of 
the United Kingdom. Clive was bora on the 29th 
September 1725 at Styche, the family estate in the parish 
of Iforeton-Say, Market-Drayton, Shropshire. We learn 
from himself, in bis second speech in the House of Commons 
ill 1773, that as the estate yielded only j£500 a year, 
t ''. father followed the profession of the law also. The 
CUves, or Clyvcs, formed oue of the old&>t families in the 

county of Shropshire, having held the manor of that name 
in the reign of Henry If. One Clive was Iribh Chancellor 
of the Exchequer under Henry VIII.; another was a 
member of the Long Parliament ; Robert's father sat for 
many years for Monlgomeryshire. His mother, to whom 
throughout life ho was tenderly attached, and who had a 
powerful influence on his career, was a daughter, and with 
her sister Lady Sempill coheir, of Nathaniel Gaskell uf 
Manchester. Robert was their eldest son. With his five 
sisters, all of whom were married ,n due time, ho ever 
maintained the most affectionate relations. His only 
brother survived to 1325. Youug Clive was the despair 
of his teachers. Sent from school to school, and for only 
a short time at the Merchant Taylors' school, which had 
then a high reputation, he neglected his books for boyish 
adventures, often of the most dangerous kind. But he 
was not so ignorant as it is the fashion of his biographers 
to represent. He could translate Horace in after life, at 
the opening of the book ; and he must have laid in his 
youth the foundation of that clear and vigorous English 
style which marked all his despatches, and made Lord 
Chatham declare of one of his speeches in the House o' 
Commons that it was the most eloquent he had ever heard. 
From his earliest years, however, his ambition was to lead 
his fellows ; but ho never sacrificed honour, as the word 
was then understood, even to the fear of death. At eighteen 
he was sent out to Madras as a " factor" or "writer" in 
the civil service of the East India Company. The deten- 
tion of the ship at Bra:il for nine months enabled him to 
acquire the Portuguese language, which, at a time when few 
or none of the Company's servants learned the vernaculars 
of India, ha often found of use during his service there. 
For the first two years of his residence he was miserable. 
He felt keenly the separation from home ; he was always 
breaking through the restraints imposed on young "writers;" 
and he was rarely out of trouble with his fellows, with one 
of whom he fought a duel. Thus early, too, the effect of 
the climate on his health began to show itself in those fits 
of depression during one of which he afterwards pre- 
maturely ended his life. The story is told of him by his 
companions, though he himself never spoke of it, that he 
twice snapped a pistol at his head in vain. His one solace 
was found iu the Governor's library, where he sought to 
make up for past carelessness, not only by much readicg, 
but by a course of study. He was just of age, when ik 
1746 JIadras was forced to capitulate to Labourdonnais, 
during the war of the Austrian Succession. The breach 
of that capitulation by Dupbis, then at the head of the 
French settlements in India, led CUve, with others, to^ 
escape from the town to the subordinate Fort St David, 
some twenty miles to the south. There, disgusted with 
the state of affairs and tlie purely commercial duties of an 
East Indian civilian, as they then were, Clive obtained au 
ensign's commission. 

At this time India was ready to become the prize of the 
first conqueror who to tho dash of the soldier added the 
Bkill of the administrator. For the forty years since the 
death of tho Emperor Aurungzebe, the power of the Great 
Mogul had gradually fallen info the hands of his provincial 
viceroys or soubadars. The three greatest of these were 
the nawab of the Deccan, or South and Central India, who 
ruled from Hyderabad, the nawab of Bengal, whoso 
capital was Moorshedabad, and the nawab or vizier of 
Oudh. The prize lay between Dupleix, who had the 
genius of an administrator, or rather intriguer, but was no 
soldier, and Chve, the first of a century's brilliant succes- 
sion of those " soldier-politicals," as they are called in the 
East, to whom, ending with Sir Henry Lawrence, Great 
Britain owes the conquest and consolidation of its grcn'cst 
dependency. Clive successively established British ascend- 

C L I 


encyaganist French influence in the three great provinces 
under these nawabs. But his ment lies especially in the 
ability and foresight with which he secured for his country, 
and for the good of the natives, the richest of the 
three, Bengal. First, as to Madras and the Deccan, Clive 
had hardly been able to commend himself to Major Stringer 
Lawrence, the commander of the British troops, by his 
courage and skill in several small engagements, when the 
peace of Aii laChapelle forced him to return to his civil 
duties for a short time. An attack of the malady which 
80 severely affected his spirits led him to visit Bengal, 
where he was soon to distinguish himself. On his return 
he found a contest going on between two sets of rival 
claimants for the position of viceroy of the Deccan, and for 
that of nawab of the Carnatic, the greatest of the subor- 
dinate states under the Deccan. Dupleix, who took the 
part of the pretenders to power in both places, was carry- 
ing all before him. The British had been weakened by the 
withdrawal of a large force under Admiral Boscawen, and 
t)y the return home, on leave, of Major Lawrence. But 
that officer had appointed Clive commissary for the supply 
of the troops with provisions, wilh the rank of captain. 
Slore than one disaster had taken place on a small scale, 
when Clive drew up a plan for dividing the enemy's forces, 
and oCfered to carry it out himself. The pretender, Chunda 
Sahib, had been made nawab of the Carnatic with Dupleix's 
assistance, while the British had taken up the cause of the 
more legitimate successor, Mahomed Ali. Chunda Sahib 
had left Arcot, the capital of the Carnatic, to reduce 
Trichinopoly, then held by a weak English battalion. 
Clive offered to attack Arcot that he might force Chunda 
Sahib to raise the siege of Trichinopoly. But Madras and 
Port St David could supply him with only 200 Europeans 
and 300 sepoys. Of the eight officers who led them, four 
were civilians like Clive himself, and sis had never been 
in action. His force had but three field-pieces. The cir 
'Cumstance that Clive, at the head of this handful, had been 
eeen marching during a storm of thunder and lightning, 
led the enemy to evacuate the fort, which the British at 
once began to strengthen against a siege. Clive treated 
the great population of the city with so much considera- 
tion that they helped him, not only to fortify his position, 
but to make successful sallies against the enemy. As 
the days passed on, Chunda Sahib sent a large army under 
his son and his French supporters, who entered Arcot and 
closely besieged Clive in the citadel. An attempt to relieve 
him from Madras was defeated. Meanwhile the news of 
the marvellous defence of the English reached the Mahratta 
allies of Mahomed Ali, who advanced to Clive's rescue. 
This led the enemy to redouble their exertions, but in vain. 
After for fifty days besieging the fort, and ofl'ering large 
sums to Clive to capitulate, they retired from Arcot The 
hrave garrison had been so reduced by the gradual failure 
of provisions that the sepoys offered to be content with the 
thin gruel whith resulted from the boiling of the rice, 
leaving the gram to their European comrades. Of. the 200 
Europeans 45 had been killed, and of the 300 sepo^e 30 had 
fallen, while few of the survivors had escaped wounds. In 
India, we might say in all history, there is no parallel to 
this exploit of 1751 till wo come to the siege of Lucknow 
in 1857. Clive, now reinforced, followed up his advan- 
tage, and Major Lawrence returned in time to carry thewar 
to a snccessfol issue. In 175-1 the first of oiit Carnatic 
treaties was made provisionally, between Mr T. Saunders, 
the Company s resident at Madras, and M. Godeheu, the 
French commander, in which the English protege?, Mahomed 
Ali, was virtually recognized as nawab, and both nations 
agreed to equalize their possessions. When war again 
broke out in 1750, and the French, during Clive's absence 
in Bengal, obtained successes in the northern distr)ct«< bis 

efforts helped to drive ihem from their settlements. The 
Treaty of Paris in 1763 formally confirmed Mahomed Ali 
in the position which Clive had won for him. Two yearii 
after, the Madras work of Clive was completed by a firmaun 
from the emperor of Delhi, recognizing the British posses- 
sions in Southern India. 

The siege of Arcot at once gave Clive a European reputa- 
tion. Pitt pronounced the youth of twenty-seven who fead 
done such deeds a " heaven-born general," thus endorsing 
the generous appreciation of his early commander, Major 
Lawrence. When the Court of Directors voted him a sword 
worth £700, he refused to receive it unless Lawrence 
was similarly honoured. He left Madras for home, after 
ten years absence, early in 1753, but not before marrying 
Miss Margaret Maskelyne, the sister of a friend, and of 
one who was afterwards well known as astronomer royal. 
All his correspondence proves him to have been a good 
husband and father, at a time when society was far from 
pure, and scandal made havoc of the highest reputations. 
In after days, when Clive's uprightness and stern reform of 
the Company's civil and military services made him many 
enemies, a biography of him a])peared under the assumed 
name of Charles CarracioU, Gent. All the evidence is 
against the probability of its scandalous stories being true. 
Clive's early life seems occasionally to have led him to yield 
to one of the vices of his lime, loose or free talk among 
intimate friends, but beyond this nothing has been proved to 
his detriment. After he had been two years at home the 
state of affairs in India made the directors anxious for his 
return. He was sent out, in 1756, as governor of Fort St 
David, with the reversion of the government of Madras, 
and he received the commission of lieutenant-colonel in the 
king's army. He took Bombay on his way, and there 
commanded the land force which captured Gheriah, the 
stronghold of the Mahratta pirate, Angria. In the distribu- 
tion of prize money which followed this expedition he 
showed DO little self-denial. He took his seat as governor 
of Fort St David on the day on which the nawab of Bengal 
captured Calcutta. Thither the Madras Government at 
oQce sent him, along with Admiral Watson. He entered 
on the second period of bis career. 

Since,' in August 1690, Job Charnock had landed at the 
village of Chuttanutti with a guard of one officer and 30 
men, the infant capital of Calcutta had become a rich centre 
of trade.. The successive nawabs or viceroys of Bengal 
had been friendly to it, till, in 1756, Suraj-udDowlaa 
succeeded his uncle at Moorshedabad. His predecessor's 
financial minister had fled to Calcutta to escape the extor- 
tion of the new nawab, and the English governor refused 
to deliver up the refugee. Enraged at this, Suraj-ud- 
Dowlah captured the old fort of Calcutta on the 5th 
August, and plundered it of more than two millions 
sterling. Many of the English fled to the ships and 
dropped down the river. The 146 who remained, 
forced into " the Black Hole " in the stifling heat of the 
sultriest period of the year. Only 23 came out alive. 
The fleet was as strong, for those days, as the land force 
was weak. Disembarking his troops some miles below the 
city, Clive marched through the jungles, where he lost bis 
way owing to the treachery of his guides, but soon invested 
Fort William, while the firo of the ships reduced it, on the 
2d Jan-.iary 1757. On the 4th February he defeated the 
whole army of the nawab, which had taken np a strong 
position just beyond what is now the most northerly 
suburb of Calcutta. The nawab hastened, to conclude a 
treaty, under which favourable terms were conceded toibe 
Company's trade, the factories and plundered property 
were restored, and an English mint was established. Id 
the accompanying agreement, otTensive and defcirsivc, Clive 
appears uuder (he name by wliicli he wa.<s always known to 


C L I V E 

»ho natives of India, Sabut Jung, or the daring in war. 
The hero of Arcot had, at Ai;giia's stronghold, and now 
Bgnin under the walls of Calcutta, established his reputa- 
tion 03 the first captain' of the tin^. With 600 British 
soldiers, 800 sepoys, 7 field-ineccs and 500 sailors to draw 
them, he had routed a force'of 34,000 men with 40 pieces 
of heavy cannon, 50 elephants, and a camp that extended 
upwards of four miles in length. His own account, in a 
letter to the archbishop of CauterbuPy, gives a modest but 
vivid description of the battle, the importance of which 
ias been overshadowed by Plass}*. In. spite of his double 
defeat and tho treaty which followed it, the madness of th? 
nawab burst forth again. As England and France were 
once more at war, Clive sfent the fleet up the riv,fr against 
Chanderiiagore, while he besieged it by land. After. 
BODseiiting to the siege, the nawab scught to assist the 
French, 'but in vain. 'The capture of their principal settle- 
ment ifl India, next to Pondicherry, which had fallen in- 
the previous -war, gaVe the combined forces prize to the 
value of XI 30,000. The rule of Suraj-ud-Dowlah becam-o 
« intolerable to his own pepple as to the Ea"-Ush. They 
lOrmed'JV coirfeder.icy to depose him, at the.head of which 
wa»JaffiorAli Khan,, his commander-in-chief. Associating 
with himself Admiral Waison, Governor Drake, and Mr 
Watts, Clive made a treaty in which it was agreed to give 
the office -cf ' souba, or .viceroy of BsngaJ, Behar, and 
Orissa, to Jaffier, who was to pay a million sterling to the 
Company for its losses in Calcutta and the cost of its troops, 
half a million to the English inhabitants of Calcutta, 
£200,000 to th? native inhabitants, and £70,000 to its 
Armenian merchants. Up to this point all is clear. Suraj- 
ud-Dowlah was hopeless as a ruler. His relations alike 
to his master, the merely titular emperor pf Delhi, and to 
the people left the province open to the strongest. After 
"the Black Hole," the battle of Calcutta, and the treachery 
at Chandernagore in spite of the treaty which followed 
that battle, the East India Company could treat the nawab 
only as an enemy. Clive,.it is tnie, migbt have disregarded^ 
all native intrigue, marched on Moorshedabad, and at once 
held the delta of the Ganges in tbe Company's name. But 
the time was not ripe for this, and the consequences, with 
80 small a force, might have ^been fatal. The idea of acting 
directly as riilers, or save under native charters and names, 
was not developed- by events for half a century. The 
political morality of the time in Europe, as well as tho 
comparative weakness of the Company in India, led Clivo 
not only to meet' the dishonesty of his native associate by 
equal dishonesty, but to justify his conduct by the declara- 
tion, years' after, in Parliament, that he would do the same 
again. It became necesswry to employ the richest Bengalee 
trader, Gmichund, as an egent between Jaffier Ali and the 
English officials. ' Master of the secret of the confedetacy 
against Suraj-ud-Dowlah, the Bengalee threatened to 
betray it unless he was guaranteed, in the treaty itself, 
£300,000. To dupe the villaip, who was really paid by 
both sides, a second, or fictitious treaty, was shown him 
with a clause to this effect..,^ This Admiral Watson refused 
to sign; " but," Clive deponed to the House of Commons, 
" to the best of his remembrance, he gave the gentleman 
who carried it leave to sign his name upon it ; his lordship 
never made any secret of it; he thinks it warrantable in 
such a case, .and "would do it again a hundred times ; he 
had no interested motive in doing it, and did it with a 
design of disappointing the expectations of a rapacious man." 
Such is'3 own defence of the-one act which, in a long 
career of abounding , temptations, stains his public life. 

The whole hot sjason of 1757 was spent in these 
negotiations, till the middle of June, when Clive began his 
tnarch from Chandernagore, the in boats, and the 
lepoys along .the right bank of the.Hoo^'hly. That river, 

above Calcutta is, during the rainy season, fed by the- 
overflow of the Ganges to the north through three streams, 
which in the hot months are nearly dry. On the left 
bank of the Bhagarutti, the most westerly oi these, J 00 
miles above Chandernagore, stands M'Oorshedabad, tbe 
cafjital ot the Mogul viceroys of Bengal, and then so vast that 
Clive compared it to the London of his day. Some miles 
farther down is the field of Plassy, then aa extensive grore 
of mango trees, of which enough yet remains, in spite of 
the changing course of the stream, to enable the visitor to 
realize the scene". On the 21st June Clive arrived on 
the bank opposite Plassy, in the midst of that outburst of 
ram which uJhers in the south- vest monsoon of India. 
His whole army amounted to 1100 Europeans and 2100 
native troqps, with 10 field-pieces. The nawab had drawji 
up 18,00Cl horse, 50,000 foot, aad 53 pieces of heavy 
ordnance, served by French artilltrymen. For once in his 
career Clive hesitated, and called a council of sixteen 
officfcrs to decide, as he put it, " whether iu our present 
situation, without assistance, and on our own bottom, it 
would be' prudent to attack the nawab', or v.'hether we 
should wait till joined by some country power t " ' Cliv» 
himself headed the nine who voted for delay ; Major 
(afterv/ards Sir) Eyre CoQte, led the seven who counselled 
immediate attack. But, either because his daring asserted 
itself, or because, also, of a letter that he received from 
Jaffier Ali, as has been said, Clive was the -first to change 
his mind and to communicate with Major Eyre Coote. 
One tradition, followed by Macaulay, represents him aa 
spending an hour iu thought under the shade of some trees, 
while he resolved the issues of what was to prove one of 
the decisive battles of the world. Another, turned into- 
verse by an Anglo-Indian poet, pictures his resolution aa- 
the result of a dRcam. However that'may be, he did well 
as a soldier to trust to the dasil and even rashness that had- 
gained Arcot and triumphed at Calcutta, and as a- states- 
man, since retreat, or even delay, would -have put back tha 
civilization of India for' years. • When, after the heavy rain, 
the sun rose brightly on the 22d, the 3200 men and the- 
sis guns crossed, the fiver and took possession of the grove- 
and its ^tanks of water, while Clive- established his head- 
quarters in a huntingJodge. On the 23d the engagement 
took place and lasted the whole day. ■ Except the 48- 
Frenchmen and the guns which they worked, the enemy 
dlb little to reply to the British cannonade which, with the 
39th Regiment, scattered the host, inflicting on it a loss cf 
500 men. Clive restrained the ardour of Major Kirkpatrick,. 
for he trusted to Jaffier All's abstinence, if not desertion tcf 
his ranks, and knew the importance of sparing his own 
small force. He lost hardly a white soldier ; in all 2'2 
sepoys were killed and 50 wounded. His own account, 
written a month after the battle to the secret committee of 
the court of directors, is not less unaffected than that ia 
which he had announced the defeat of the nawab at 
Calcutta. Suraj-ud-Dowlah fled from the field on a camel, 
secured what wealth he could, and came to an uutimely 
end. Clive entered Moorshedabad, and established Jaffier 
Ail in the position which his descendants have ever since 
enjoyed, as pensioners, but have not uiifrequently abused? 
When taken through the treasury, amid a million and a 
half sterling's worth of rupees, gold and silver plate, jewels, 
and ricli goods, and besought to ask what he would, Cliva 
was content with £160,000, while half a million was dis- 
tributed among the army and navy, both in addition t» 
gifts of £24,000 to each member of the Company's com- 
mittee, and besides the public compensation stipulated foe 
in the treaty. It was to this occasion that he referred in 
his defence before the House of Commons, when he 
declared that he marvelled at his moderation. He 
Bought rather to increase the share.-; of the fleet and the- 

C L I V E 


troopa at his own expense, as he had done at Chenab, and 
did more than once afterwards, with prize of war. What 
hi did take from the gratefuH nanab for himself wa3 less 
than the circumstances justified from an Oriental point, of 
view; was far less than was pressed upon him, not only by 
JaBier Ali, but by the hundreds of the native nobles whose 
gifts CHve steadily refused, and was opetjly acknowledged 
from the Crst. He followed a usa^-e fully recognized by 
the Company, although the fruitful source of future evils 
which be himself was again sent out to correct. The 
Company itself acquired a revenue of £100,000 a year, 
and a contribution towards its losses and military expendi- 
ture of a million and a half sterling. Such was jaffier 
All's gratitude to Clivo that he afterwards presented him 
with the quit-rent of the Company's lands in and around 
Calcutta, amounting to an annuity of £27,000 for life, 
and left him by will the sum of £70,000, which Clive 
devoted to the army. 

While busy with the civil administration, the conqueror 
of Massy continued to follow up his military succcis. He 
sent Major Coote in pursuit of the French almost as far as 
Benares. He despatched Colonel Forde to Vizagapatam 
and the northern districts of Madras, where that officer 
gained the battle of Condore, pronounced by Broome " one 
of the most brilliant actions on military record." He came 
into direct contact, for the first time, with the Great Mogul 
himself, an event which resulted in the most important 
consequences during the third period of his career. Shah 
Aalum, when Shahzada, or heir-apparent, quarrelled with 
his father Aalum Geer II., the emperor, and united with 
the viceroys of Oudh and Allahabad for the conquest of 
Bengal. He advanced as far as Patna, which he besieged 
with 40,000 men. JafTier Ali, in terror, sent his son to its 
relief, and implored the aid of Clive. Major Caillaud 
defeated the prince's army at the battle of Sirpore, and dis- 
peisei it. Finally, at this period, Clive repelled the 
aggression of the Dutch, and avenged the massacre of 
Amboyna, on that occasion when he wrote his famous 
letter, " Dear Forde, fight them immediately ; I will send 
you the order of council to-morrow./' Meanwhile he never 
ceased to improve the organization and drill of the sepoy 
army, after a European model, and enlisted into it many 
Mahometans of fine physique from Upper India. He to- 
fortified Calcutta. In 17 GO, after four years of labour so 
incessant and results so glorious, his health gave way and 
he returned to England. "It appeared," wrote a con- 
temporary on the spot, "as if the soul was departing from 
the government of Bengal." He had been formally made 
governor of Bengal by the court of directors at a time 
when his nominal superiors in Madras sought to recall him 
to their help there. But he had discerned the importance of 
the provinc3 even during his first visit to its rich delta, 
mighty rivers, and teeming population. It should bo 
noticed, also, that he had the kingly gift of selecting the 
ablest suoordinates, for even thus early he had discovered 
the abil ty of young Warren Hastings, destined to be his 
great successor, and, a year after PI assy, made him 
" resident " at the nawab's court. 

i In 17C0, at thirty-fivo years of age. Clive returned to 
England with a fortune of at least £300,000 and the quit- 
rent of £27,000 a year, after caring for the comfort of his 
|iarents and sisters, and giving Major Lawrence, his old 
commanding officer, who had early encouraged his military 
genius, £500 a year. The money had been honourably 
and publicly acquired, wi'h the approval of the Company. 
The amount migbt have been four times what it was, had 
Clive been either greedy after wealth or ungenerous to the 
colleagues and the troops whom he led to victory. In the 
five years of his conquests and administration in Bengal, 
th^ youns^ man had crowded together a succeasioD of 

exploits which led Lord ifacaulay, in wjiat that historian 
tormed his " flashy " essay on the subject, to compare him 
to Napoleon Bonaparte: But there -was this difTergnce ia 
Clive's favour, due not more to the circumstances of the 
time than to the object of his policy — he gave pcice, 
eecurity, prosperity, and such liberty as the case allowed 
of to a people now reckocei at 240 millions, .who had for 
centuries been the prey of oppression, while Napoleon 
warred only for personal ambition, and the absolutism ha 
established has left not a wreck behind. During the three 
years that Clive remained in England he sought a political 
position, chiefly that he might influence the course of 
events in India, which he had left full of promise. He 
had been well received at court, had been made Baron 
Clive of Plassy, in the peerage of Ireland, had bought 
estates, and had got not only himself but his friends 
returned to the House of Commons after the fashion of the 
time. Then it was that he set himself to reform the home 
system of the East India Company, and commenced a 
bitter warfare with Mr Sulivan, chairman of the court of 
directors, whom finally he defeated. In this he was aided 
by the news of reverses in Bengal. Vansittart, bis successor, 
having no great influence over Jaffier Ali Khan, had put 
Kossim All Khan, the son-in-law, in his place in considca- 
tion of certain pa;Tnent5 to the English officials. After a 
brief tenure Kossim Ali had fled, had ordered Summers, 
or Sumroo, a Swiss mercenary of his, to butcher the 
garrison of 150 English at Patna, and had disappeared 
under the protection of his brother viceroy of Oudh. The 
whole Company's service, civil and military, had become 
demoralized by such gifts, and by the monopoly of the 
inland as well as export trade, to such an extent that the 
natives were pauperized, and the Company was plundered 
of the revenues which Clive had acquired for them. The 
court of proprietors, accordingly, who elected the director, 
forced them, in spite of Sulivan, to hurry out Lord Clive 
to Bengal with the double powers of governor and com- 

What he had done for Madras, what be hid accomplished 
for Bengal proper, and what he had efl^ected in reforming 
the Company itself, he was now to' complete in less than 
two years, in this the third period of his career, by putting 
his country politically in the place of the emperor of 
Delhi, and preventing forever the possibility of-the corrup- 
tion to which the English in India h'ad been driven by an 
evil system. On the 3d May 1765, he landed af Calcutta 
to learn that Jaffier Ali Khan had died, leaving him 
personally £70,000, and had been succeeded by his "son, 
though not before the Government had been further 
demoralized by taking £100,000 as a gift from the uev 
nawab ; while Kossim Ali had induced not only the viceroy 
of Oudh, but the emperor of Delhi himself, to invade 
Behar. After the first mutiny in the Bengal army, which 
was suppressed by blowing the sepoy ringleader from the 
guns, Major Munro, " the Napier of those times," scattered 
the united armies on the hard-fought field of Fuxar. Tha 
emperor. Shah Aalum, detached himself from the league, 
while the Oudh viceroy threw himself on the mercy of the 
English. Clive had now an opportunity of repeating in 
Hindustan, or Upper India, what he had accomplished for 
the good of Bengal. He might have secured what are now 
called the North- Western Provinces and Oudh, and have 
rendered unnecessary the campaigns of Wellesley and 
Lake. Bu'v he had other work in the consolidation of rich 
Bengal itself, making it a base from which the mighty fabric 
of Bntish India could afterwards steadily and proportionally 
grow. Hence he returned to the Oudh viceroy all his 
territory save the provinces of Allahabad and Corah, which 
he made over to the weak empe.-or. But from that emperor 
he secured the most imoortant document in the whole of 


C L I V E. 

our Indian history up tu that time, which appears in the 
records as " firmaund from the King Shah Aalum, granting 
tho dewany of Bengal, Ikhar, and Orissa to the Company, 
1760." The date was the 12th August, the place Benares, 
the throne an English diningtable covered with embroidered 
cloth and surmounted by a chair in Olive's tent. It is all 
pictured by a Mahometan contemporary, who indignantly 
excliiras that so great a " transaction was done and finished 
in less time than would have been taken up in the sale of 
t jackass." By this deed the Company became the real 
sovereign rulers of thirty millions of people, pelding a 
revenue of four millions sterling. All this had been ac 
coraplisbcd by Clive in the few brief years since he had 
avenged " the'Black Hole" of Calcutta. This would be a 
small matter, or might even be a cause of reproach, were it 
not that the Company's, now the Queen's, undisputed 
sovereignty proved, after a sore period of transition, tho 
salvation of these milhons. The lieutenant-governorship 
of Bengal, with some additions since Clive's time, now 
contains sixty millions of people, and yields an annual 
revenue of twelve millions sterling, of which eight goes 
every year to assist in the good government of the rest of 
India. But Clive, though thus moderate and sven 
generous to an extent which called forth the astonishment 
of thsj natives, had all a statesman's foresight. On the same 
date, he obtained not only an imperial charter for the 
Company's possessions in the Carnatic also, thus completing 
Ihe work he began at Arcot, but a third iirmaun for the 
highest of all the lieutenancies or Roubaships of the 
empire, that of the Deccan itself. The fact has only 
recently been discovered, by distinct allusion to it in a 
letter from the secret committee of the court of directors 
to the Madras Government, dated 27th April 1768. Still 
80 disproportionate seemed the British force, not only to 
the number and strength of the princes and people of 
India, but to the claims and ambition of French, Dutch, 
ind Danish rivals, that Clive's last advice to the directors, 
•3 hfe'finally left India in 1777,, was this, given in a remark- 
able state paper but little known : " We are sensible that, 
eince the acquisition of the dewany, tho power formerly 
belonging to the soubah of those provinces is totally, iu 
fact, vested in the East India Company. Nothing remains 
to him but the name and shadow of authority. This name, 
however, this shadow,- it is indispensably necessary wa 
should seem to venerate." On a wider arena, even that of 
the Great Mogul himself, the shadow was kept up till it 
obliterated itself iu the massacre of English people in the 
Delhi palace in 185-7 ; and the Queen was proclaimed, first, 
direct ruler on the 1st November 1858, and then empress 
Of India on the Ist January 1 577 

Having thus founded the empire of British India, 
Clive's painful duty was to create a pure and strong 
tdministration, such as alone would justify its possession by 
foreigners.. The civil service was de-orientaLized by 
raising the miserable salaries which had tempted its 
members to be corrupt, by forbidding the acceptance of 
gifts from natives, and by exacting covenants under which 
participation in the inland trade was stopped. ISPot less 
important were hU military reforms. With his usual tact 
end nerve he put down a mutiny of the English officers, who 
choso to resent the veto against receiving presents and the 
reduction of batta at a time when two Mahratta armies were 
inarching on Bengal. His reorganization of the army, on the 
lines of that which he had begun after Plaasy, and which 
was neglected during his second visit to England, has since 
attracted the admiration of the ablest Indian officers. He 
divided the whole into three brigades, so as to make each 
a complete force, in itself e.qual to apy single native army 
that could be brought against" it. His one fault was that 
of his age and his position, with so small a number of men. 

He lackea a sufficient number of British artillerymen,4lnd 
would not commit the mistake of his successors, who trained 
natives to work the guns, which wore turned against us 
with such effect in 1857. It is sufficient to say that 
Government has returned to his policy, for not a native 
gunner is now to be found save in a few unhealthy and 
isolated frontier posts. 

Clive's final return to England, a poorer man thau he 
went out, in spite of still more tremendous temptations, was 
the signal for an outburst of his personal enemies, exceeded 
only by that which tho malice of Sir Philip Francis after- 
wards excited against Warren Hastings. Every civilian, 
whose illicit gains he bad cut off, every officer whose con- 
spiracy he had foiied, every proprietor or director, like 
Sulivan, whose selfish schemes he had thwarted, now 
sought their opportunity. He had, with consistent 
generosity, at once made over the legacy of £70,000 from 
the grateful JafEer Ah, as the capital of what has since 
been known as " the Clive Fund," for the support of 
invalided European soldiers, as well as officers, and their 
widows, and the Company had allowed 8 per cent, on the 
sum for an object which it was otherwise bound to meet. 
Burgoyne, of Saratoga memory, did his best to induce the 
House of Commons, in which Lord Clive was now member 
for Shrewsbury, to impeach the man who gave his country 
an empire, and the people of that empire peace and justice, 
and that, as we have seen, without blot on the gift, save in 
the matter of Omichund. The result, after the brilliant 
and honourable defences of his career which will be found 
in Almon's Debates for 1773, was a compromise that saved 
England this time from the dishonour which, when Warren 
Hastings had to run the gauntlet, put it in the same 
category with France in the treatment of its public bene- 
factors abroad. On a division the House, by 155 to 95, 
carried the motion that Lord Clive " did obtain and possess 
^himself" of £234,000 during his first administration of 
Bengal ; but, refusing to express an opinion on the fact, it 
passed unanimously the second motion, at five in the 
morning, " that Robert, Lord Clive, did at the same time 
render great, and meritorious services to his country." The 
one moral question, the one stain of all that brilliant and 
tempted life — the Omichund treaty — was not touched. 

Only one who can personally understand what Clive's 
power and services were will rightly realize the effect on 
him, though in the prime of life, of the discussions through 
which he had been dragged. We have referred to Warren 
Hastings's impeachment, but there is a more recent parallel. 
The marquis of Dalhonsie did alinost as much to complete 
the territorial area and civilized administration of British 
India in his eight years' term of office as Lord Clive to found 
the empire in a similar period. As Clive's accusers sought a 
new weapon in tho. great famine of 1770, for which he was 
in no sense respopsible, so there were critics who accused Dal- 
housieof having caused that mutiny which, iu truth, he would 
have prevented "had the British Government listened to his 
couDsel not to reduce the small English army in the 
country. Clive tells us his own feelings in a passage of 
first importance when we seek to form an opinion on the 
fatal act by which he ended his life. In the greatest of his 
speeches, in reply to Lord North, he said, — " My situation, 
sir, has not been an easy one for these twelve months 
past, and though my conscience conid never accuse me, yet 
I felt for my friends who were involved in the same censure 

as myself I have been examined by the seleci 

committee more like a sheep-stealer than a member of this 
House." Fully accepting that statement, and believing 
him to have been purer than his nccusere in spite of 
temptations unknown to thcni, we see in Clive's end the 
result merely of physical suft'ering, of chronic disease 
which opium failed to abate, while the worry and chagrin 

C L — C L 


. ....aed by hia enemies gave it full scope. This great man, 
ptiu fell shurt only of the highest form of moral greatness 
00 one supreme occasion, but who did more for bia country 
tiiao any soldier till Wellington, and more for the people 
»nd pnnces of India than any Btatesman in history, died by 
lii»own hand, November 22, 1774, in his 6ftieth year. " 

The portrait of Chve, by Dance, in the Council Chamber 
of Qoveminent Souse, Calcutta, faithfully represents him. 
He was shghtly above middle-size, with a countenance 
rendered heavy and almost sad by a oatural fulness above 

the eyes. Reserved to the many, he was beloved by bit 
own family and friends. Uis encouragement of scientific 
undertakiogs like Major Benneli's surveys, and of philo- 
logical researches like Mr Gladwin's, was marked by the 
two honorary distinctions of F.R.S. and LL.D. 

The beat authonties lot his life, which baa yet to be worthily 
written, are — article "Clive," in the second or Eippia's edition 
of the Biographia Britanvica, fronj materials supplied by bia brother. 
Archdeacon Chve, by Henry Beaufoy, M. P. ; Broome's Ilutory o) 
the Bengal Army; AitchisoD'a Treattet, second edition, )876i 
Orme's Hutorry ; and Malcolm's LtJ: (0. SM.) 


THE origin of clock work le involved in great obscurity. 
>'<'twithstanding the statements by many writers that 
clocks, koroloijia, were in use so early as the 9th centurj', 
Btjd that they were then invented by an archdeacon of 
\'erona, named Pacificu.'^, there appears to be no clear 
evidence that they were machines at all resembhng 
those which have been in use for the last five or six 
centuries. But it may be inferred from various allusions 
to horologia, and to their striking spontaneously, in the 
12th centur)', that genuine clocks existed then, though 
there is no surviving descnption of any one until the 13tb 
century, when it appears that a horologium was sent by the 
sultan of Egypt in 1232 to the Emperor Frederick II. " It 
resembled a celestial globe, in which the sun, moon, and 
planets moved, being impelled by weights and wheels, so 
that they pointed out the hour, day, and night with cer- 
tainty." A clock was put up in a former clock tower at 
Westminster with some great bells in 1288, out of a fine 
imposed on a corrupt chief-justice, and the motto DisciU 

Fia. 1. —Section of House Clock. 

jutiitiam, moniti, inscribed upon it. The bells were sold 
tti ratbor, it is scid, gumbled away, by Henry VIIL In 

1 292 one is mentioned in Canterbury Catliedral as costing 
£.ZQ. And another at St Albans, by R. WalUngford tht 
abbot in 1326, is said to have been such as there was not 
in all Europe, showing various astronomical phenomena. 
A description of one m Dover Castle with the date 1348 on 
it was published by the late Admiral Smyth, P.R.A.S., 
in 1851, and the clock itself was exhibited going, lu the 
Scientific Exhibition of 1876. In the early editions of 
this Encyclopcedia there was a picture of a very similar 
one, made by De Vick for the French king Charles V 
about the same time, much like our common clocks of the 
last century, except that it had a vibrating balance, but 
no spring, instead of a pendulum, for pendulums were not 
invented till three centunes after that. 

The general construction of the going part of all clocks, 
except large or turret clocks, which we shall treat separ- 
ately, is substantially the same, and fig. 1 is a section of 
any ordinary house clock. B is the barrel with the rope 
coiled round it, generally 16 tunes for the 8 days , the barrel 
is fixed to its arbor K, which is prolonged into the wii:ding 
square coming up to the face or dial of the clock , the 
dial is here shown as fixed either by small screws x, or by 
a socket and pin z, to the prolonged pillars p, p, which (4 or 
5 in number) connect the plates or frame of the clock 
together, though the dial is commonly, but for no good 
reason, set on to the front plate by another set of pillars of 
its own. The great wheel G rides on the arbor, and is 
connected with the barrel by the ratchet R, the action of 
which IS shown more fully in fig 14. The intermediate 
wheel r in this drawing is for a purpose which will be de- 
scribed hereafter, and for the present it may be considered 
as omitted, and the click of the ratchet R as fixed to the 
great wheel The great wheel drives the pinion c which 
is called the centre pinion, on the arbor of the centre uheel 
C, which goes through to the dial, and carries the long, or 
minute-hand ; this wheel always turns in an hour, and 
the great wheel generally in 12 hours, by having 12 times 
as many teeth as the centre pinion. The centre wheel drives 
the " second wheel " D by its pinion d, and that again 
drives the scape-wheel E by its pinion e. If the pinions d 
and e have each 8 teeth or leaves (as the teeth of pinions' 
are usually called), C will have &4 teeth and D 60, in a 
clock of which the scape-wheel turns in a minute, so that 
the seconds hand may be set on its arbor prolonged to the 
dial. A represents the pallets of the escapement, which 
will be described presently, and their arbor a goes through 
a large hole m the back plate near F, and its back pivot 
turns in a cock OFQ screwed on to the back plate. From 
the pallet arbor at F descends the crutch F/, ending to 
the fori; J. which embraces the pendulum P, so that as ths 
pendulum vibrates, the crutch and the pallets necessarily 
vibrate with it. The pendulum is hung by a thin epring 
S from the cock Q, so that the,bending point of the spring' 
may he just opposite the end of the pallet arbor, and lh» 
edge of the spring as close to the end of that ai'jcr as 
possible — a point too frequently neslected. 



fits oa to a squ-ared end of a brass ^"^^^ tl,, 

tho wheel M, and fita dose but not g , ^^^^^ .^ ^ 
longed arbor of the centre ^l^^f'' ff^7;„ t^e same arbor 
ben=t H-ag-l^f ,- |- °,"f;, d ; - U is) 
with a square >^'''<=,, "f .,''. J°" t„,a with the arbor; the 
in the middle so ^''^^''X.i,,^, and kept there, by a 
wheel is pressed up "5=^'"^' '.'^''^''"^S', ^f the arbor. Tho 
cap anda small p.n tro 1 ^^^ ^ ,, 

r?Tr thVSeUo carry the hand round bu „o 

spring and the V'hecl to carry .^v --.. - ^^ ^^^ 

el'.oufh to resist a J-'^J- "Xate? This whL^l M. wMch 
purpose of altering he time ind.cateu better called 

I sometimes called the '"!""'^^-"'^J,^^£es another wheel 

L^fhand. and f'^-S °\tr JfT/at^^ra'w^e gh^ -^an 
order to relieve tho centre »f"f ° ;,;J/l 4ich is screwed 
intermediate socket fi«f to the J^^'^^J^ " ^ 

'°.''k 'r'jlZ^^lnl 6 ves the impulse to the pendu 

line P-78 'f,7/„;AeCtied t^^^^^^^^^ f ^ 

Ke^l°,: r:rL.W to which .t is fie by 

diminishing the size of ha ba^-^- °^^ "^^^^l ^ ,„,.l,alf, 

enough for tbe lau 01 luo > ^ i^ tl^e sa^ie ratio, 


but that is of no consequence. 

' Penddlum. 

Tbe cUim ta the inver^n^the ^r^.U™ in«^th<= clai. to 

mo3t in«°tion9, wdisputed ; andje have no j^^^iio^, 

to settle it. It was, fike mauy fj^fj "^^'^Jt^ ^nd a)mo3t s.mul- 

probably made by vanoua P^^f^j/tPj tecom; Ape for it. The 

Lneousfy, when the state of '^"f;„^„7,°,"rthe ^ndulum 
discovery of that peculiarly valttable property ompe .^ 

uochrmim. or the ^'T^'m^H the arcs are none of them large), 
nearly the same t'";.^ JP/f^t fi *'i„"the ^eU Lown story of his 
is commonly aMnbuted to t^anie". 'i"' , ^ hung by a long 
being struck with the .socbronism of - "^^^^^^ G-alileo's son 
ch.iS from the roof of .th^^^'^V,'^,^ at J lorence ^ ^^^^^^ 

appear, as a rival of Av.cenna, Hu)ghen_3,^ur no^^ ^^^^ ^^^^.^^ ^^^ 

it wiU not do to "=kon thus by d, lerenuais^ ^^.^^ ^^ 

dill-erence of time for the day^as MOO « n .^ ^^ ^^^ ^, 

8 seconds ' » = 2 ^'"d a-^^'i^j.Y.ibrations of "clock pendulums, 
great importane to objamcuow ^^ spring vibrat* 

and It was dj>n'- by making tDes p ^^ ^^^ .^ ^^^ ^__ ^^ 

between '^V''<>''^^Kf"''^\f;'^EjliL -first, because there is and 
discovered that all thjs s a de us.on h^t, ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 

can be no such thmg in rea my a^i a s p t- isochronously ; 

cheeks will only "■'''<=„\,tT,F !rfor in the form of tbe .checks (as 
secondly, because a very ^I'B.l^t e lo^'" "'.Vharm than the rircu/ar 
Huyghens hi-selfdrscoveed, would d».»Xcb™much larger than 
error uncorrected even for an are ot w ^^ ^ 

the common pendulum arc , thirdly, Decau ^^ 

friction or adhesion t>.<^t^''='^° '*>/ '^' if^ to V the isochronous 
fourthly (a reason which fPPlf^'^^^'^.^'^on clock escapement 
contrivances since ">^f ted), because a common c k^^ ^^^^ 

itself generally tend, to pro'iucc «n 'r^^^^ ^^,;^^^;;^,^f^ lUe fa.tber 

circular error, or to make the P''°°""'™ "?'„,, 'uv useful for tho 

t swings ; and therefore the ='^;^""\"„^„^/^,"f?o'tL escapement, 

'purpose of helping to counteract the eiror due to ui V^^ 

L?the clockgoesbetur than It wouWwUh^^simrle^p ^^^ ^^^ 

Sf ^-"?S^«;ay3^Pend«. e^^n^ 
^renc\ clocks wfiere "^ «'"', string is used livery ^^^^^._ 

causes ttependulum to devjate a 1 t le fmm circ^ ^^^ V^^^ ^, 

rn^tnrrrisf r.=e lengt^^^^^^^^^^ ,„ ,,. 

first then, the t'^^f "YCsnri!.rbefng too small for consldera- 

the pendulum, the effect of '^ »Pyj?| v''Zr order. But the time 
tionuntilwecome to differences of a higher orci ^^^^ ^^ ^,^^ 

^Jl^.^::.rZ':^^^- -pressedthua :- 
.1 _. ,>,« time in eecoiids, » the well-known 

,rV-. where t is the time 

, , - f a rival of AvieennaHu^-gneris,-^^^ 




Vhe circle ve^ nearly coincides wrth the cj ^oia an ^^^^^ .^ 

that, for small ares, a, P«°<i"l"" ^ '^'^'"f /of^hSCT more espe- 

l^;r^r^Th;[o*.^::n iho'",^'^'"-"^^^^^^^^^ that its arc may 
''^:^^::^^ the tlrne of^ J««« - o.;the ^.^and 

s^^bol for 3-H,59, t>>e ja^ o^ ^^e^^-SH"^^^^^^^^^^ 
diameter, the length of the pendu um, a j^ ^^^.^ ^^^ ^_ 

, at the latitude where it "'f'"^'^ , j 322 feet, that being the 
the latdude of ^'^^^^f }^\'li;j^^XTt which a body is found by 
velocity (or number °^f'^f „f,V'™d „£ the first second of its faU, 

, experiment to be moving at fie end ot tne ^^ ^^^^ .^ j^^^ 

being necessarUy equal to twee the ''-^t'la^n pendulum to 

faUen in that seconS Cof„^q."f j^^i^^^ But the sai^e pendulum 
beat seconds in London is 39 H mches i^u ^.^^^^ ^^^ 

carried to the equator, where the force ot gra i j 

21 minutes a day. , ■„„ „f «rn the seconds of a common 

'The seconds we are here spiking o a^e ti^-x ^^^^ ^ ^^^ 

clock indicating mean ^otartme Bu'a^^o'^i^^, between a 
sidereal time, t may be as well to meuU^^^^^ P .^^^^^^^ (,,t ^ 
^mean and a sidereal Pfdulum. A s.dere^ aay ^^^^ .^ 

two successive transits over f^^^^'f^ffi^t point of Aries, at the 
ary point in the heavens caUedT, the hntp ^^^^^ .^ 

intersection of the ^l"alor and the eUipuc,^^ ^^^^ 
more sidereal day than there are so ar days in ay ^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

has to turn more than once """f ''' ^t of the earth's own motion 
a second time tptbemendian, on account crt t ^^^ .^ ^^orter than 
in its orbit during the ^ay. A side eai o^y ^^^ „^„tly a sidereal 
a mean solar one in '''^/at.'^^f.t^eaD time pendulum inthesquars 
pendulum must be shorter than a » an^^^ P^ ^^ereal seconds pen- 
of that ratio, or in the latitude otl-onu ^^^^ ^ ^ ^^ j^ 

from the louowrug u... , .---^ ^ 

call n A.M. May 1 in common life is 23 h. Apnl 

astronomers. , „,julum3 whose lengths y» 
It must be remembered that the penQiu is a thing 
have been speaking of. a^^imple pendulums ana ^^^ ^^^^ g 
«.hieh can only ''"^S^^^^-i^'^Lv requ^cd time is ascerUined^ 
of a real pendulum t° ^'^"WL^ ev\ry body hung so as to b« 
In pverv pendu um, that is to say, lu e'cij J always some- 
"p^bll'o? vibrating freely there - a oertam poin^.^ad ^^y^^ 
where below the cen re of Sjavty, po ^^^_ ^^^ ,^4 
properties-that if the P.'^f "'^'^ ^Ji'^b™t« in the same time as 
^ibfating about this PO'f ■. f /^°,"^^erf this point from the pcint 0^ 
before, andmoreftver, t^^at the d^stan^eo, y ^ pci"!"'^ 
suspension is e:.aetly the ength of tba^una^:'.^^ .^ therefore 
Vnfch would vibrate in tae sarne tirne^ . h ,_.,.. 




t,.n .re too cmv^^'^Joi^^^.'^l/A^^^) 
„rl«ia simple and '^g>^"/?™^' Xa.^ndulmn3 the ceatre o 
ron«i3it« in practice, b<=cau3c m aU cwc^ . ^j gravity of 

callation is only a short d^»'^^« ^'»7„ to the centre of gravity 
the whole P^dulinn, and RcneraUy «^n^ ^_^^^ .^. ^^ ^^<,^ty m 
of the bob-.n fact a Utile above It- ^(^^^^^^^ ^^ar .nough to 
makinK a P^odal^m for any g'«°"^^j„3^ it by screwing tb<r 
ZX^^^A:^ tt" nhra\e ui the proper t.nie. 

^ R^lviTU, or Conic^ Pendulum. 

1 ■ » „f rihratiii" penaulums ; bnt 
- Thus far we have ^een .peaW of ^ b^^^^^^^ 

the notice of P«"J".'"^f '^.Xm' .^They are called, becau^ they 
♦0 revolving ot corneal l*?^^'"?'' " pendnluma are used where a 
der,.nbe a cone m ^%'° ""f.-.^utenrmotion of the clock tram is 
«:ontiauou3 instead of ^° ■""^™' ke° ,i"g an equatorial telescope 
required, as in the clocl^s '°/ .^fj'^site way to the motion of 
Kt.^d'to a star, by ;^^'':„''^S'^he'telescooe tu^s .s 
the earth, to whose axis the a"? on ^^^^^ ^^ ,n 

Tnado parallel. Clocks '""' ^"'^ "Q, ,he ticking of a common 
iH^lrooms by persons "h" """°^ b^fngbttng by a Oat sprmg, .s 
clo.k. The pendulum instead of b^?^g Bj^'^tould be under- 
hung by a thin piece of P,'»°»;'""® ':'{ ^'q ita own axis, and so to 
stool tfiat it has no ^-^^^^ '? 'u'^^ld in fact, it would require 
twi,t off the wire, as may be apF^^^^t '^eW wanted to do so. Tne 
Ocm extra force to make it t-^ist, U n we pertained as 

Ume of revolution of such a pendulum may ^^^^7.^ ^^^^ ^^ 

foUo^TS :-Let I be ■» . 'f 8'^ ' ^"hJfh it lescribes ; c the anguJnr 
the vertical axis of '^'r ""f f^L,' -^i (sin. a; and as this is the 

, . ^ IZ time • and the time of complete revolution 
.cribed ma second of hmeand^^ _^ ^ 

through the angle 360° or U 13--2V -^ 

say the time of revolution of a pendulum of /^y^f "°JS in 

ending in alionzontal ^I'f ' '"'^^i^e ,t ihe bottom of the pendu- 
jects an arm pressing ,^^'"*' * ^Pr^.l " ^nv inequality in the force 
•ium ; and it U tt'' disadvantage that any in q 3^^^^^ ^^^3,_ 

of the train, arising from 7"*^°°=^^^'; ™°, wher'eas it will be 
i, immediately 'f^f '7„'^'3'ye JapeiSnts w\ieh can be appUed to a 
Been that in several kinus oi escap^'" ^ rendered nearly 

^brating pendulum, 'he T^FJ^i'^'OJ'^^tlke to j-^^-^o '^-' ^^"", '^ 
.or quite insensible. :^°'i '*",*„„'? '^""^^dulum^nalogous to that 
any self-correctin" t>owcr '" ".^""'T.'ftjt apparatus, though it is 
of the governor of a steam-en^ne ■^"^^^^Zmmnnioiuon by a 
a cou^e of corneal pendulums h« f » » ^^^ 
eystem of 1<^«" '^'^ ksel bein appUri to telescope-dnving 
governor apparatus has itsell ^e^" j^P^hich acts by friction on 
clocks, with a lever ending '° » *PT "f J,' ^ the friction, and so 
some ^evolviag p ate 'n the clock, ""^■^^'^g;„„, fly out farther 
diminishing the force "-'^^f'^U^it^^hi: addition of some 
under any increase in the torce^ observer, by which the action can 
V:^rZV^^X -ut t^T. mJie .sufhciently uniform 
eontinuous clock-motioD ■ Jf-f^'/ ?'l„ter clock called in books 
„ich is kept in niot.on .^X » Y"? "^^'^X two horizontal pipes 
on hydrostatics Barkers M U , '" J^'^n v ^^h a hole near 
branching out from a '^.^'f ^ubu^a ax s have ea 
their ends on opposite sides, from which vaiej , ^^^ 

constantly into ^^e tabular ax .wichrevol^e^^^^ ^^^l^ ^^^ 

resistance of the air to the '=""„J'™'°,'r,t:„„ jt Another plan is 
iniU round, and there are means °f 3'^''"e;]ui„rj „ith another 
to connect a cloek tram having a vibrating « nduJ ^^^^^ ^ ^^^ 
clock having a conical pendulum by one 01 tne.o ^^^ 

train, with a epnng connection ; ''>« *^'"'°f*t " it sufficiently 
evolving clock train, ""'i^t'tocxX^e enough "^Tor each beat of 
in order, though allowmg it <« cxpetiate enoug ^^ ^^^^ 

t,io P.'f d"l-- .|>'|XtVs7^^^4 rrl/i.. ^ Clocks anU 
a'«a"/i^"id«fnot\ppear to have ever come into use. 
«nd therefore it is now omitted. 

tlZ*^ m^^:^a '^tnfer f^i^i^^ -e 
now naed oniversoUy, m ^"'^"''^^Xrt spring, wi h one end U; 
have strings instead, is a th.n and ^bort sp g. ^^^^^^ ^^ 

into the top of the P"d«lu^. and f^„° %hi,u re.- s firmly in a 

chor, of metal "'"j," P'" ''i'°''igo p^dulum as shown in fig. 2 a 
„i.k in the cock "bic'i c^e' Ibo Penu" ^^^ .^ 

Utile farther on ; and ■t'''L„','*?f 'thf accurate performance of iho 
fixing to a wall, are .'•»»'°*»'*the better provid.d, of course, it 
clock. The thinner the spmigt'ie^^^^ ^4 

is strong enough to «"Ty *'" P'I'thatlLere is much of that in 
its elasticity, or bent '''"^^ : "°' '^^^.h oftcner too thick than too 
pnctice. Pendulum springs "^ .""^l^^d.^tly of their greater 
Mn ; and it is worth notice .tb" •. ""^'fPt^e widulum. thick and 
effect on the natural lime of ^ Oration of he pe" '^^^^ ^^„ 

narrow springs are .>po'^'»"*/°Jn importance that the spring 
of the same strength. It is 0' great impoiiau ^ ^^^ 

should be of uniform tl'lcVness tWughout ^ b.e -^^^^^ 
bouorn of the chops which can? it should l^*"' ^ j, „^ i^ 

otherwise the P^-'d"'""',^-;'' J'^I^''' ^{^1110 bottom of^th. 
often seen to do in '"niaue clocks, u «'6 

^i^s. u^tm^ »•-i^-s^^^^^^^^ 

3olid content in proportion to 't^sumce. a i ^^^^ .^ 

sionaUy used, but it »°°»g»^„'°'^'ake a serious lifference in 
the place of the hole for " « ™l°"y„^!^'e the pendulum a Un- 
the Lmount of weight on '"^h s^e.^f « ^ J^^ ,,i 

dency to twist in ■"°"°°; jj^^.t^^'e^y idoptedforastronom.c. 
the cylindrical for™, which IS now gene > ^ P^^^ toP *» Pre«nt 
clocks, and in the h«t turret cio^, . ^j^^j^ ,^d 

any bits of mortar or dirt /aU^g ^^ alat topped cyliader. There 
alterthetime; italso l°°^^^f;,YgM of pen^dV.uni It will be 
is no rule to lie given ^l'J}'''J"fvlmlJm^y be used, the error. 
shown hereafter that, ^ha*" " '."cap^en J^^^^^^^ ^^j^t inva- 
due to any variation of force are expres^ea endulum in the 

riably have the ''^'ght «f / the lengw p ^ ^ ^^^^ 

denominator, though some jundote^.J* ^^^^-^ ^ „ , 
pendulum to correct their "'°","^"^ '^ fo^e to keep it in motion 
Lavy pendulum "^"'fi'J/Srected^rthe r-istance o^ ws 

than al'gh'o'"'- ^ff 'fLTrier anl i„„ » pendulum can be 
may almost say that 'be heavner an ^ 1- ^^ ^jj^^^jence ; 

niie the better ; a ?"y ^^^'if bVSnv^nient to put a large pen- 
for instance It would obviouslj^incon ^^^^^^^ or common 

dulumof 100n"'^'g''"V^tHf lad down as a role, that no 
house clock It may P"^;P J"" '"theyTe also called) wiU go 
astronomical clock or rtgulat^ jL'fi, cfocks with -a pendulum of 
as well as is now «Pf *^/„nu-Tet c o^k with Sess than 1 
less than 28 lb weight, and °o turret c ^^^^^ 

cwt. Long P^°du'ums are |ene[aUy ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^, p 
than short ones and sucn a cioc^ " oucht to go 44 

r^ent, with a two-seconds pendulum of « cwt- ough ^^ 


rd^ov^. wi^ their clocks, for better onfa 

^endultm Utapensum 

The suspension Of iu.^P-lulu--f^^^^^^ 
Ki:^ r^^gS s^-rtt^eri^ents.. in which the effects of 

Peridulum Segulation. 

The regulation of .P-d-^XtTd^'fa^^f o^n'^^r^l olSt 
proper length, is P""'^'jvf"*;ewed up or down. In the best 
?od; by which the bob can be scr^^ed up^_^ ,^^^^ .^ ^ ^, 

clocks the rim of thii. nut is aiviueo, acceleration ot 

exact quantity of rise or fa". °r «i ^^ ^j ^^ 

retardation, may be known^ the amount au „jed below 


?L^Cr»ed-i.'\h';n^ etniWe nut win .te^ th^ 
rate of the clock by 43200 '1 seconds a day ; which would V. 

j^t 30 seconds, if ^>^Jlti^^r^:fJ!X^Z':&\l'^r 

icrew has 32 threads m t6e °ch. To Mce e ^^^ ^ .^^ 

has always to be turned to the nght^t is . ^ ^yj^w, 

But in 'astronomical ^«- " 'XtXng th^PendiJum ; cndfoi 
to avoid stopping, or in any «^n^ ^^ ^^ 

the finer aiiustments other methoc^ ^."lin fig 2. capable «l 
The best is thar of fixing a coUar, as '^»' ^, •^jowTi the pen- 
having very smaU weicEts l^'i^n^; J^it°^ of Iny smaU weight 
dulum. this being the place where the .ddit on ^ ^^^^^^ ^^ 


I ,h. .y^ "r"" Tf'S" "' "" pendulum and / its Icnrth (Jowu 
to th. wnn of osciUation). and m a smaU weight add«i at tZ 
distance d Wow the centre of suspension orabove t^ec o ('ince thev 
li^addJ^gTl'-^en' """' "' "'"*"°'^' "'■^ " "^ "" «cceVn;ura'd:i 

—11 HL C^ <P\ 
I ~ 2M \i ' p)- 


from which it i. evident that^ if d = ^', then - dT the daily 

dccoieratioD ^ __ ; or .f m is the 10800th of the weight of 

:li6 pendulum it will accelerate the dork <> =^„-j j 
giuin, wOl do that on a pendulum of 15 lb \7ZaA Z^" 
= 1 lb.,, or an ounce on a ivudulum of 6 cwt^^^L^U^fannlH? 
d = 3 from either top or bottom, m must = .^M_ f„ aecelerat* 

Cmnpensaiicm 0/ Pendulum, 

-JXt^ftt'try c^o^n^d '^t«^^3r "■ ^'-^- *J 
en-ir independent of the actionnffh,. Ml ""^T^l'^s « source of 

iost time in the hot wcSI^d ^n^V'^"" 'm"' "'"' "■'=" "'^J' 
of ali the substances of wh"h TheiWd Se '^^ "" """'T"""' 
the temperature increases If /?,,h.i^T^? "P"'"^ " 
and -67 4e smaU mcr^e of it frin, . ''Tu*' "' * Pendulum. 
I^nduluJn I. and .r;^lt°of'a[e"';^nXSl.''.7:- IC'°' "^^ 

t ~ VI "'"^ir 

nuce ( _ j may be neglected as very smaU ; or <fl = ^^. and 
the daily loss of the clock will be «200^seconds Tho foUowing 
» . Uble of the value, of « for 1000= Fahr. of beatin different snb- 
•tances, and also the weight of a cubic inch of each : " 

WTiitedea]....~.'T'„...'' .„„„, 

Flintelass ""24 

Steel rod 00^8 

Iron rod.. '°^^* 

BrsBs "OO? 

Lead.. ■•"" 

Zinc ....';: - : 'OIS 

Mercnry (in bulk, not In iength)'.'.;.'.:;.:..:'i00 

*ZmVwm-%T^f''^A''''} ""o'"" '^^ '»d would lose 

for the winter"mpemt^?e uVtrii"? '" l' ^^' ' ^^^ " '^^^^^ 
TOmmerruulLs TomMhuT- ,„ ,h '?'\*'?°°' » """Jte a week in 

come toesi^menu Wew»,MV ^^^^ ^' ""^ case when we 
wiU alwavrVeen .h»f ^ T r '^"^^fo^ ^^o contnvance which 
depenT^.X^^?;,P;"'' »f '""^ P!"!"'"" <"> ">>i'=h "« time 
point of Bus^nLn A-CaS nlTbVr ^f*"" T' ^^^t^'^efrom the 
been made, but there »rt „?f„ number of such contnvance^ have 
in common n« -^d the oM^^" «h'ch can be said to be at all 
nat, bars of biiT^d s,ee ,a^ T ^,^"'"'?- "^de of 9 alter- 
seded by one of zi^ a^d rn„ .i ?' '"'°K ''^^'' «"P«f- 

requiring much ^llr^Hl'^^^^t^'^:^^ P^^'P'^' ^' 
«uic than brass Tao r.nt« ^ "i^ 5 "'* ^^*'*'' e^anaion of 
most clock pTduWs S?WK^ oscillaaon so nearly coincides m 

.t thJsaL he ght to, ?iis Si^^*""" '^ '" "^^P "-^ ''"''-'^-vs 
the too of a coiSmn of »me m?u?Swcrh„"'"" '"'\« ""^ """^ f^""" 
•ion than the rod that i^pl^t . ^° '°°'^'' "o™ ^fpan- 

the rod. and ome wi4 o/ff K° Tlf'^l'^" n^nir^^ thaTof 
wards. The comple^lcnlation '^T''''' •"'' ^°^ ^ ''°"«' 'i<"™- 
ofaUtherod3anXu^UtooW'„„'5^' T" "J^™""* thi wcipl.t 
through, especially M it .Wni? '' '=°fflEl'<«t«d ^ be worih going 
either^ftuTv^^^od^^r^*™*'-' be feaUy adjusted by^tni 

boal purposes it^ C efficient to^S'th ^ ''^'- ^,°' P"'^' 
being 016 to steel 0061, in,S of -n^ ""^.f^pansion of zinc as 
^ pendulum, wit. vor/Svy^'tu"^ rven' ILo^oI'lilt^' 


But neglecting these minutis for the first nnnr«r„„ ^ 
sunposing the bob either to be of iron in wh?.!, ^PP'"^"""'"". ^^'^ 
si<fered filed anywhere to the iron n,^» Jtl k^ " ™'>' ^' "■^- 
of the nnc tube, or a lead tb attached It Us otT' 'T '\"'l 
obviate, the slowness of the transmiiion of» h. f"'^'' ""^"-'^ 

through it. the following calcul^n"i Jdn?!^ ?«' of ternperature 

must evidently have mi{r + i-b) = Uz '■ , - 2,, j, j^ . 

Kt ^' ^3"ti^f i:r,rrn"trt'°" '^.''' -^ '-^ "'■=<i^'<^ 

as has been descnbed and weighs 26 tb) is 4-iJ 
Ti\^ ^"^'^'^/^ ''escendin|w,r^\™;;:te'el^ 
A solar tune pendulum is about i inch loneer is 

^the T?;. ." ^' ^°'' ^'^ «"d at its b^ottom 
to the steel tube the zinc wonld have to be 4 s* 

mf^'- ^'i ? " ^r-^""" °f 'be great WesI^ 
tT^ Lf.?'''^'""^ ^' ""°'' ^'^ "•biob mns from 
top to bottom ends m a screw, with a nut N for 
adjustmg the length of the pendulum after it was 
made by cslcula^on as near the nght leDglh^ 
possible. On thu, nut rests a collar^ll, whTh ca" 
abde up the rod a little, but i, prev nted fr^iS 
turning by a pm through the rod^ On a groov^ 
or rmnular chauiiel in the top of this collar fS^ds 

an^„Vh"^v'l''*' V°'?" '°''8' "fd "early half 
an mch thick, made of three tubes aU drawn 

be^ohJ^'l r^ '" ^'°'"' ''^'^ °"^ "°' " «b?,^d 
be observed that cast anc cannot be depended on 
It must be drawn). On the top of this tube or 
hollow column fits another coUa? witll a" a^ uk 
groove much lake the bottom one M. The obiec 
o these grooves is to keep the zinc column in its 
^t^L ''°t,»°'^'vb"'K the rod within it. as contact 
tTe!r r?!"*^"" '"'"°''- "'"'='' "ould interfere with 
J^.^„ r ""^^T ""^" e^tpansion and con- 
imf^K ^T** *^' '""'"• C iHcrewed a large 
ron tube, also not touching the zinc, and its 
ower end fits loosely on the collar M ; and rouid 

a^^ ,mh ;',*' "'^ ^i" '"^- '"<= '™ tube has 
a number of large holes m it down each side, to 
let the air get to the zinc tube; before that was 

aT;''r '^f^I^l' thecom'pensatfonliTed 
a day or two behind the changes of temperate 
m consequence of the iron rod and tuS bemg 

,T^' T^'' "■' """^ ^^ "" ^«Io=ed without 
touching the u;on. The bottom of the bob is 14 
it J' "ich^ from the top of the spring A and 

he bob Itself „ 18 inch^ high, ^th a dome 
shaped top, and twelve mches in diameter As 

t IS a 2.8econds pendulum, its centre of oscilla- 
tIZ'l, , K ? "^ '"P ^' "bich IS higher^'" 2.-Section o* 
than usua above the centre of gravity of the bob ^reat Westmu- 

^L'^k" V^^ ^0=*,' ""^bt of the compensa. "" PenduJun,. 
r h?a^v?est;:'^nd^^".n'^f :;.Id^ "^'^ ^°« ^- -'^ " P-^-bly 

sim^fcZl'^fo :teTxr.^"^ractr ':^'^r- 

mere y a wooden rod with a 1,»„ il^ k ? ° • ^"'^ 'h«t i» 

t^-^e-^boniv E^^= — '^^^^ 

co^equent^te^re t-e^cl-ro^cTockT '''''^ '^''°-' '"" 
meT^u^ri^rMc ' 'tlirnZ'T IT.lZ' ^tT ^ ^' 

C L o c K e 

tbi, „.eaB, the n,ercu,v. the roJ. ^iJ^^t^J/^^T^L'Z 
Lmp°aTu%\t «..y -fh^-'e^X^ "t^Ts it^s called) at the 
m"cury.3iDagUs3ja.;hung l^^yas^''-"^^^^^^^ safe to carry 

S>tiom of the rod ; and .■^"^""'p^'^L'^ y cylindrical by turning. 
Xut, and the jar can ^o made l«r^-i.y/f^^^ ^^ijation; and, 
W a so air-tight, so a3 protect the mere i ^^ ^^ ^^.^^ ^^ ^„y 
U neco3sary. it can V.e heated m the J. ^^^ of mercury 

moisture, without the risk "f ° ^^^^^'i^^etcr. is about G'S inches ; 

required in a c^'-'"" J^j' ."^tleil^ling the vise of the mercury 
forStmustberemeoibeed inca^e^ ^^^^^^^^^^ 1^,3 l„ te 

^t^^^C:M|^- b,^^Uu-'. howe.e. ar. 

has established the co"cl"''0" '''''? ','., , ^^^ ^^^^„^^ more 

«pec,o of a heavy ■"^'"':^,P'=p"i«o mercury and the admitted 
*B,7ious from the g'«?'« " . '"bob ? an were once'lbought sulEcient 
necessity for mucli h«'^"-fJ'°''^„'„' ,,,t„ calculation for a coini-.n- 
for astronomical clocks Tb>. com ^^^^ any oonsu erablo 

,,ted pendulum in ;'^ ^,Ve ^ht as ley must in a zinc pend.i urn 
proportion of the whole '^'= S"' ;V,"ta\inj; gencvally, especially as 
^.' lo complicated t°X-™'^'t?l.m finally by trial, and for -hat 
rt ,s always -""^^^n, ° ^e m 'de "^^ '''^' '''*"'' '""g"/"'" "'!f, 

^udulums Drcv.»u3ly tried. 

Cap.ometrical Error. 


Jl,l!^,ri sufficient arc cfj.^t^n^'^ly-l::::^ 
irc(reckoaedlromO)is abou^2 40 the^^^ ^^^ W.stmin.Ur clock 
sclf.corrected. And "."'/':";"''.„ „a3 giveo for other reasons, 
l^ndulum. to which that '^/g" ^^^/^or, atlev trying the resu ts 
Appears to be free from »°y ^""Tw "ecorded at Greenwich f.,r th» 
ot'lhe daily rate '^'^"'''^/^Jf see presently that all the e«ar-=- 
whole of the year 18J2. W« soar^ s^ v (ra,tion3 which have lb. 
ment errors of clocks "'^P^^'^^he denominator, and therefore . I 
s,,uare or the c">;«»f'*^«^'k"'° constant without any object.onabW 
the arc can be "'"'-•=^,~ ""!„ ^Jhis is an additional reason for pie- 
i"r"rala:rarc"'.'a small one' though that W. contrary to the 
usu-aVacUce in astronomical clocks. 


. , . ■ » „f »i.p rlock in wblcH l>i<i roury 

The escapement is that P"'?i_7o the vibratory motion of tho 

motion of tie wheels >^ ~'l-^''=^;^ "eontriiance or other t. »ado 

^balance or pendulum, «bich by some c ^^ ^^ j^ 

\„ let one tooth of the ^''-^^'^J.^,^ 'Called the •■ sca'pe.'he^'," 
vibration; and h'=«<^'=''^^' .^rii^t clock escapement, if it is hell 
Fig. 3 shows the form of the «""^' I j^^ t„S balls ore set rory 
sideways, so that '•'^'';;°'°^^,hat case the arms and wei?' t. 
vibrate on a horizontal plane in tnai _ .^^^_ ^^ ^^ ^^^ ,,. . 



U has long been known that PendnU^s a^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
Uons of density of the air as weU a» "J ten.pera^,^ .^^^^^o .^ ^,^^ 
less degree,— in fact, so little as to oe i ^ min mum. An 

l,llck3.^vhere all the o'^f"','^^", ,^0 I diminution of the 
increase of density of the^ -^ '=■ ^'X^ ig euuivalent to diminu- 
.necific gravity of the Pendulum, ndtha is eq^^^^^.^^ ^^^ 

,U of the force of e/J^tywJX^ vanes directly as the force o 
And as the Y«lo"'r^"X inertia ao increase of density must 
jnavity and inversely as the >"" " ^ ^he late Francis Baily, 
?iminTsh the velocity or. ncreas^^^thnm- experiments (See rh,L 

PR.A.S, also found f'""^ .^"""^ ',,,,,,„, earrv so much air with 
rmn.. of 1832) 'hat s«iog.n| pendu um^'^^O ^^^ ^,^^^ j„, ,„ 

..hem as to affect their specib^g^^^^^^^^^ that this also vanes 

the mere dilferenco of ?t^ ""^''y ^'^ « ,^1 section dragging more 
with their shapo.-a rod with a "j^^ «'"!,. , j ^ „hat one would 
Tir with it than a thicker '■7"f,»";j"^,^,ral c°ed than a sphencal 
expect), though =^ .--■»^-f 'JP^^ ^ ^ of cou e is much heavier. The 
one of tho same diameter, which oicou increased 

Actional effectof the air IS necessarily f^^^l' ^^s. Memoirs oi 
density, and that diminishes ue arc. in educed in the 

1853 Mr Bloxam r^m-^'^d also that he cur _^P^ ^^^ 
descent of the pendulum g«" »'°°S "'? ^s ,t did the descent, and 
lore does t>ot retard the accent a miuh;^;,' a,h „,i,„ as 
therefore the two e(rect3 lo not counU ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ 
Msumed that they did V„Lnd considered that this was due to 
loss than its theoretical value ''"^ '»f„f;;:hich were arrived at by 
th. resistance of he '"r. The coneiusio ^^^ endulum spring 

«„ral eminent ^loc^makers a3 to the eu ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^„3_ 

or. tho circular error about 4U years aj, 

,rd the effect due to other ^i^^^^'v^ .. „ ^f the subject in several 
U appears from further 'f'f,tlf2a„/l873 that the barometr.. 
p.pers in tho R.A.IS. Notues »/ ^J^ ami l'>J^' ^ a^d (as Baily 
^r ■'terror also varies -'/hthXXVwi'htbrarc of the pendulum, 
t i before concluded [--""^^J^^li"'*^^^^^^^^ particular clock a pnori. 
, , that It can hardly be determined^or °Thc> barometrical error of an 
cxc jpt by inference Irom a simUar one^ i ",„„ement was said to bo 
ordinary^astronomical clock wnth a do-d -.^^^Pf^f^f barometer, but 
. loss of nearly a second a day f°J/° '° " pendulum not more 
with a graNity escapement and a ^"y nea y P ^^j ^ , 

than-3siond^Dri;ob,osonof Armagh_(see^/J^^^.6 ^^ ^^ ■ ^j^^, „j 

would be the vibrations. -- 

consider the "Pr",.""=.'S!'ti,'"f°"l ^ 
it becomes the earliest lorm of the 
pendulum clock, with the croi^- 
wheel or ft-rticoi escapement ^.^ 
and CB are two flat P!«=<:"«f ^^',? • 
called pallets, P^<;J«t.Dg from the 
axis about at right »"£'"> ^.^^'t 
other, one of them o™' the front 
of the wheel as It stand^, and he 

other over the bacK. ■'"= 
D is just escaping from the Iroiit 
ml et CA, aud at the same time 

falls on the other pallet CK, a lune 
Ibove its edge. But the pendu uni 
which is now moving to the ugl.t 
does not stop immediately, but 
s^^n-.s a little further (Otherwise 
re lea^t failure in the force of the 

train would stop the clock, as the 
scape would not take place . and 

in 60 doing it is evident that the 
^Xtrv^U drive the wheel back 

a Uttle and produce what is called 

^cordlhXeUher":H\ t^ escapement or the one which wul ^ 


t- through a cons^-be angle be^re^ ^lo^LrLT? 

Fio. 3.— Recoil Escnwmeut. 

tu™ -Z^^ -I'^t^ef dement Ve^rera^ng "vibrauo. 

other words, the "own-'^hed escape^^^^ ^^ ^1^.^^^, accounts,_nrst 

of the pendulum. This is ooiec ^^^_ ^„,( ^ great 

"VU'd'refoie^'ctitronV^Uets; and bcs.des tha^ 

Ly variation in a large _- , 

any variauuu ." - — r^ 
arc. as was esplained bc_ 
fore, produces a much 
ereater variation of time 
Sue to the circular error 
than an equal variation ol 
a small arc. The crown- 
wheel escapement may in- 
deed be made so as to allow 
a more moderate arc of the 
pendulum, though not so 
small as the 2^ usua ly 
adopted in the Iwst clocks, 
by putting the pallet arl-or 
a gooil deal higher alK)ve 
the scape-wheel, and giv- 
ing a small number of te<-lh 
to the wheel ; and that also 
diminishes the length cf 
the run of the teeth, and 
consequently the friction, 
on the pallets, though it 
makes the recoil vcrj- great 
and sudden; but, oddly 
enough, it never «pre»r« 

:Z -3 ^:.^. p; Uobinson of ArmagMsee^ .- ^^^ -^^^ 

.uggosted the addition o a Pf'^ of hf^^'^'j "^ a diameter of tube 
the pendulum, with a bulb at thebottorn,^ndsuon ^^^^^ ^^^ , 
as Would aUow a sufficient Tantity «{ merc'ij ^^^^^ „f 

So top by the espansion under hea'. to babnce in ^^^^ ^^ 

fte belt upon tho P^.»<l"h''^ ^"^t lUs n^t nece^ J 

tubes. In a paP" '° the «■/" f'^^,'^; calculations reqms.te for 
Denison (now Sir E. •Beckett) javet,,ec^ ,^„^h3 and 

the barometrical e?mP™,5at ?n <.f peoauUms ^^^^ above given 

.eights, the P""''P°'^fjt^dj,-'"' small weights near the middle 
for regulating a ncudulum by addrng small e ^j^,_^^ 

of its^length" T'he formula . also pven at p. W o ^^^, correction 
of his Jiudimcntan, ^'["""'""iS^^ihe standard clock at Green- 
of a different kind hae hcen appUed to th» »tana ^^ 

ft -2 

Fig. 4.— Aiiclior Kacayemeat. 



deteribf, and wlilch "aprcars lo li.ivc been invented by the cclebi'ateii 
Dr Hooke as early as the year 1656, very soon after the mvention 
ofMDdulums. , , , ~ 

In fig. 4 a tooth of the scape-wheel is just escaping from the left 
pallet, and another tooth at the same time falls upon the right hand 
pallet at some distance from its point. As the pendulum moves on 
in the same direction, the tooth slides farther up the pallet, thus pro- 
ducing a recoil, as in the crown-wheel escapement. The acting faces 
of the" pallets should be conve)!, and not llat, as they are generally 
made, much less concave, as they have sometimes been made, with 
a view of checking the motion of the pendulum, which is more 
likely to injure the rate of the clock than to improve it. But when 
they are llat, and of course still more when they are concave, the points 
of the teeth always wear a hole in the pallets at the extremity of 
their usual swing, and the motion is obviously easier and therefore 
better when the pallets are made convex ; in fact they then 
approach more nearly to the " dead '' escapement, which will be 
described presently. We have already alluded to the effect of some 
escapements in not only counteracting the circular error, or the 
natural increise of the time of a pendulum as the arc increases, but 
overbalancing it' by an error of the contrary kind. The recoil 
escapement does so ; for it is almost invariably found that whatever 
may be the shape of these pallets, the clock loses as the arc of 
the pendulum falls off, and vice versa. It is unfortunately 
topossible so to arrange the pallets that the circular eiTor may be 
thus exactly neutralized, because the escapement error depends, in a 
manner reducible to no law, upon variations in friction of the pallets 
themselves and of the clock train, which produce different effects ; 
and the result is that it is impossible to obtain very accurate time- 
keeping from any clock of this construction. 

But nefore we pass on to the dead escapement, it may be proper 
to notice an escapement of the recoiling class, which was invented 
fer the purpose of doing without oil, by the famous Harrison, wio 
was at first a carpenter in Lincolnshire, but aftenvards obtained the 
first Government reward for the improvement of chronometers. We 
shall not howevej stop to describe it, since it never caiiie into 
general use, and it is said that noljody but Harrison himself could 
make it go at all. It was also objectionable on account of its being 
directly affected by all variations in the force of the clock. It had 
the peculiarity of being very nearly silent, though the Kcoil was 
very great. Those who are curious about such things will find it 
described in the seventh edition of this i^7!cycio^<s<iia. Therecorded 
performance of one of these clocks, which is given in some accoonts 
of it, is evidently fabulous. 

Dead Escapevtents.'^^ 

The escapement which has now for a century and a half teen con- 
eidered the best practical clock escapement (though there have been 
tonstant attempts to invent one tree from the defects which it 
must be admitted to pos- 
sess) is the dead escapement, 
cr, as the French call it 
with equal e.xpre33ivene«s, 
I'ichappemcnt i repos, — bo- 
cause instead of the recoil 
of the tooth upon the pallet, 
which took place in the pre- 
vious escapements, it falls 
dead upon the pallet, and 
reposes thereuntil the pen- 
dulum returns and lets it off 
again. It^s represented in 
fig. 5. It will oe observed 
that the teeth of the scape- 
wheel have their points set 
tho opposite way to those of 
the recoil escapement in fig. 
4, the wheels themselves 
both turning the same way ; 
or (as our engraver has re- 
presented it), vic6 versa. 
■The tooth B is here also 
Rpresented in the act of 
dropping on to the right 
hand pallet as the tooth A 
•scapes from the left pallet. But instead of the pallet having a con- 
tinuous face as in the recoil cscapiment, it is divided into two, of 
which BE on the right pallet, and FA on theleft, are called the im- 
pulse faces, and ED, FG, the dead faces. The dead faces are portions 
of circles (not necessarily of the same circle), having the axis of the 
pallets C for their centre ; and the consequence evidently is, that as 
the pendulum goes on, carrjnng the pallet still nearer to the wheel 
than the position in which a tooth falls on to the corner A or B of 
the impulse and the dead faces, the tooth still rests on the dead faces 
without anyrecoil, until the pendulum returns and lets the tooth slide 
^Own the impulse face, giun^ the impulse to the pendulum as it goes. 

Fio. 5.— Dead Escapement. 

The peat merit of this escapement is that a moderate variation 
in the lorce of the clock tram produces a very slight efl'ect in tho 
time of the pendulum. This may be shown in a general nay, 
without resorting to mathematics, thus : — Since the tooth B drops 
on to the comer of the pallet (or ought to do so) immediately aftir 
the tnoth A has escaptd, and since the impulse will begin at B 
when the pendulum returns to the same point at which the impulse 
ceased on A, it follows that the impulse received by the pendulum 
before and after its vertical position is very nearly the same. No\i? 
that part of the impulse which takes place before zero, or while tlis 
pendulum is descending, tends to augment the natural foice of 
grarity on the pendulum, or to make it move faster ; but in the dc 
scending arc the impulse on the pallets acts against the graWly of tlio 
pendulum, and prevents it from being stopped so soon ; and so the 
two parts of the impulse tend to neutralize each other's disturbirg 
effects on the times of the pendulum, though they both concur iu 
increasing the arc, or (what is the same thing) maintaining it against 
the loss from friction and resistance of the air. However, on the 
whole, the effect of the impulse is to retard the pendulum a little, 
because the tooth must fall, not exactly on the comer of the pallet, 
but (for safety) a little above it; and the next impulse does not begin 
until that same comer of the pallet has come as far as the point of 
the tooth ; in other words, the retarding part of the impulse, or 
that which takes place after zero, acts rather longer than the accel- 
erating part before zero. Again, the friction on the dead part of the 
pallets tends to produce the same eflect on the time ; the arc of 
course it tends to diminish. For in the descent of the pendulum 
the friction acts agaiust gravity, but in the ascent with gravity, and 
so shortens the time ; and there is rather less action on the dead 
part of the pallets in the ascent than in tho descent. For these 
reasons the time of vibration of a pendulum driven hy a dead 
escapement iS a little greater than of the same pendulum vibrating 
the same arc freely ; and when you come to the next difference, the 
variation of time of the same pendulum with the dead escapement, 
under a moderate variation in the force, is very small indeed, 
which is not the case in the recoil escapement, for there the impulse 
begins at each end of the arc, and there is much more of it during 
the descent of the pendulum than during the ascent from zero to the 
arc at which the escape takes place and the recoil begins on the 
opposite tooth ; and then the recoil itself acts on the pendulum in 
its ascent iu the same direction as gravity, and so shortens the 
time. And hence it is that an increase of the arc of the pendulum 
with a recoil escapement is alwa>'s accompanied with a decrtase 
of the time. Something more than this general reasoning is re- 
quisite in order to compare the real value of the dead escapement with 
others of equal or higher pretensions, or of the several contrivances 
that have been suggested for remedying its -defects. But w{ 
must refer to the Rudimentary Treatise on Clocks for details ol 
the mathematical calculations by which the numerical results are 
obtained, and the relative value of the different kinds of escape- 
ments determined. 

It cannot he determined a priori whether cleaning and oiling 
a dead escapement clock will accelerate or retard it, for reasone 
explained in those calculations; but it may be said conclusively 
that the larger the arc is for any given weight x the fall per day, the 
better the clock will be ; and in order to diminish the friction and 
the necessity for using oil as far as possible, the best clocks are 
made with jewels (sapphires are the best for the purpose) let into 
the pallets. " 

The pallets are generally made to embrace about one-third of the 
circumference of the wheel, and it is not at all desirable that they 
should embrace more ; for the longer they are, the longer is the 
run of the teeth upon them, and the greater the friction. There is 
a good deal of difference in the practice of clockmakers as to the 
length of the impulse, or the amount of the angle 7 -f 6 if the im- 
pulse begins at ^ before zero and at 7 after zero. Sometimes you 
see clocks in which the seconds hand moves very slowly and rests 
a very short time, showing that y + 8 is large in proportion to 2o ; 
and in others the contrary. The late Mr Dent was decidedly of 
opinion that a short impulse was the best, probably because there is 
less of the force of the impulse wasted in friction then. It is not to 
be forgotten that the scape-wheel tooth does not overtake the face 
of the pallet immediately, on account of the moment of inertia of 
the wheel. The wheels of astronomical clocks, and indeed of all 
English house-clocks, are generally made too heavy, especially the 
scape-wheel, which, by increasing the moment of inertia, requires 
a larger force, and consequently has more friction. We shall see 
presently, from another escapement, how much of the force is 
really wasted in friction in the dead escapement. 

But before proceeding to other escapements, it is proper to 
notice a very useful form of the dead escapement, which is adopted in 
many of the best turret clocks, called the pin-vheel escapement. 
Fig. 6 will sufficiently explain its action and construction. Its 
advantages are — that it does not require so much accuracy aa 
the other ; if a pin gets broken it is easily replaced, whereas in the 
other the wheel is ruined if the point of a tooth is injured ; a wheel 
of given siz« will work with more pins than teeth, and therefore a 



Fia. 6.- Pin- Wheel Escapemebt. 


train 'J less velocity v\\\ do, and that sometimes amounts to a laving 
of one wheel in the train, and 
ft guild deal of friction ; and 
the Mow on both pailrtj being 
downwards, instead of one up 
Rud the other down, the actioD 
is more steady ; all which 
things are of more conse- 
quence in the heavy and rough 
work of a turret clock than 
in an astronom ical one. The 
idetails of the construction are 
eiven in the Hudivienlary 
Treatise. It has been found 
•xpedient to make the dead 
faces not quite dead, but with 
• very slight recoil, which 
Htber teiids to check the 
vatiationsof arc, and also the 
ffenernl {lisj)osition to lose 
time if the arc is increased ; 
when oo uiade the escape- 
went is generally called "half- 
dead. " 

Passing by the various' other modifications of the dead escapement 
which have been suggested and tried with little or no success, we 
proceed to describe one of an entirely different form, which was 
patented in 185) by MrC. Macdowall, though it appeared afterwards 
that one very similar had been tried before, but failed from the 
proportions b^ing badly arranged. It is represented in fig. 7. 
The acapc-ffheel is only a small disc with a 
single pin in it, made of ruby, parallel and very 
neat to the arbor. The disc turns half round at 
every beat of the pendulum, and the pin gives the 

Impulse on the vertical faces of the pallets, and 

the dead friction takes place on the horizontal 

faces. I ts advantages are — that the greatest part 

of the imiiulseis given directly across the line of 

centres, and consequently with very little friction; 

and therefore also, the friction on tjie dead faces is 

less than usual, and scarcely any oil is required ; 

moreo-er. it is very easy to make. But there 

must be two more wheels in the train, consuming 

• good deal of the force of the clock-weight by 

their friction, which rather more than makes 

up "for the friction saved in the escapement. It 

was applied successfully to watches, but the 

expense of the additional wheels prevented 

their adoption. In order to make the angle 

of escape not more than 1°, the distance of the 

pin from the centre of the disc must not be 

more than ^-^th of the distance of cejitres 

of the disc and pallets. 

With the view of getting rid of one of these 

extn wheels in the train, and that part of the 

impulse which is least effective and most oblique, 

Mr Denison shortly afterwards invented the 

thru-leg'fcd dead escapi'merU ; which, though 

afterwards superseded by his three-legged gravUy 

.escapement, is still worth notice on account of 

the exceedingly small force which it requires, _ . 

thereby giving a practical proof of the large ,, 1''°',,.' p 

proportion of the force which is wasted in friction , "^™o"»" » "■ 

ID all the other impulse escapements. capement 

In tig. 8, the three long teeth of the scape-wheel are only nsed 

for locking on the dead pallets D and E, which are set on the front 

of the pallet plate ; A and B are 

impulse pullets, being hard bits 

of steel or jeweh set in the pallet 

plate, and they are acted upon 

by the three sharp-edged pins i 

which are set in the scape-wheel ( 

and point backwards. As soon 

as the pendulum moves a little 

further to the left thaii isTiere 

shown, the long tooth will slip 

past the dead pallet or stop D, 

and the pin at B will run after 

and eaten the corner of that 

inipulse pallet and drive it until 

the wheel has turned through 

60°, and then it will escape ; 

and by that time the uppermost 

tooth will arrive at the stop E, 

and will slide along it as in the 

common dead escapement, but Fio. 8. — Penisp'j's Threo-Le^ed 

With a preuure as much Itfs Ihao Eu^apeuent. 

that which gives the impulse as the points of the teeth are 
from the centre of the wneel than the impulse pins are. But the 
impulse is here given with so little friction, that even where the 
points of the teeth were made identical with the pins, the clock-weight 
required to keep the same pendulum with the same train (a common 
turret-clock movement), swinging to 2°, was only one-fifth of what 
had been required with the pin-wheel escapement ; and the (cape- 
wheel which kept the 6 cwt. pendulum of the Westminster clock 
going for half-a-year, until superseded by the gravity escapement, 
weighed only a, sixth of an ounce. It appears also that it would be 
possible so to adjust the recoil of the half-dead pallets that the tima 
would not be affected by any small variation of the force and the arc ; 
since it was found that, when a certain amount of recoil was given, 
the clock gained instead of losing, under an increase of arc due to 
an increase of clock-weight. And if the force were kept constant by 
a train remontoire, such as will be described hereafter, there woulo 
in fact be nothing capable of altering the arc or.ttie time. But oo 
account of the small depth of intersection of the circles of tfai 
pins and the pallets, on which its action depends, this aacapt- 
fflent requires very carefi^ adjustment of the pallets, except where 
they are on a large scale ; and considering the siipenor qualitiaa o( 
the corresponding g'-avity e<5eaf<enient, it is not likely to b« used, 
except perhaps in clock^ required to go a long time, in which 
economy of force is a matter of consequence. The pallets should be 
connected with the pendulum by a spring fork (which indeed u 
advisable in the common dead escapement with a heavy |>endulam. 
especially the pin-wheel escapement), to prevent the risk of theii 
driving backwards agamst the scape-wheel when it is not In motion, 
as it will not clear itself. The distance of the centres should Ik 
not less than 25 times the radius of the circle of the edi;^ of the 
'impulse pins. 

Detached Escapements. 

In all the escapements hitherto described the pallets are never ont 
of moving contact with the scape-wheel, and there have been several 
contrivances for keeping them detached except during the impulse 
and at the moment of passiug a click which is to release tjie wheei 
to give the impulse. This is an mutation of the chn.aometei 
escapement in watches which is sometimes called the ''detaiched." 
There are only two of such contrivances which appear worth special 
notice. Onewas proposed by Sir G. Air^' in vol. ii. of the Cam- 
bridge Transactims, but not executed (so far as we know) till a few 
years ago in the standard sluereal dock at Greenwich, wbi?!'. \^ 
reported to go extremely well. Suppose a dead escapement consist- 
icg of a single pallet only, say the right hand one of the pin-whce! 
escapement (fig. 6), for the Greenwich clock has a pin escapemer)t,_ 
and that the wheel is locked generally by a spring detent nookiag 
into any one of its teeth, and capable of being lifted or pushed 
■iside by the pendulum, i.e., by a pin somewhere on Hie single 
pallet as it passes to the right, but also capable of betfiR passed 
without being lifted as the pendulum goes to the left. We shall 
see afterwards how this is done, -n the article Watches. Then U 
the pendulum goes to the right, it first lifts _. ~^ 

the detent at about 1° before zero, and then a ^o) 

tooth or a pin drops on to the pallet and gives ^ ■ 

the impulse, exactly as in the dead pin-wheel 
escapement, and with exactly the same amount 
of friction, substituting only for the dead 
friction the resistance and friction of passing 
the detent one way and lifting it the other. 

A different escapement on the same principle 
but involving less friction was adopted by 
Sir E. Beckett in a clock described in the 
later editions of his book as having gone for 
above ten years very satisfactorily, except 
that, like all direct impulse escapements, in- 
cluding Sir G. Airy's, it must vary with the 
force of the clock tram, due to different states 
of the oil. The scape-wheel (fig. 9) is five- 
legged, and has five sharp-edged pins -which 
give tlie impulse to the n.ird steel pallet P 
whenever it passes to the right, provided the 
wheel is then free to move. It is stopped by 
the detent DEF, which turns on a pivot F, not 
in the pen:lulum crutch, as it looks in the 
drawing, but on the clock-frame. When the 
pendulum going to the right arrives at the 
position here drawn, the click CE on the crutch 
pushes the detent aside and so unlocks the 
wheel, which then gives the impulse, moving 
through 72° until another twith arrives at the 
detent and is stopped, the click having then 
got far beyond it. When the pendulum re- 
turns the click lightly trips over the lop of 
the detent Here there is practically no friction ^'S- '• 

in giving the impulse, as it is directly across tl.e line of cent'^ 
u in the thre«!legged dead ejcap« nent, and the frictijj of pu^z^ 



»ntl unlocking is as little as possible for tTie pressure on the 
locking edh is less than half of (hot of the impulse pins. 

In prajtice the pallet P is a separate hit of jtcel, screwed on, and 
Iherefire adjustable. The locking teeth are about 6 inches long 
(roni th» centre, and the impulse pin-edges J in. from Oie centre, 
which is 7 in. below the top 01 the pendulum and ^crutch, 
■o th«t the impulse bof;in» 1' before zero and ends 1° after, 
correspondinR each to 36° turn of the ssape-j^heel. If r is the 
distance of the pins from the centre and p'tbo Ichgth of the 
crutch Oown to the centre, rsin. 30" must=ysitj. 1", if you want an 
impulse of 1° on each side of ; which ni,ikesp = S3-7r. BB aro 
eccentric Imit pins for adjusting the beat to whatever position of 
the pendulum you please, i.e., you can make it less than 1° 
l.of»rc or after zero as you pleasa In some respects it would be 
better to have no crutch, but it would be very difficult to make the 
»d)ustments. Thi» escapement shonid ei-idently be at H19 .bottom 
of the clock-frame instead of the top, as in the gravity escapements 
which will be described presently. The back part of the scape- 
wheel is carried by a long cock or bridge within which the crutch 
also moves. ;._.-.. . , 

Scmonloire or Gravity Escapements. 

A remontoiie escapement is one in which the pendulum does 
not receive its impulse from the scape-wheel, but from some small 
weight or spring which is lifted or wound up by the scape-wheel 
at every beat, and the pendulum has nothing to do with the scape- 
wheel except unlocking it. When this impulse is received from a 
weight the escapement is also called a gravity escapement: and in- 
asmuch as all the remontoire clock escapements that are worth 
notice have been gravity escapements, we may use that terra for 
them at once. The imiiortance of getting the impulse given to the 
p4nduliiin in this way was recognized long before all the properties 
of the dead escapement, as above investigated, were known. For 
it was soon discovered tliat, however superior to the old recoil 
escapement, it was far from perfect, and that its success depended 
on reducing the friction of the train and the pallets as far as possible, 
which involves the necessity of high-numbered pinions and wheels, 
small pivots, jewelled pallets, and a generally expensive style of 
workmanship. Accordingly the invention of an escapement which 
will give a constant impulse to the pendulum, and be nearly free 
from friction, has been for a century the great problem of clock- 
making. Wo can do no more than shortly notice a very few of the 
, attempts Which have been ~ 
made to solve it. The 
most simple form of gra- 
vity escapement, and the 
one which will serve the 
best for investigating their 
mathematical properties 
(though it fails in some 
•ssential mechanical con- 
ditions), is that invented 
by Mudge. The tooth A 
of the scape-wheel in fig. 
10 is resting against the 
•top or detent a at the end 
of the pallet OA, from the 
axis or arbor of which de- 
scends the half fork CP 
to touch the pendulnm. 
From the other pallet CB 
descends the other half 
fork CO. The two arbors 
are set as near the point 
of suspension; or top of 
the pendulum spring, as 
possible. The pendulum, 
as here represented, must 
b« moving" to the right, and just leaving contact with the left pallet 
and going to take up the right one ; as soon as it has raised that 
pallet a little it will evidently unlock the wheel and let it turn, and 
then the tooth B will raise the left p.allet until it is caught by the 
stop b on that pallet, and then it will stay until the pendulum re- 
turns and rcleaiSes it by raising that pallet still higher. Each pallet 
therefore descends with the pendulum to a lower point than that 
where it is taken up, and the difference between them is supplied by 
the lifting of e<\ch pallet by the clock, which does not act on the 
pendulum at all ; so that the pendulum is independent of all varia- 
tions of force and friction in the train. 

Again referring to the RudimerUary Treatise on Clocks for the 
mathematical investigation of the errors of this class of escapements, 
or to » paper by the late J. M. Bloxam, in the R. A.S. Memoirs of 
1853, we may say it is proved that though the time of a gravity 
escapement pcndulam differs from that of a free pendulum more 
than from that of a dead escapement, yet the variations of that 
d ferenoe (which are the real variation? of the clock) may be made 
luucl: less tbaj in any kind of dead escapement 

Fio. 10.— Mudge's Gravity Escapement, 

The difficulty which long prerented the success of gravity' 
escapements was their liability to what is called trxpiying. i^eferrtog 
again to fig. 10, it will be seen at once that if the scape-wheel 
should happen to move too fast when it is released, the left pallet 
will not be raised gradually by the tooth B, but be thrown up 
with a jerk, perhaps so high that the tooth slips past the hook ; 
and then not only will that tooth slip, jut several more, and at 
last when the wheel is stopped it will be running fast, and thi 
points of some of the teeth will probably be bent or broken by 
catching against the pallets. And even if the pallet is not raised 
high enough for the tooth to get past or completely trip, it may 
still be raised so high that the point of the tooth does not rest oa 
the hook exactly where the slope of the pallet ends, but lower, 
and the friction between them is quite enough to keep the pallet 
there ; and consequently the pendulum does not begin to lift it at 
the proper angle 7, but at some larger angle ; and as the pallet 
always descends with the pendulum to the same point, theduration 
of the impulse is increased, and the pendulum made to swing farther. 
Sir E. Beckett called this api<roximate tripping, and though not s» 
injurtous to the clock as actual tripping, it is obviously fatal to lU 
accurate performance, though it appears never to have been noticed 
before he pointed it out in 1851. Various contrivances have been 
resorted to for preventing tripping. But on account of the delicacy 
required in all of them, and other objections, none of them ever cams 
into use until the invention of the three-legged and four-legged 
escapements to be mentioned presently. The only one which 
approached near enough to satisfying all the requisite condition* 
to bo worth description is Jlr Blo-tam's, and we accordingly giv« 
a sketch of it in fig. 11, winch is copitd (with a little alteration fof 
distinctness) from his own de- 
scription of it, communicated in 
1853 to the Astronomical Society, 
some years after he had had it in 
action in a clock of his own. This 
drawing will enable anyone con- 
versant with these matters to un- 
derstand its action. He made the 
pallet arbors cranked, to embrace 
the pendulum-spring, so that their 
centres of motion might coincide 
with that of the pendulum as 
nearly as possible, — perhaps an 
unnecessary refinement ; at least 
the three-legged and four-legged 
gravity escapements answer very 
well with the pallet arbors set 
on each side of the top of the 
spring. The size of the wheel 
determines the length of tliB 
pallets, as fhey must be at such 
an angle to each other that the 
radii of the wheel when in 
contact with each stop niay be 
at right angles to the pallet 
arm ; and therefore, for a wheel 
of this size, the depth of lock- 
ing can only be very small. The 
pinion in Air Bloxam's clonk 
only raises the pallet through 40' at each beat . i.e., the anglt 
which we called y is only 20' ; and probably, if it were incieased to 

anything like -j-, the escapement would trip immediately. The 

two broad pins marked E. F. are the fork-pins The clock which 
Mr Bloxam had went ver)' well , but it had an extremely fine 
train, with pinions of 18 ,'and nobody else appears to have Iwb 
able to make one to answer. In short Bloxam's was not a practic.1l 
solution of the gravity escapement problem, any more than thos« 
of Captain Kater, or Hardy, or various other inventors. A few 
, clocks of Hardy's alone still exist. ' 

The only gravity escapement or escapements that really hav» 
come into common use are the "four-legged"andtlie "double three- 
legged " escapements of Sir E. Beckett. They passed through 
various phase's before settling into the present form, of which it is 
unnecessary to say more now than that the first was the singlo 
three-legs described in .the last edition of this Encyclopccdia, which 
w.Ts suggested by his three-legged dead escapement. A five-legged 
one was also tried ; but though it had some slight advantages they 
arc quite overbalanced by disadvantages, and it requires much mora 
delicacy of construction than either the double three-legs or th« 
four-legs which we shall now describe, remarking that the latter is 
the best for " regulators," and the former in large clocks. Fig. 12 
is a back view of the escapement part of an astronomical clock with 
the four-legged wheel ; seen from the front the wheel would turn 
the other way. The long locking teeth are made about 2 inches 
long from the centre, and the lifting pins, of which there are fout 
pointing forwards and the other four intermediate pointing back- 
wards, aie at not more than one-30ih of the distance between th»j 

Fio, 11.— Bloxam's Gravity 



Fia. 12. 

Four-Legged Gravity 


centres EC, of tho wheel and inUets ; or rather C is the top of 
the penJolum spring to which the pallets C3, CS' converse, though 
their actual action are a little below C. It is not worth while to crank 
them a3 Mr Bloxam did, in order to make them coincide exactly with 
the top of the pendulum, as the friction of 
the beat pins on tho p<indulum at P is in- ' ^ 

eignificaDt, and even then would not be 
^uit« destroyed. The pallete are not in the 
laioc nlane, but one is behind and the other 
n ff'jnt of the wheel, with one stop pointing 
backwards and the other forwards to receive 
the teeth alternately, — it does not matter 
«hich ; in this figure the stop S is behind 
and the stop S' forward. The pendulum is 
now going to the right, and just beginning 
to lift tho right pallet and free the stop S' ; 
tlen the wheel will begin to turn and lift 
tl.9 other pallet by one of the pins which is 
n»w lowest, and which moves through 45' 
across the line of centres, and therefore lifts 
with very little friction. It goes on till the 
tooth now below S reaches S and is stopped 
there. Meanwhile the pallet CS' goes on 
with the pendnlum as far as it may go, to 
the end of the arc which we have through- 
BQt called o, starting from y ; but it falls 
inth the pendulum again, not only to 7 but 
to -7 on the other side of 0, so that the 
impulse is due to the weight of each pallet 
alternately falling through 27; and the 
magnitude of the impulse also depends on 
the obliqueness of the pallet on the whole, 
i.e., on tne distance of its centre of gravity 
from the vertical through C. The defect of 
the origihal three-legged escapement was that the pallets were too 
nearly vertical. 

Another most material element of these escapements with very 
few teeth is that thoy admit of a fly KK on the scape-wheel arbor to 
moderate 'its velocity, which both obviates all nsk of tripping, 
wholly or partially, and also prevents the bang which goes all 
through the clock where there is no f y. The fly is set on with a 
friction spring like the common striking-part fly, and should be as 
long as there la room for, length being much more effective than 
width. For this purpose the second wheel arbor is shortened and 
set in a cock fixed on the front plate of the clock, which leaves 
room for a fly with vanes 2 inches long. The back pivot of tho 
•cape-wheel is carried by a long cock behind the back plate, so that 
the escapement is entirely behind it, close to the pendulum. The 
pallet arbors are short, as they come just behind the centre wheel, 
which is hero also necessarily above tho escapement, and the great 
wheel arbor on a level with it, and at the left hand (from the front) 
•r the string would be in the way of the fly. No beat screws are 
required, as the pallets end in mere wires which are easily bent. 
'It IS found better to make the tails of the pallets long, rather than 
short as Mr Bloiam did. It is essential, too, that the angle CSE 
formed by the tooth and the pallet which is struck upwards 
•houU not the least fall short of a right angle, nor the other angle 
CS'E be the least obtuse, or the escapement may very likely trip. 
Practically, therefore, it is safer to let CSE be just greater than 
90° and CS'E a little less, so that there may not be the least tend- 
ency in the blow on the stops to drive the pallets outwards. For 
the purpose of calculation, however, we mas: make them both 90° 
and then it follows that, calling the length of the teeth r, and the 
distance of centres d, and the length of the pallets from C down to 
the stops p, r must = d sin. 22i° and p = d cos. 22J°. Therefore 
if r i^ made 2 inches CE or d will be 6 '22, say 5^ inches, and p = 
i 82. Tho distance of the lifting pins from the centre will be J of an 
inch to make the angle 7 = V. It is certainly not desirable 
to make it more, and even that requires such light pallets for a 
pendulum of 30 or 40 !b, that J inch distance from the centre is 
more convenient as giving the smaller lift, assuming the scape-wheel 
to be from 2 to 2J inches in diameter. 

Gravity escapements require more weight than a direct impulse 
escapement with an equally fine train ; and they try the accuracy 
•f the wheelcutting more severely. If there is a weak place in the 
train of a common clock the scape-wheel only follows the pendulum 
more we?.kly ; but in a gravity escapement it always has to raise the 
pallets, and ou"ht to r.iuie them quickly, and especially in clocks 
lor astronomical purposes where you t.-ike its exact time from the 
•ound of the beats, and so the lifting must not lag and souad 
■aeven. Therefore although a fine train of high numbers is not 
tet^ttisite it must be perfectly well cut. And as the force of the 
weight does not reach tho pendulum its increase is of no consequence, 
within reasonable limits. It is worth while to put large friction 
wheels under the arbor of the great wheel in all astronomical clocks, 
and it Tr.akcs a material diirerenoo in the friction on account of the 
secc'tiary ;hic)EQe3S of tho triading arbor. A variation of &."(; in 

dead escapement clock." is sometimes visible between the beginniag 
and the end of the week according as the string is nearest to the 
thick or the thin end of the great arbor, when there are no friction 

The other form of the gravity escapement, which is now adopted 
for large clocks by all the best makers, having been first used in the 
great Westminster clock, is the double 
three-legged wliich is shown in fig. 13. 
The principle of it is the same as of the 
four-legs ; but instead of the pallets being 
one behind and the other in front of the 
wheel, with two nets of lifting p-lns, there 
are two wheels ABC, abc, with the three 
lifting pins and the two pallets between 
them lile a lantern pinion. One stop B 
points forword and the other A backward. 
The two wheels have their teeth set inter- 
mediately or 60* apart, though that is not 
essential, and the angle of 120° may be 
divided betneen them in any other pro- 
portions, as 70° and 50°, and in that way 
the pallets may be still more oblique than 
30° from the vertical, which however is 
found enough to prevent tripping even if 
the fly gets loose, whioh is more likely 
to happen from carelessness in large clocks 
than in astronomical ones. The West- > 
minster one was once found to have been 
left with the spring loose for several days, p,g i3._Double Three- 
and It had not gamed a second, and there- ie~e4 Escapement 
fore had never tripped. The two wheels *° '^ 

mast be both squared on the arbor, or on a collar common to them 
both, and must not depend npon the three pins or they will shake 
loose. If the wheels are set with the teeth equidistant, their centre 
is evideiUly twice the length of the teeth below C, the theoretical 
centre of the pallets. The pins should not be farther from the 
centre than one-24th ofthe radius of the wheel ; and they should be 
so placed that the one which is going to lift next may be vertically 
over the one which has just lifted, and is then holding up the other 
pallet. The third will then be level with the centre; i.e., they 
will stand.on the radii which form the acting faces of the teeth of 
one of the wheels, and half way between those of the other. 

.Of course the fly for those escapements in large clocks, with 
weights heavy enough to drive the hands in all weather, must be 
much larger than in small ones. For average church clocks with 
H sec. pendulum the legs of the scape-wheels are generally made 
4 inches long and.the fly from 6 to 7 inches long in each vane by 
IJorlJ wide. For IJ sec. pendulums the scape-wneels are generally 
made 4^ radius. At Westminster they are 6 inches. 

Sir E. Beckett has come to the conclusion that these escapements 
act better, especially in regulators, if the pallets do not fall quite 
on the lifting pins, but on a banking, or stops at any conveni- 
ent .place, so as to leave the wheel free at the moment of starting ; 
just as the striking of a common house clock will sometimes fail to 
start unless tho wheel with the pins has a litcle run before a pin 
begins to lift the hammer. The best way to manage the banking 
is to make the beat-pins lone enough to reach a little way behiml 
the pendulum, and let the banking be a thin plate of any metal 
screwed adjustably to the back of the case. This plate cannot well 
be shown in the drawings together with the pendulum, which, it may 
be added, should take up one pallet just when it leaves the other. 

It is no longer doubtful that these two escapements are far the 
best of all for large clocks, the three-legs for very large ones,- while 
the four-legs does very well for smaller turret clocks. And they 
cost no more to make, though rather more ii charged for them 
by some makers under the pretence that they do. It is 
absolutely impossible for any large clock exposed to the variations 
of weather and dust to keep as good time as an ordinary good house 
clock unless ithas eitjier a gravity escapement, or a train remontoire, 
which last is much more expensive, to intercept the variations of 
force before they reach the pendulum. And though a detached 
escapement cloct while kept clean and the oil in good condition 
is as good as a gravity one and perhaps better, the gravity one is 
less affected by variations of the oil, and its rate is altogether more 
constant. They seem also to have a smaller barometric error. 

GoiNO Babreis. 

A clock which is capable of going accurately must have soma 
contrivance to keep it going while you are winding it up. In the 
old-fashioned house clocks, which were wound up by merely pulling 
one ofthe strings, and in which one such winding served for both the 

f;oing and strikmg parts, this was done by what is called the end- 
ess chain of lluyghens, which consists of a string or chain ivith the 
ends joined together, and passing over two pulleys on the arbors of 
the great wheels, with deep grooves and spikes in them, to prevent 
the chain from slipping. In one of the two loops or festoons 
which ha;:; from the upper pulleys is a loose pnllev witV oat spikes, 



canTing tie cloclsreipTit, bikI In (bt other a smaD weight otJy 
hc»N-)- enough to keep the chain close to the upper puUeys. Now, 
euppose one of those pulleys to be on the arbor of the great wheel 
of the striking part, with a ratchet and click, and the other pulley 
fixed to the arbor of the great wheel of the going part ; then (when- 
ever the clock is notstriking) you may pull up the weight by pulling 
down that part of the string which hangs from tlio other side of the 
striking part ; and yet the weight will be acting on the going part 
all the time. And it would be just the same il you wound up the 
Btrikingpartand its pulley with a key, instead of pulling the string, 
and also the same, if there were no striking part at all, but the second 
pulley were put on a blank arbor, except that in that case the weight 
would take twice as long to run down, supposing that the striking 
part generally requires the same weight x fall as the going part. 

Tlus kind of going barrel, however, is evidently not suited to 
-he delicacy of an astronomi- 
cal clock ; and Harrison's 
going ratchet is now univer- 
lally adopted in such clocks, 
and also in chronometers 
tnd watches for keeping the 
action of the train Sn the 
escapement during the wind- 
ing. Fig. 14 (in which the 
same letters are used as 
in the corresponding parts of 
fig. Dshowsitsconstruction. 
The click of the barrel-rat- 
chet R is set upon another 
largerratchet-wheel, withits 
teeth pointing the opposite 
way, and its click rT is set 
in the clock-frame. That 
ratchet is connected with 
the great wheel by a spring 
8s pressing against the two 
pins s in the ratchet and / 
in the wheel. When you Fio. 14. — Harrison's Going-Ratchet, 
wind up the weight (whjch is equivalent to taking it off), the click 
Tr prevents that ratchet from turning back or to the right ; and 
as tne spring sj is kept by the weight in a state of tension equi- 
valent to the weight itself it will drive the wheel to the left for 
a short distance, when its end 3 is held fast, with the same force 
as if that end was pulled forward by the weight ; and as the great 
wheel has to move very little during the short time the clock ia 
winding, the spring wUl keep the clock going long enough. 

In the commoner kind of turret clocks a more simple apparatus 
is used, which goes by the nam^ of the Mt and shutter, because it 
consists of a weighted lever With a broad end, which shuts tip the 
winding-hole until you -lift it, and then a spnng-bolt attached to 
the lever, or its arbor, runs into the teeth of one of the wheels, and 
the weight of the lever keeps the train going until the bolt has 
ranitself out of gear. In the common construction of this apparatus 
there is nothing to ensure its being raised high enough to keep in 

fear the whole tjme of winding, if the man loiters over it. 
or this purpose Sir E. Beckett has the arbor of the bolt and 
abutter made to pump in and out of gear ; and, instead of the 
phutter covering the winding-hole, it ends in a circular arc advanced 
just far enough to prevent the key or winder from being put on, 
by obstructing a ring set on the end -of the pipe. In order to get 
the winder on, you must raise the lever high enough for the arc to 
clear the ring. During the two or three minutes which the clock 
may take to wind, the arc will be descending again behind 'the 
ring, so that now you cannot get the winder off again without also 
pulling the maintaining power out of gear ; so that even if it is 
constructed to keep in action ten minutes, if required, still it will 
never remain in action ' longer than the actual time of winding. 
The circular arc most be thi^ enough, or have a projecting flange 
added to it deep enough, to prevent the winder being put on by 
tnerelv pushing back the maintaining power lever without lifting it. 
In large clocks with a train remontoire, or even vpith a gravity 
escapement, it is hardly safe to use a spring going barrel, because 
it is very likely to be exhausted too much to wind up the remon- 
toire,- or raise the gravity pallets, before the winding is finished, if 
it takes more than two or tnree minutes ; whereas, with the common 
escapements, the wheel has only to escape, as the pendulum will 
keep itself going for some time without any impulse. 

Equation Clocks. 
It would occupy too much space to describe the various contriv- 
ances for making clocks show the variations of solar compared with 
mean time (called equation clocks), the days of the month, periods 
of the moor , and other phenomena. The old day of the month clocks 
required setting at the end of every month which. iias not 31 days, 
and have long been obsolete. Clocks are now made even to provide for 
leap year. But we doubt whether practically anybody ever takes 
Lis day of the monlL from a clock face, especially as the figures 

are too small to be seen except quite njear. Several persons hay* 
taken patents for methods of exhibiting the time by figures appear- 
ing through a hole in the dial, on the principle of the "numbering 
machine.' But they do not reflect that no such figures, on any 
practicable scale, are as conspicuous as a pair of hands ; and thab 
nobody really reads the figures on a dial, but judges of the time in 
a moment from the position of the hands ; for which reason tha 
minute hand should be-straight and plain, while the hour hand 
has a "heart" near the end ; VI Jarge marks and 48 small ones 
make a more distinguishable dial than one with figures ; and th« 
smaller the figures are the better, as they only tend to obscure th» 
hands. ' 

Striking Clocks. 

There are two kinds of striking work used in clocks.. 
The older of them, which is still used in most foreign 
clocks, and in turret clocks in England also, will not allow 
the striking of any hour to be either omitted or repeated, 
without making the next hour strike wrong; whereas, in 
that which is used in all English house clocks, the number, 
of blows to be struck depends merely on the position of a 
wheel attached to the going part; and therefore the strik- 
ing of any hour may be omitted or repeated without 
deranging the following ones. In turret clocks there is no 
occasion for the repeating movement ; and for the'purpose 
of describing the other, which is called the locking^latt 
movement, we may as well refer to fig. 2'2, which is the 
front view of a large clock, striking both hours and 
quarters on this plan. In the hour part (on t^e left), you 
observe a bent lever BAH, called the "lifting-piece," of 
which the end H has just been left off by the snail on the 
hour-wheel 40 of the going part; and at the other end 
there are two stops on the back side of the lever, one 
behind, and rather below the other ; and against the upper 
one a pin in the end of a short lever 9 B, which is fixed to 
the arbor of the fly, is now resting, and thereby the train 
is stopped from running, and the clock from striking any 
more. The stops are shown on the quarter lifting-piece 
in the figure (27) of the Westminster clock. We omit 
the description of the action of the wheels, V-ause it ia 
evident enough. At D may be seen a piece projecting 
from the lever AB, and dropping into a notch in the wheel 
78. That wheel is the locking-wheel or locking-plate ; 
and it has in reality notches such as D all round it, at 
distances 2, 3, up to 12, from any given point in the 
circumference, which may be considered as marked off 
into .78 spaces, that being the number of blows struck in 
12 hours. These notches are shown in the locking-plate 
of the quarter part in fig. 22, but not in the hour part, for 
want of size to show them distinctly. 

When the arm AB of the lifting-piece is raised by the 
snail depressing the other end H, a few minutes before the 
hour, Jie fly pin slips past the first of the stops at B, but 
is stopped by the second and lower one, until the lever io 
dropped again exactly at the hour. Thus the pm can paes, 
and would go once round, allowing the train to go on a 
little ; but before it has got once round, A B has been 
lifted again high enough to carry both stops out of th« 
way of the fly-pin, by means of the cylinder with two 
slices taken off it, which is set on the arbor of the wheel 
90, and on which the end of the lifting-piece rests, with 
a small roller to diminish the friction. If the clock has 
onlj '.o strike one, the lifting-piece will then drop again, 
and the fly-pin will be caught by the first stop, having 
made (according to the numbers of the teeth given in fig. 
22) 5 turns. But if it has to strike more, the locking- 
wheel comes into action. That wheel turns with the train, 
being either driven by pinion 20 on the arbor of the 
great wheel, or by a gathering pallet on the arbor of the 
second wheel, like G in fig. 15 ; and when once the lifting- 
piece is lifted out of a notch in the locking-plate, it cannot 
fall again' until another notch has come under the bit D, 
«nd as the distance of tfte notches is proportioned to la« 



hours, tho lockiug-plate thus determines the number of 
blows struck. It may occur to the reader, that tho 
cylinder 10 and roller are not really wanted, and that tho 
locking-plate would do as well without ; and sometimes 
cloctcs are so made, but it is not safe, for the motion of 
the locking-plate is so slow, that unless everything is very 
carefully adjusted and no shake left, the corner of the 
notch may not have got fairly under the bit D before the 
fly has got once round, and then the lifting-piece will drop 
before the clock can strike at all ; or it may hold on too 
long and strike 13, as St Paul's clock did once at midnight, 
when it was heard at Windsor by a sentinel. 
! Small French clocks, which generally have the striking 
part made in this way, very commonly strike the half 
hours also, by having a wide slit, like that for one 
o'clock, in the locking-plate at every hour. But such 
clocks are unfit for any place except a room, as they strike 
one three times between 12 and 2, and accordingly turret 
clocks, or even large house clocks, are never made so. Sir 
E. Beckstt has lately introduced the plan of making 
turret clocks strike one at aU the half hours except 12^ 
and 1 J, so that any striking of one that is heard between 
Hi and 2i must needs be one o'clock. This is done by hav- 
ing a 1 2-hour wheel driven by the going part, either continu- 
ously or by a gathering pallet moving that wheel only once 
an hour, and it has two high steps which come under another 
piece like D in the lifting detent a little before 12i and 1^ 
80 as to prevent it falling when let off by the snail. In 
the English or rack striking movement, to be presently 
described, the same thing may be done by a kind of star 
wheel with flat ends to the rays, attached to the 12-hour 
snail, which will let the rack fall enough to strike one at 
every half hour, but with two longer rays to prevent it 
falling at all at 12i and 1 J ; or it would be better to let 
those rays, by means of an intervening lever, prevent the 
lifting piece from falling, as that would involve less fric- 
tion of the tail of the rack. 

In all cases the locking-plate must be considered as 
divided into as many parts as the number of blows to be 
itruck in 12 hours, i.e., 78, 90, or 88, according as half hours 
Bre or are not struck ; and it must have tfa& same number 
of teeth, driven by a pinion on the striking wheel arbor 
of as many teeth as the striking cams, or in the same 

Fig. 15 is a front view of a common English house cluck 
with the face takeP' off, showing the repeating or rack 
striking movement. Here, as in fig. 1, M ia the hour- 
wheel, on the pipe of which the minute-hand is set, N the 
reversed hour-wheel, and n its pinion, driving the 12-hour 
wheel H, on whose socket is fixed what is called the snail 
Y, which belongs to the striking work exclusively. The 
hammer is raised by the eight pins in the rim of the 
second wheel in the striking train, in the manner which is 

The hammer does not quite touch the beU, sis it would 
jar in striking if it did, and prevent the full sound ; and 
if you observe the form of the hammer-shank at the 
arbor where tho sprmg S acts upon it, you will see that 
the spring both drives the hammer against the bell when 
the tail T is raised, and also checks it just before it reaches 
the bell, and so the blow on the bell is given by the 
hammer having acquired momentum enough to go a little 
farther than its place of rest. Sometimes two springs are 
used, one for impelling the hammer, and the other for 
checking it. A piece of vulcanized India-rubber, tied 
round the pillar just where the hammer-shank nearly 
touches it, forms .is good a check spring as anything. 
But nothing will check the chattering of a heavy hammer, 
except making it lean forward so as to act, partially at 
Jeast, by its weight. The pinion of the striking-wheel 

generally haa eight leaves, the same number as the pins ; 
and as a cluck strikes 78 blows in 12 hours, the great 
wheel will turn in that time if it haa 78 teeth instead 
of 96, which the great wheel of the going part has 
for a centre pinion of eight. The striking-wheel drives 
the wheel above it once round for each blow, and that 
wheel drives a fourth (in which yon observe a single pin 
P), six, or any other integral number of turns, for one 
turn of its own, and that drives a fan-fiy to moderate the 
velocity of the train by the resistance of the air, an 
expedient at least as old as De Vick's clock in 1370. 

The wheel N is so adjusted that, within a few minutes 
of the hour, the pin in it raises the lifting-piece LONF so 
far that that piece lifts the click C out of the teeth of the 
rack BERV, which immediately falls back (helped by a 

Flo. IS.^gc^roDt view of Common Eoglisli Botue Clock. 

spring near the bottom) as far as its tail V can go ly 
reason of the snail Y, against which it falls ; and it js' so 
arranged that the number of teeth which pass the click ia 
proportionate to the depth of the snail ; jtnd as there ia 
one step in the snail for each hour, and it goes round with 
the hour-hand, the rack always drops just as many teeth 
as the number of the hour to be struck. This drop makes 
the noise of "giving warning." But the clock is not yet 
ready to strike till the lifting piece has fallen again ; lor, 
as soon as the rack was let off the tail of the thing called 
the gaikering pallet G, on the prolonged arbor of tha 
third wheel, was enabled to pass the pin K of the rack oa 
which it was pressing before, and the striking train began 
to move ; but before the fourth wheel had got half round, 
its pin P was canght by the end of the lifting-piece, which 
is bent back and goes through a hole in the plate, and 
when raised stands in the way of the pin P, bo that the 
train cannot go on till the lifting-piece drops, which it 
does exactly at the hour, by the pin N then slipping, past 
it. Then the train is free ; the striking wheel begins to 
lift the hammer, and the gathering pallet gathers np the 
rack. « tooth for each blow, until it has returned to th« 



place ftt which the pallet is stopped by tho pin K coming 
under it. la this figure the Uftingpiece is prolonged to 
F, where there is a string hung to it, as this is the proper 
place for such a string when it is wanted for the purpose 
of learning the hour iu the dark, and not (as it is generally 
put) on the click C ; for if it is put there and you hold the 
string a little too long, the clock wiU strike too many; 
and if the string accidentally sticks in the case, it will go 
on striking till it is run down'; neither of which things 
can happen when the string is put on the lifting-piece. 

The snail is sometimes set on a separate stud with the 
appamtus called a star-wheel a.ud jumper ; but as this only 
increases the cost without any advantage that we can see, 
we omit any further reference to it. On the left side of 
the frame we have placed a lever x, with the letters si 
below it, and si above. If it is pushed up to si, the other 
end ^vill come against a pin in the rack, and prevent it 
from falling, and will thus make the clock silent; and this 
is much more simple than the old-fashionad " strike and 
eilent " apparatus, which we shall therefore not describe, 
especially as it is seldom used now. 

If the clock is required to strike quarters, a third " part" 
or train of wheels is added on the right hand of the going 
part ; and its general construction is the same as the honr- 
etriking part; only there are two more bells, and two 
hammers so placed that one is raised a little after the 
other. If there are more quarter-bells than two,' the 
hammers are generally raised by a chime-barrel, which is 
merely a cylinder set on the arbor of the. striking-wheel 
(in that case generally the third in the train), with short 
pins stuck into it in the proper places to raise the hammers 
in the order required for the tune of the chimes. The 
quarters are usually made to let off the hour, and this con- 
nection may be made in two ways. If the chimes are 
different in tune for each quarter, and aot merely the same 
tune repeated two, three, and four times, the repetition 
movement' must not be used for them, as it'would throw 
the tunes into confusion, but the old locking-plate move- 
ment, as in turret clocks; and therefore, if we conceive 
the hour lifting-piece connected with the quarter locking- 
plate, as it is with the wheel N, in fig. 15, it is evident 
that the pin will discharge the hour striking part as the 
fourth quarter finishes. 

But where the repetition movement is required for the 
Quarters, the matter is not quite so simple. The principle 
of it may shortly be described thus. The quarters them 
selves have a rack and snail, &c., just like the hours, ex- 
cept that the snail is fixed on one of the hour-wheels M 
or N, instead of on the twelve-hour wheel, and has only 
tour steps in it. Now suppose the quarter-rack to be 
80 placed that when it falls for the fourth quarter (its 
greatest drop), it falls against the hoar lifting-piece som& 
where between and N, so as to raise it and the click C. 
Then the pin Q will be caught by the click Qj, and so the 
lifting-piece will remaiu up until all the teeth of the quar- 
ter-rack are gathered up ; and as that is done, it may be 
made to disengage the click Qg, and so complete the let- 
ting -off the hour striking part. This click Qj has no 
existence except where there are quarters. 

These quarter clocks are sometimes made so as only to 
■trike Jhe quarters at the time when a string is pulled — 
aa by a person in bed, just like repeating watches, which 
»r& rarely made now, on account of the tUEcalty of keep- 
ing in order such a complicated machine in such a small 
epacBw In this case, the act of pulling the string to make 
the clock strike winds up the quarter-barrel, which is that 
•of a spring clock (not yet described), as far as it is allowed 
to^' wound up by the position of a snail on the honr- 
ilfaecl -against which a lever is pulled, just as the tail of 
the c-OGUBon iitriktsg-rack falls against the •nail on the 

twelve-hour wheel ; and it is easy to see that the number 
of blows struck by the two quarter hammers may thus b« 
made to depend upon the extent to which the spring that 
drives the train is wound up; and it may even be made to 
indicate half-quarters ; for instance, if the snail has eight 
steps in it, the seventh of them may be just deep enough 
to let the two hammers strike three times, and the first of 
them once more, which would indicate 7J minutes to tho 
hour. It is generally so arranged that the hour is struck 
first, and the quarters afterwards. 


In connection with these bedroom clocks we ought to 
mention alarums. Perhaps the best illustration of the 
mode of striking an alarum is to refer to either of the recoil 
escapements (figs. 3 and 4). If you suppose a short 
hammer instead of a long pendulum attached to the axis 
of the pallets, and the wheel to be driven with sufficient 
force, it will evidently swing the hammer rapidly back- 
wards and forwards ; and the position and length of the 
hammer-head may be so adjusted as to strike a bell inside, 
first on one side and then on the other. Then as to the 
mode of letting off the alarum at the time required ; if it was 
always to be let off at the same time, you would only have 
to set a pin in the twelve-hour wheel at the proper placp 
to raise the Lifting-piece which lets off the alarum at that 
time. But as you want it to be capable of alteration, this 
discharging pin must beset in another wheel (without teeth), 
which rides with a friction-spring on the socket of the 
twelve-hour wheel, with a small movable dial attached to 
it, having figures so arranged with reference to the pin 
that whatever figiire is made to come to a small pointer 
set as a tail to the hour hand, the alarum shall be let off 
at that hour. The letting off does , not require the same 
apparatus as a common striking part, because an alarum 
has not to strike a definite number of blows, but to go on 
till it is run- down ; and therefore the lifting-piece is 
nothing but a lever with a stop or hook upon it, which, 
when it is dropped, takes hold of one of the alarum wheels, 
and lets them go while it is raised high enough to disen- 
gage it. You must of course not wind up an alarum till 
within twelve hours of the time when it is wanted to go 

The watchman's or tell-tale clock -may be seen in one of 
the lobbies of the House of Commons, aad in prisons, and 
some other places, where they want to make sure oL a 
watchman being on the spot and awake all the night ; it is a 
clock with a set of spikes, generally 48 or 96, sticking ont 
all round the dial, and a handle somewhere in the case, by 
pulling which you can press in that one of the spikes 
which is opposite to it, or to some lever connected with it, 
for a few minutes ; and it will be observed, that this wheel 
of spikes is carried'round with the hour-hand, which in these 
clocks is generally a twenty-four hour one. It is evident 
that every spike which is seen etill sticking out in the 
morning indicates that at the particular time to which 
that spUce belongs the watchman was not there to push it 
in — or at any rati, that he did not ; and hence its name. 
At some other part of their circuit, the inner ends of the 
pins are carried over a roller or an inclined plane which 
pushes them out again ready for business the next night 

Speing Clocks. 

Hitherto we have supposed all clocks to be kept going 
by a weight. But, as is well known, many of them are 
driven by a spring coiled up in a barrel In this respect 
they differ nothing from watches, and therefore for con- 
sideration of the construction of parts belonging to the 
spring reference ia mads to the article W.4TCHES. It lasy. 



bowever, be mentioned here (hat the earliest form in which a 
apnog seems to have bcea used was not tHat of a spiral rib- 
bon of steel rolled up, Imt a straight sliiT spring held fast to 
the clock frame at one end, and a string from the other end 
going round the barrel, wliuh was wound up ; but such a 
epriiig would have a very small range. Spring clocks are 
generally resorted to for the purpose of savmg length ; for 
as olocka are generally made in Eugland, it is impossible to 
make a weight-clock capable of going a week, without either 
a case nearly 4 feet high, or else the weights so hea\'y as 
to proJiico a great pressure and friction on the arbor of the 
great wheel. But this arises from nothing but the heavi- 
ness of the wheels and the badness of the pinions used in 
most English clocks, as is amply proved by the fact that 
the American and Austrun clocks go a week with smaller 
■wei.'hts and much less fall for them than the English ones, 
aod (he American ones witji no assistance Irom tine work- 
manship for the purpose of dimiiiisliing friction, as they are 
remarkable for their wani of what is called "finish" in the 
machinery, on which so much time and money is wasted in 
English clock-work. 

All the ornamental French clocks, and all the short 
■" dials," as those clocks are called which look no larger 
than the dial, or very little, and many of the American 
clocks, are made with springs. Indeed wo might omit the 
word " French " after " ornamental ;" for the manufacture 
«f ornamental clocks has practically ceased in England, and 
we are losing more of all branches of the horological trade 
yearly, as we are unable, i.e., our workmen do not choose, 
to compete with the cheaper labour of the Coniinent, or 
with the much more systematic manufacture of clocks and 
watches by maehinery in America than exists here, though 
labour there is much dearer. It is true that most of the 
American clocka are very bad, indeed no better than the 
old-fashioned Dutch clocks (really German) made most 
ingeniously of wood and wire, besides the wheels. But 
some better American ones are also made now, and they 
•will no doubt improve as their machine made watches have 
done Though this has been going on now for 30 years 
and more, no steps appear to have been taken to establish 
anything of the kind in this country, except tliat watch 
" movements," which meaus only the wheels set in the 
frame, are to a certain extent made by machinery in 
Lancashire and Coventry for the trade, who finish them in 
London and elsewhere. That is tho real meaning of the 
advertisements of "machine-made watches" here. 

The French clocks have also been greatly improved within 
the same time, and are now, atr least some of them, 
quite diflerent both in construction and execution from the 
old fashioned French drawing-room clock whichgenerally 
goes worse than the cheapest "Dutchman," and j& nearly 
always striking wrong, because they have the lockiflg-plate 
striking work, which if once let to strike wrong, either by 
altering the hands or letting it run down, cannot be eet 
right again except by striking the hours all round, which, 
few people know how to do, even if they can get their 
fingers in behind the clock to do it. The Americans havo 
a slight wire hanging down a little below the dial which 
you can push up and so make the clock strike. All locking- 
plate clocks ought to have a similar provision, 
i There is not much use in having clocks to go more than 
a little over eight days (to allow the possible forgetting of 
a day), as a week is the easiest period to remember. The 
French spring-clocks generally go a fortnight, but most 
people wind them up weekly. Occasionally English clocks 
are made to go a month by adding another wheel ; and even 
a year by adding two. But m the latter case it is better to 
have two barrels and great wheels acting ou opposite sides 
of a very strong pinion between them, as it both reduces 
the strain on the teeth and the friction of the pivot of that 

pinion. SucL clocks sometimes have a 5 feet or 1 J sec. 
pendulum, as the case must be a tall one. The great thing 
is to make the scape-wheel light, and even then you can 
never get more than a small arc of vibration, which u 
undesirable for the reason given above, and such a long 
train is peculiarly sensitive to friction. 

In the American clocks the pinions are all of the kind 
called tantern pinions, which have their leaves made only of 
bits of wire set round the axis in two collars ; and, oddly 
enough, they are the oldest form of pinion, as well as the 
best, acting with the least friction, and requiring the least 
accuracy in the wheels, but now universally disused in all 
English and French clocks. The American clocks 
prove that they are not too expensive to be used with 
advantage when properly made; although, so long as there 
are no manvfactones of clocks here as there are in America, 
it may be cheaper to make pinions in the slovenly way of 
cutting ofif all the ribs of a piece of pinion wire, so as to 
reduce it to a pinion a.quarter of an inch wide, and an 
arbor 2 or 3 inches long. On the whols, the common 
English house clocks, so far from hanng improved with 
the general progress of machiuerj-, are worse than they were 
fifty years ago, and at the same time are of such a pnca 
that they are being fast driven out of the- market by 
the American plain clocks and by the French and German 
ornamental ones. . ; 

Clocks have been contrived to wind themselves up by th« 
alternate expansion and contraction of mercury and other 
fluiil.i, under variations of temperature. Wind-mill clocks 
might be made still more easily, the wind winding up a 
weight occasionally. Water-clocks have also been made, — 
not on the clepsydra principle, where the flow of the water 
determined the time very inaccurately ; but the water is 
merely the weight, flowing from a tap into a hollow hori- 
zontal axis, and thence by branches into buckets, which 
empty themselves as they pass the lowest point of the circle 
in which they move, or llowing directly into buckets, so 
emptying themselves. But the slopping of the water, and 
the rusting of any parts made of iron, and the cost of the 
water itself always running, destroy all chance of such 
things coming into use. 

Electrical Clocks. 

It should be understood that under this term two, or we 
may say three, very difl"erent things are comprehended. 
The first is a mere clo.-k movement, i.e., the works of a clock 
without either weight or pendulum, which is kept gcii'ng 
by electrical connection with some other clock of any ^id 
(theso- ought to be called eUclrical di-ils, not clocti} ; 
the second is a clock with a weight, but with the escape- 
ment worked by electrical connection wlh another cJjck 
instead of by a pendulum ; and the third ilone are tr.;lj 
electrical clocks, the motive power being iostsad 
of gravity ; for although they have a pendulum, whicli of 
(y)urse swings by tie action of gravity, yet the requtito 
impulse for maintaining its vibrations against friction tml 
resista'npe of the air is supplied by a galvanic battery, 
instead of by the winding up of a weight. 

If yoatako tjie weight off a common recoirescapement 
clock, and work. the pallets backward and forwards by 
hand, you will drite the hands round, only the wrong way ; 
cansequently, if the escapement is reversed, and the pallets 
are driven by magnets alternatively made and unmade, by 
the well-known method of sending an electrical current 
through a wire coil set round a bar of soft iron, the contact 
being made at every beat of the pendulum of a standard 
clock, the clock without the weight will evidently keep 
exact time with the standard clock ; and the only question 
is aa to the best mode uf making thfi contact, which is Dt 



BO easy a as it appears to be, and tliough various 
pland appaieutly succeedei for a time, and were mechani- 
cally perfect, not one has succeeded permanently ; i.e., the 
contact sometimes fails to produce the current of sufficient 
strength to lift the weight or spring-on which the driving 
of the subordinate clock depends. It is therefore unneces- 
sary to repeat the description of the various contrivances 
f»r this purpose by Wheatstone and others. 

The first person who succeeded in making one clock regu- 
late or govern others by electricity, Mr R. L. Jones, af«ord- 
ingly abandoned the idea of electrical driving of one clock 
by another; and instead of making the electrical connection 
with 3 standard clock (whether itself an electrical one or 
BOt) drive the others, he makes it simply let the pallets 
or the pendulum of the subordinate clock, driven by a 
weight or spring, be influenced by attraction at every beat 
of the standard clock ; and, by way of helping it, the 
pallets are made what we caUed half-dead in describing the 
dead escap«ment, except that they have no impulse faces, 
but the dead faces have just so much slope that they would 
'oTercome their own friction, and escape of themselves under 
the pressure of the clock train, except while they are held 
by the magnet, which is formed at every beat of the 
standard clock, or at every half-minute contact, if it is 
intended to work the dials by half-minute jumps. This 
plan has been extensively used for regulating distant clocks 
from Greenwieh Observatoiy. 

The first electrical clods, in the proper sense of'the term, 
were invented by Mr Bain in 1840, who availed himself 

Fio. 16.— Bain's Penijalum. 

tt the discovery of Oersted that a coil of insulated wirs 
in the form of a hollow cylinder is attracted in one 
direction or the other by a permanent magnet within the 
coil, not touching it, when the ends"of the coil are connected 
with the poles of a battery ; and if the connection is 
reversed, or the poles-changed, so that the current at one 
time goes one way through the coil from the - or copper 
plate to the + or zinc plate, and at other times the other 
way, the direction of the attraction is reversed. Mr Bain 
mtule the bob of his pendulum of such a coil enclosed in a 
biMS case so that it looked like a hollow brass cylinder 
lying horiaontal and moving in the direction of its own 
ails, and in that axis stood the ends of two permanent 
magnets with the north poles pointed at eachothsrand nearly 
touching, aa in the right hand part of fig. 1 6. The pendulum 
pushed a small sliding bar backwards and forwards so as 
to reverse the cnrrent through the coil as the pendulum 
passed the middle of the arc, and so caused each magnet 
tn tUTD to tttrsct the boU But this also failed practically, 

and especially in time-keeping, as might have been 
expected, from the friction and varying resistance of the 
bar to the motion of the pendulum, and in the attractions. 
Mr Ritchie of Edinburgh, however, has combined the 
principle of Bain's and Jones's clocks in a manner which is 
testified to be completely successful in enabling one 
standard clock to control and keep going any number of 
subordinate ones, which do not require vnnding up as 
Jones's do, but are driven entirely by their pendulums. 
This differs from Wheatstone's plan in this, that his subor- 
dinate clocks had no pendulum swinging naturally and 
only wanting its vibrations helping a little, but the pallets 
had to be made to vibrate solely by the electrical force. 
The figures are taken from Mr Ritchie's paper read before the 
Royal Scottish Society of Arts 
in 1873. The controlled pendu- 
lum P is that just now described 
as Bain's (seen in fig. 1 7 the other 
way, across the plane of vibra- 
tion) ; the rod and spring are 
double, and the wire cd is con- 
nected with one spring and rod 
(say the front one) and the wire 
d'e with the other ; so that the 
current has to pass down one 
spring and one rod and through 
the coil in the bob and up the 
other spring. The other pendu- 
lum O of the normal or standard 
clock is a common one, except 
that it touches two slight contact 
springs a, b alternately, and so 
closes the circuit on one side and 
leaves it broken on the other. 
When that f)endulum touches a 
the B battery docs nothing, and 
the - current from the battery A 
passes by a to c and d and down 
the d spring and rod and up through d' to e and bad 
again to -f of A. But when the standard pendulum C 
touches b the A battery does nothing, and the curren 
from - to -f of the B battery goes the other way, througl 
the controlled pendulum and its 
coil. The two fixed magnets SN, 
NS consequently attract the coil 
and bob each way alternately. And 
even if the current is occasionally 
weak, the natural swing of the pen- 
dulum will keep it going for a short 
time with force enough to drive 
its clock through a reversed escape- 
ment; and further, if that pendulum 
is naturally a little too fast or too 
slow the attraction from the stapdard 
pendulums will retard or accelerate 
it. In practice, however, it is found 
better not to make the contact by 
springs, which, however light, dis- 
turb the pendulum a little, but by a 
wheel in the train making and 
breaking contact at every beat; and 
if the clock has a gravity escape- 
ment there is no danger of this 
friction affecting the pendulum atall. 
In order to get the machinery into 
a smaller compass than a 39 inches pendulum requires, 
Mr Ritchie uses a short and slow pendulum with two bobs, 
one above and the other below the suspension, as shown 
in fig. 17. Such a pendulum, like a common scale-beam, 
may be made to vibrate as slow as you like by bringing 

Fia. 17. — Eitcliie's Pendulum. 

Fio. 18.— Ritchie's ElliptI' 
cal Escapement 



the suspemaicm nearer to tha centre of gravity of the whole 
mass. But they are quite unfit for independent clock 
pendulums, having very little regulating power, or what we 
may call force of vibration. He applies magnets to both 
the bobs, so as to double the electrical force. Fig. 17 
is the section across the plane of vibration. ■ 

Fig. 18 shows the kind of reversed escapement, or " pro- 
pelment," used with these short and slow pendulums. The 
pendulum here is returning from the extreme right, and 
has just deposited the right hand pallet BCD with its end 
D pressing on a tooth of the scape-wheel, but unable to 
turn it because another tooth is held by the stop O on the 
left pallet. As soon as the pendulum lifts that pallet the 
weight of the other pallet turns the whecl,until a tooth falls 
against the stop C. When the pendulum returns from 
the left the left pallet presses on a tooth at £ but cannot 
turn the wheel because it is yet held by C, until that is 
released. In order to prevent the hands being driven 
back by wind where they are exposed to it, a click is added 
to the teeth. The wind cannot drive the hands forward 
by reason of the stops C, O. 


, Sseing that a clock — at least the going part of it — is a 
machine in which the only work to be dune is the over- 
coming of its own friction and the resistance of the air, it 
is evident, that when the friction and resistance are much 
increased, it may become necessary to resort to expedients 
for neutralizing their eflfects which are not required in a 
•mailer machine with less friction. In a turret clock the 
friction is enormously increased by tha great weight of all 
the parts ; and the resistance of the wind, and sometimes 
anovv, to the motion of the hands, further aggravates the 
dilhculty of maintaining a constant force on the pendulum ; 
»nd besides that, there is the exposure of the clock to the 
dirt and dust which are always found in towers, and of the 
oil to a temperature which nearly or quite freezes it all 
through the usual cold of winter. This last circumstance 
ilone will generally make the arc of the pendulum at least 
half a degree more in summer than in winter; and inas- 
much as the time is materially affected by the force which 
irrives at the pendulum, as well as the friction on the 
pallets when it does arrive there, it is evidently impossible 
for any turret clock of the ordinary construction, especially 
with large dials, to keep any constant rate through the 
various changes of temperature, weather, and dirt, to which 
it is exposed. 

Within the last twenty years all the best clock- 
makers have accordingly adopted the four-legged or three- 
legged gravity escapement for turret clocks above the 
smullest size ; though inferior ones still persist in using the 
dead escapement, which is incapable of maintaining a con- 
stant rate under a variable state of friction, as has been 
shown before. When the Astronomer Royal in 1844 laid 
down thecondition for the Westminster clock that it was not 
to vary more than a second a day, the London Company of 
Clockmakers pronounced it impossible, and the late Mr 
Vulliamy, who had been for many years the best maker of 
largo clocks, refused to tender for it at those terms. The 
introduction of the gravity escapement enabled the largest 
and coarsest looking clocks with cast-iron wheels and pinions 
to go for long periods with a variation much nearer a 
second a week than a second a day. And the consequence 
was that the price for large clocks was reduced to about 
one-third of what* it used to be for an article inferior in 
performance though more showy in appearance. 

Another great alteration, made by the French clockmakers 
before ours, was in the shape and construction of the frame. 
Ji'he olu form of turret clock-frame was that of a large iron 

cage, of which some of the vertical bars take off, and are 
fitted with brass bushes for the pivots of the wheels t j run 
in ; and the wheels of each train, t'.;., the striking, tbn 
going, and the quarter trains, have their pivots all in the 
vertical bar belonging to that part. Occasionally they 
advanced so far as to make the bushes movable, i.e., fixed 
with screws instead of rivctted in, so that one wheel may 
be taken out without the others. This cage generally 
stood upon a wooden stool on the floor of the clock room. 
The French clockmakers long ago sart the objections to 
this kind of arrangement, and adopted the plan of a hori- 
zontal frame or bed, cast all in one piece, and with such 
smaller frames or cocks set upon it as might be required 
for such of the wheels as could not be conveniently got on 
the same level. The accompanying sketch (fig. 19) of the 

Fio. 19. — Clock at Meanwood Church, Leeds. 

clock of Meanwood church, near Leeds, one of the first en 
that plan, will sufficiently explain it. All the wheels of the 
going part, except the great wheel, are set in a separate 
frame called the movement frame, which is complete I'p 
itself, and light enough to take ofl' and carry away entire 
so that any cleaning or repairs required in the mostdehcate 
part of the work can be done in the clock factory, and the 
great wheel, barrel, and rope need never be disturbed at 
all. Even this movement frame is now dispensed with | 
but we will reserve the description of the still more simple 
kind of frame in which all the wheels lie on or under the 
great horizontal bed, until we have described train 

Train Hemmloires. 

Although the importance of these is lessened by the inventioa ol 
an effective gravity escapement, they are still occ-.sionally used, 
and are an essential part of the theory of clockmaking. It waa long 
ago perceived that all the variations of force, except friction of lh« 
pallets, might be cut off by making the force of the scape-wheel 
depend on a small weight or spring wound up at short interval* 
by the great clock weight and the train of wheels. -r ■ ( 

This also has the advantage of giving a sudden and visiH« 
motion to the minute hand at those interrals, say of half a minr.ts,' 
when tho remoiitoii-e work is let off, so that time may be taken 
from the minute hand of a large public clock as exactly as from th« 
ssconds hand of an astronomical clock ; and besides that, grea/er, 
accuracy may be obtained in tho letting off of the striking part. 
We believe the first maker of a large clock with a train remontoiro 
was Mr Thomas Reid of Edinburgh, who wrote the article 
on cloclm in the first edition of this Enrudopadia, which was after- 
wardA expanded into a well-known book, in which his remontoira 
was deacnbed. The scape-wheel was driven by a small weight hmg 
by a Huyghens's endless chain, of which one of the pulleys was 
6xed to the arbor, and the other roda upon the arbor, «i;h the 
pinion attached to it, and the pinion was driven and the weight 
wound up by the wheel below (which we will call the third 
wheel), as follows. Assuming the scape-wheel to turn in a minnte, 
its arbor has a notch £Ut naif through it on opposite sides in 
two places near to each other ; on the arbor of the wheel, which 
turns in ten minutes, suppose, there is another wheel with CJ 
spikes sticking out of its rim, but alternately in two different plar ci^ 
so that one set of spikes can only pass throuch one of the cr' :h<s 
in the ecape-wheel arbor, and the other pet onTv throughtb^ 'ther. 
Whenever then the scape-wheel completes a tialf Tjm, '^ut spifca 



"^he Royal Exchange clock was a^fi.t .ade in 18« 

en the same prmcple. "«P'„7';i,h the ^V^^^' ^«^ °" " 
chain, an internal wtcel "\\"^"'','"^ ^hidl an occasional 


10. 20.— Gravity Train Rcmontoiro. 

'minute, and e its pinion, which is driven by the wheel D having a 
pinion d driven by the wheel C, which we may suppose to turn in 
in hour The arbors of the scape-wheel and hour-wheel are distinct, 
their pivots meeting in a bush tuced somewhere between tbewhee s. 
The pivots of the wheel. D are set in the frame AP, which nJes 
on the arbors of the honr-wheeland scape-wheeU or on another short 
arbor between them. The hour-wheel also drives another wh«eU., 
which again drives the pinion/ on the arbor which carries the two 
»nn8/A,/Bi and on the same arbor is set a fly with a ratchet, 
like a common striking fly, and the numbers of the teeth are bo 
arranged that the fly wiU turn once for each turn of the Bcaiw- 
«heel The ends of the remontoire arms /A,/ B are capable of 
alternately passing tlie notches cnt half through the arbor of the 
»cape-wheel, as those notches successively come into the proper 
position at the end of every half minute ; as soon as that happens 
Uie hour-wheel raises the movable wheel D and lU frame throngu 
« small angle ; but nevertheless, that wheel keeps pressing on tne 
ecape-wheel a.', if it were not moving, the point of contact of the 
wheel C and the pinion d being the fulcrum or centre of motion ot 
the lever Ad P. 1 1 will be observed that the remontoire arms / A, 
/ B have springs set on them to diminish the blow on the scape- 
wheel arbor, as it is desirable not to have the fly so large as to make 
the motion of the train, and consequently of the hands, too slow to 
be distinct For the same reason it is Jiot desirable to drive the fly 
by an endless screw, as was done in most of the French clocks on 
this principle in the 1351 Exhibition. There is also an enormous 
loss of force by friction in driving an endless screw, and consequently 
considerable risk of the clock stopping either from cold or from 
wasting of the oil. . . i v 

Another kind of remontoire is on the pnnciple of one 
bevelled wheel lying between two others at right angles to it. 
The first of the bevelled wheels is dnven by the train, and the 
Ihird is fined to the arbor of the scape-wheel ; and the intermediate 
bevelled wheel, of any size, rides on its arbor at right angles to 
the other two arbors which are in the same line. The 
icape-wheel will evidently turn with the same average velocity 
•s the'first bevelled wheel, though the intermediate one may move 
ap and down at intervals. The transverse arbor which carries 
it is let off and lifted a little at half-minute irftervals. as m the 
temontoire just now described ; and it gradually works down as the 
•cape-wheel turns noder its pressure, until it is freed again and 
lifted by the clock train . 

. In all these gravity remontoires, however, it must have been 
•bserved that we only get rid of the friction of the hea»ry parts of 
the' train and the dial-work, and that the scape-wheel is still subject 
to the friction of the reronntoire wheels, which though much less 
llinn tht elUcr, it still something considanbhi. .\oi accordingly, 

attempts have freqnently been made to *"« *>>« "•''"'7'"'';';^^ 
spiral spring, like the n,a.nspr,ng o a watcK On;- o, ...^.^>sk 
descnbed m the 7th edition of this Encyclopadm . and bir O. Afr*. 
a few years ago. invented another on the same pnnciple. of whi.h 
nvoor^three specimens were made But it was founct, and indcrj 
t ought have been foreseen, that these contrivances were all 
defe" tive in the mode of attaching the by making another 
wheel or pinion ride on the arbor o! the ecape-whee which produ cd 
r very mischievous ffxtion, and so only mcreasedthe expense of iht 
click >Shout any corresponding advanwge; and the con-^cquence 
was thTt spnng rmontoires, ani remontoires in general, had come 
to be egarSedls a mere delusion. It has however now been fully 
proved fhat they are not so; for, by a very simple alteration n 
^he previous plans, a spiral spring remontoire may bo mndn to act 
w,th^bsolut«\y no friction, except that ol the scape-«lH;cl i.vo ts. 
Zr.A\\.^ iptiini-otr snrines A, B, in the last .Ira^mg. The Mcai- 
wood ctock ,fi|, ml^ t^e fi'rstof this kind ; but a « .11 be necessary 
to ffive a separate view of the remontoire work. 

fn the ne^xt figure >21), A. B, D. E.../ are the ""^^ t'""g» «? 
in fig 20. But «. the scape-wheel pinion, is no longer fixed t, h* 
arbor nor does it nde on the arbor, as had been the case n all the 
pre? ius spring remontoires, thereby producing probably more 
FncI on than wis saved in other respects ; but it ndes on a »tud *. 
which IS set m the clock-frame. On the face of the pinion is a nla « 
of which the only use IS to carry a pin ft (and 7"'3"'ly,'^ 
shape IS immaterial), and in front of the plate 'fj' ^ ""/' f; l^. 
a hole through it, of which half is occupied by 't^^.^"'' ,"f ^'^^^^f, 
I to which the bush IS fixed by a emaU pin, and the other halt « 
the mvot-hole for the scape-wheel arbor. On the arbor is set tho 
reL^nto're spring, .a , musical-box spnng IS senerall, 

used) of which the outer end | — . f-_ 

is bent into a loop to take p\ 
hold of the pin ft. In fact, 
there are two pins at ft. o»ie 
a little behind the other, 
to keep the coils of the 
spring from touching each 
other Now. it is evident 
that the spring may be 
wound up half or a quarter 
of a turn at the proper in- 
tervals without taking the 
force off the scape-wlieel, 
and- also without afl'ectiRg 
it try any friction whatever. 
When the scape-wheel turns 
in a minute, the letting-otf 
would be done as before 

described, by a couple of 

notches in tjie scape-wheel 

arbor, through which the 

spikes A, B, as in fig. 20. 

would pass alternately. But 

in clocks with only three 

wheels in the train it is best 

to make the scape-wheel 

turn in two minutes, and 

consequently you would 

want four notches and four 

remontoire arms, and the 

fly would only make a 

quarter of a turn. And 

Fife. 21. 

therefore Sir E. Beckett, who invented this remontoire, maae th^ 
foUowTg provision for diminishing the friction of the letting-oS 
work. The fly pinion/ has only half the number of teeth of the 
rcape-wheet pinion, being a lante'rn rinion of 7 or 8, -h.le the other 
is a leaved pinion of 14 or 16, and therefore the same wheel D wil 
properiy drive both, as will be seen hereafter. The scape-wnee 
arbOT endsin a cylinder about | inch in diameter, with two notchci 
at right angles cut in its face.'one of them "^'«>« «°<i ^eep and 
the Ither b?oad and shaUow, so that a long and thin pin B can pa« 
only through one, and a broad and short jun A through the other 
Consequently, at each quarter of a turn of the scape-wheel, the 
remontoire flv, on which the pms A, B are set on springs, as in fig. 
2oTn urn half round. It is set on its arbor/by a square ratchet 
and dU"™hich enables you to ad.,ust the spnrg to the requisite 
tension t^ obtain the proper vibration of the pendulum. A 
Ser constTction, afterwar'ds introdured. is to make the fly separate 
from the letting-ofl- arms, whereby the blow on the cylinder is dimi. 
r^TsheJ the flviing allowed to g^ on as in the pa^aty escapement 

The performance of this is so much '^°"f ''^'f '»^„V\Te RovS 
the oravitv remontoires, that Mr Dent altered that of the Koyai 
Excf Sige to a spriog o^e in 1854, which had the effect of reducing 
th^ cl^ck-weight hi'?ne-thiid, besides improWng the rate of going. 
tshoK observed. howeVer, that even «.»P""S„J,""\"*?'2 
"quires a larger <«*ight than 'he f'ne clock without one but^ 
none of that additional force i-eaches the pewiuliim, that K of bo 



eonscqnence. Tlie variaiiuu of force of the reraontoire :p;>bK 
torn temperature, as it only alTects tho pendulum through 
the medium of tdc dead escapement, is far too small to produce 
toy appreciable efl'cct; and it is found that clockj of this 
kind, with a compensated pendulum 8 feet long, and of 
ftbout 2 cwt., will not vary above a second a month, if the 
pallets are kept clean and well oiled. No turret clock without 
cither a train rcmontoirc or a gravity escapement will approach that 
decree of accuracy. Tho King's Cross clock, which was the first 
of this kind, went with a variation of about a second in three weeks 
in the 1851 E.vhibitioo, and has sometimes gone for two months 
without any discoverable error, though it wants the jewelled pallets 
which tho Exchange clock has. But these clocks require more care 
than gravity escapement ones, and are certain to bes]ioilt aasoon as 
they get into or caielcss hands; and conscfiuently tho 
gravity ones have superseded thenr. 

The introduction of this remontoire led toanotber very important 
alteration in the construction of large clocks. Hitherto it 
ilways been considered necessary, with avicw to diminish the friction 
as far as possible, to make the wheels of brass or gun-metal, with 
the teeth cut in an engine. Tho French clockmakcrs had begun to 
tiso cast-iron striking part.^i, and cast-iron wheels had been oc- 
casionally used in the going part of inferior clocks for the sake of 
cheapness ; but they had never been used in any clock making 
pretensions to accuracy before the one just mentioned. Inconse- 
quence of the success of that, it was determined by the astronomer 
royal and Mr Denison, who were jointly consulted by the Board of 
Works about the great Westminster clock in 1S5'2, to alter the ori- 
ginal rcquisitiou for gnu. metal wheels there to cast-iron. Some 
'persons expressed their apprehension of iron wheels rusting ; but 
oothing can be more I'nfounded, for the non-acting surfaces arc 
Bhvays painted, and the acting surfaces oiled. A remarkable proof 
of the folly of the clockmakers'denunoiationsof thecast-iron wheels 
was afforded at the Royal K\chaii"c the next year. .In consequence 
of the bad ventilation of the clocK-room, together with the efVL'cts 
of the London atmosphere, somo thin parts of the brass work had 

become so much corroded that they hod to be renewed, and iome ol 
it was replaced with iron ; for all the polished iron and braac work 
had become as rough as if it had never been polished at all ; the 
only parts of the clock which had not gnffered from the damp and 
the bad air were tho painted iron work- The room was also venti- 
lated, with a draught through it, and all the iron work, except 
acting surfaces, painted. Even in the most favourable positions 
brass or gun-metal loses its surface long before cast-iron wonts 

There is, however, a curious point to i.c aiieuucd to in using casl-' 
iron wheels. They must drive cast-iron pinions, for they will wear 
out steel. The smaller wheels of the going part may be of brass 
driving steel pinions ; but the whole of tne striking wheels and 
pinions may be of iron. A great deal of nonsense is talked abciit 
gun-metal, a3 if it was necessarily superior to brass. The be-^t gun- 
metal may be, and is, for wheels which are too thick to hammer; 
but there is great variety in the quality of gun-metal; it is often 
unsound, and has hard and soft places ; and, on the whole, it bai 
no advantage over good brass, when not too thick to be hammered. 
In clocks made under the pressure of competing tenders, if the braa 
is likely not to be hammered, the gun metal is quite ns likely to be 
the cheapest and the worst possible, like everything else which is 
always specified to be "best," astheclockmakers know very well that 
it is a hundred to one if anybody sees their work that can tell the 
difference between the best and the worst. 

Turret Clocks with Oravily Escapement, j 

Fig. 22 is a front view of a large quarter clock of Sir E. Beckett'j 
design, with all the wheels on the great horizontal bed, a gravity 
escapement, and a compensated pendulum. They are made in two 
sizes one with tho great striking wheels 18 inches wide, at*-! the 
other 1 4. The striking is done by cams cast on tho great wheels, 
about IJ inchbroad in the large-sized clocks, which are strong enough 
for an hour bell of thirty cwt., and corresponding quarters. Wire 
ropes are used, not only because they last longer, if kept greased. 

Fio. 22. — Front view 

but because a sufficient number of coils will go on a barrel of less 
than half the length that would be required for hemp ropes of the 
tamo s'rencth, without overlapping, which it is as well to o.oid, if 
possible, though it is not so injurious to wire ropes as it is- 
to hemp one.i. By this means also the striking cams can be 
put on the great wheel, instead of the second wheel, which 
eaves more in friction than could be imagined by any ne who 
bad not tried liolli. In clocks of the common construction two. 
thirds of the rower is often wasted in friction and in the bad 
arrangement of tho hammer work, and the clock is wearing itself 
out in doing nothing. 

The same number of cams are given here to the quarter as to the 
hour-striking wheel, rather for the purpose of suggesting the expedi- 
ency of oraittingthe4tbquarter, ashasbeen done inmany clocksmade 
from this design It is of no use to strike ding-dong quarters at the 
hour, and it nearly doubles the work to be done; and if it is 
omitted it allows the bells to be larger, and therefore louder, becau.'se 
Ih.e 1st quarter bell ought to be an octave above the hour bell, if are struck at the hour ; whcrons, if they are not heard together 
tue quarters may be on the 4th and 7lh of a (teal of eight bells. 

of Turret Quarter Clock. 

Moreover, the repetition of the four ding-dong) can give no musiyl 
pl'flsure to any one. — 

The case is different with the Cambridge aivl V.'«tminsterquartei 
chimes on 4 bells, and the chime at the hour is the most lompleta 
and pleasing of all. It is singular that those beautiful chimes 
(which are partly attributed to Handel) had been heard by thousands 
of men scattered all over England for 70 years before any one thought 
of copying them, but since they were introduced by Sir E. Beckett 
in the great Westminster clock, on a much larger scale and with a 
slight difference in the intervals, they have been copied very exten- 
sively, and are already almost as numerous in new clocks as the old- 
fashioned ding-dong quarters. Pwperly, as at Cambrid :o aitl 
Westminster, the hour bell should be an octave be'owthe tgird f r 
largest but one) quarter bell; but as the interval betw>"n tie 
quarters and hour is alw.ays considerable, it is practically fou;id tl. i 
the ear is not offended by a less interval. At Worcester cathe>iral the 
great 44 ton hour bell is only 14 notes below the 50 cwt. tenor bell 
of the peal, which is made the fourth quarter bell ; and at i073» 
other pl.iccs the n.iirters are the 2d, 3d, 4lb, and Tth of a peal ef 3, 
and the hour bell the Sih. Thereby you ^et more powerrai as4 




ad, Id. and 6th of » peal of 6-uidependent of the hour Deu , ^^ 
the following is their arrangement :— 

i2d I ''-* ' 
•''' \ 321 3 

123ti let 

-WegtminstCT twice, which " ™**>"J<^, '"^ Vhicl. sounds the best. 
Md most of the later Urge '^^'x^l^;* ^'^^'^'^i ^mX^ twice in 

Cp^, wSddrequ^acr<^k weight of 15 cwt., ^th a clear f^ 


docW^dap^ for such weights as these ; and ^thout aWanc« 
of steenethld great sixe in aU the parte, it would be ^^^'^ f. 
« f™ ^R7,t ff tlie atrikine parts are made to wind up every day, 
of course fthof'tle^wdgh^ will do; and you may We a more 
^S cl.xk in effect, A a safer one to manage, in haU the coin. 
S aSd to much les^ cost. Churches with such IfUf,^^*/^^^ 

"^r\^?rel?:id ^'srep^vision for holding the hammerso^^^^^^^ 
beiirwhiJe ringing, and at the same time a fnchon-spnng or weight 
ehould be brol«ht to bear on the fly arto, to compen^te Jor ^h^ 
temoval of the weight of the hammers ; otherwise there is a nsk ot 
thTtSn runnine too fast and being broken when it is stopped. 

Vo narto^nmnber of cams is%equired in the strifang wheel ; 

r-o P»™™i" ""r 20 ^u do • but when four quarters on two 
SLTused tte quSte^^g'wbeel should hav\ half as many 
^Z a.a"n ^' the hour-wheel ; for, if not, the rope will go a second 
ti^ o?eJ h3f of the barrel, as there are 120 blows on each quarter 
Ktte 12 huurs to 78 of the hours, while .with tie three quarte^ 

thera are only 72. !f the two quarter levers are on the same arbor, 
'^^ Tust bl t.0 sets of camsrone on each side of ^e -heel ; b^t 
one set will do, and the same wheel as the hour-wheel, if they are 
X^ ^ fig- 23. The hour-striking lever, it will be seen, u 
Serently rfiaLld, so as to diminish the pressure on its arbor by 
SakSe t only the di^erence, instead of the sum, of the pressures at 
Sr^f poi^tJof action. This can he done with the two quarter 
levera alXwn in the R^<7n,.ntary Treat^t: but the arrangement 
'■Sefalooddilof extra work, and as the quarter hamrners are 
Sways lighteTthan the hour one, it is hardly worth while to resort 
foT xfe^ape of the cams .s a matter reqmrmg ^°°>« ^ttonhon 
bnt it will be mVe properly considered when we come to the, teeth 
,;lLr ^e 4th ^u^er'bell in the Cambridge "d ^e^^" 
quarters should have' two hammers and sets of o^."".' '""f'L^^^f 
?be others, acting alternately, on account of the quick repetition of 

* The°fly ratchets should not be made of cast-iron, as they some- 
times are by clockmakers who wiU not use «f '"'f"" '^f,"^ °J° ""J 
account, because the teeth get broken off by the cbck. 1 his break- 
ing may perhaps be avoided by making the t«t>>jectangular, like a 
number oTinverted Vs set round a circle, and the cbck o«ly "«^h- 
ing so far that the face of the tooth which it touches is »' jng" 
angles to the click; but, as before observed, cast-iron and steel do 

not work well together. Tri"~i,or. 

r.,e bamtner ot a Urge clock ought to be left " on the lift, when 
the clock bss done striking, if the first blow is to be struck 
exactly at the hour, as there are always a good many 
» lost in the tr^in getting into action and raismg the 
hammer. Moreover, when it stops on the lift, the pressure on the 

stoDS. and on all the pinions above the great wheel, is oj^yj^'^ 
^nftoThe «c^ of the power of the clock over the weight of th* 

"Tn'fia 22 the wheel marked 60 in each ot the striking parts is a 

ncfded Butin that case the locking-plate must be dr ven b a 

,f possible ; for the shorter they are, the more -^ '"^t by J^^^^jJ 
of Lclination for »"y^g?;'=° Xmmer head^s set onTdoube shank 

w^ich ma\es the hammer strike at ^„Y°°? "',f^^'i,^3f„rthe rise is 
of the beU, a httle below the top ^n this p^an^ess^tne r 
lost than in the common mode of fixing. The Westminsier tiu 
hammers are all fixed in this way. j^ , 

Vertical Provided it is only m a vertical plane paraUe to Uie wall 
or the teeth Jf the beveUed wheels adapted to the mcbnation the 
d may sLd as obliquely as you P'^'^'. m if^Uh u^vll^ 
ought on no account to be made, as it g'=°"='"A'^; J'f.i^'^a 
ioSts but the pivots shouldgo into oblique pivot-holes at t^e top aca 
iottom The loints increase the friction considerably, and are ot 

and fupported on corWs - -™ ^--l^.a^thelloTTramV; but 
the practice to hang t^e p«na"J™ ^j^^^., fee thinner than 

inasmuch as the rope of the |Oing P^t maj .y 

we are descnb ng. T be ^acE pi ^ | ^^^ ^^^^ ^f 

bushes in an intermediate bar. 'breeor lour men 

''^,i"^^-r:"'TbeTendrm' c'l.k'.rsrt'oL'^h™ back frame 
f.d''tlf;3umL\rv:^^.ni.. And^the^a^^^^^^^^ 

Ssr^t^'b?a|:^p:rtortc.o the pcnd,,,um. 

cock. The beat-pins should be of b",^'^ "°,'^^";^;„, ^ fig. oj j, 

r^v^n^nXfoVJ^^: ^resTnt foJ^f '4ei ^^^^ " given ^ 

fi? '•'• , ,-,. ..ill ^r-rve for a dead escapement 

The same general .irrangcnuat »U1 serve lor 

C L C K S 


tJocV trith cr irithout a tiain rLiDoutoire ; only the peudulum will 
Dot stAud so high, and the front end of thti pallet arbor must be 
set in a cocL liWe those of the stnkuip flies, on the front bar of the 
frame. Ajid for a dead escapement, if there arc iarge dials and no 
remontoire, the pendulum uhould be longer and hcnner than that 
which ie quite suQicient for a grarity escapement. The rod of a 
vooden jacndulum should be as thin as it can conveniently be made, 
kud Tamiahed, to prevent its absorbing moisture. 

Dials and Hands. 

Th« old established form of dial for turret clocks is a sheet of 
copper made convex, to preserve its shape; and this is just the 
worat form which could have been contrived for it. For, in the lirst 
place, the m::iuie'hand, being neceasarily outside of the hour>hand, 
is thrown stiil farther off the minntes to which it has to point, by 
the convexity of the dial ; and consequently, wlieu it is in any [losi- 
tion except nearly vertical, it' is impossible to see accurately where 
it 13 pointing ; and if it is bent enough to avoid this effect of 
parallai, it looks very ill. Secondly, a convex dial at. a consider- 
able height from the ground looks even more convex than it really 
is, because the lines of sight from the middle and the top of the 
dial make a smaller angle with the eye than the lines from the 
iiiiildlc and the bottom, in proportion to the degree of convexity. 
The obvious remedy for these defects, is simply to make the dial 
concave instead of convex. As convex dials look more curved than 
tbev are, concave ones look less curved than they are, and in fact 
might easily be taken for flat ones, though the curvature is exactly 
the same as usual. Old convex dials are easily altered to concave, 
and the Improvement is very striking where it has been done. 
There is no reason why the same form should not be adopted in 
stone, cement, sKite, or cast-iron, of which materials dials are some- 
times and properly enough made, with the middle part countersunk 
for the hour hand, so that the minute-hand may go close to the 
figures and avoid parallax. When diab are large, copper, or even 
iron or slate, is quite a useless expense, if the stonework is moder- 
fttelv smooth, as most kinds of stone take and retain paint very 
well, and the gilding will stand upon It better than it often does on 
co(|i>er or iron. 

The 6gures are generally made much too large. People have a 
pattern dial painted ; and if the 6gures are not as long as one-third 
of the radius, and therefore occupying, with the minutes, about two. 
thirds of the whole area of the dial, they fancy they are not large 
enough to be at a distance; whereas the fact is, the more the 
dial is oc'-'upied by the figures, the less distinct they are, and the 
more difficult it is to distinguish the position of the hands, wh.'ch 
IS what people really want to see, and net to read the figures, which 
may very well be replaced by twelve large spots. The figures, 
after all, do not mean what they say, as you read " twenty minutes 
to" something, when the minute-hand points to viii. The rule 
which has been adopted, after various experiments, as the best for 
the proportions of the dial, is this. Divide the radius into three, 
and leave the inner two-thirds clear end flat, and of some colour 
forming a strong contrast to the colour of the hands, black or dark 
blue if tbey are gilt, and white if they are black. The figures, 
:f there are any, should occupy the next two-thirds of the remaining 
third, and the minutes be set in the remainder, near the edge, and 
with every fifth minute more strongly marked than the rest ; and 
there should n>i( be a nm round the dial of the same colour or 
gilding as the figures. The worst kind of dial of all are the things 
:;ji!led fikeleton-dials, which either have no middle except the stone- 
work, forming no contrast to the hands, or else taking special 
trouble to perplex the spectator by filling up the middle with 
radiating Kirs. Where a dial cannot be put without interfering 
with the architecture, it is much better to have none, as is the case 
in many cathedrals and large churches, leaving the information to 
be given by the striking of the hours and quaners. This also will 
3:ive something, perhaps a good deal, m the size and cost of the 
;-lock, and if it is one without a train reraontoire or gravity cscape- 
oiint, will enable it to go belter. The size of public dials is ofun 
f pry inadequate to their height and the distance at which they are 
:'.r.t»nded to be seen. They ought to be at least 1 foot in diameter 
for every 10 feet of height above the ground, and more whenever the 
dial will be seen far ofl , and this rule ought to be enforced on archi- 
tects, as they are often not aware of it ; and indeed they seldom 
make proper provisions for the clock or the weights in building a 
tower, or, m short, know anything about the matter. 

The art of illuminating dials cannot Ixi said to be in a satisfactory 
state. Whole there hapjiens to be, as there seldom is, a projecting 
roof at some little distance below the dial, it may be illuminated 
by reflection, like that at the Horse Guards — about the only merit 
which that siiperstitiously venerated and bad clock has ; and the 
•ame thing may be done in some places by movable lamp reflectors, 
like those put before shop windows at night, to be' turned back 
against the wall during the day.' It has also been proposed to sink 
the dial within the wall, and illuminate rt by jeu of gas pointing 
iiiwnrds from a kind of projecting rim, like what is railed in church 
windows a " bocumciddiug," carried all round, tiu*. It i^- a great 

objection to sunk dials, even of leu ccptn man wouiu ue required 
here, that they do not receive light enough by day, and dt i>"t get 
tbeir faces washed by the rain. The common mode of illumina- 
iiou id by making the dials either entirely, or all except the figures 
.ind minutes and a nog to carry them, of glass, eithef ground or 
lined m the inside with linen (paint loses its colour from the gu). 
The gas is kept always alight, but the clock is made to turn it nearly 
off and full on at the proper times by a 24-hour wheel, with pins 
set in it by hand as the length of the day vanes. Self-acting 
apparatus has been applied, but it is somewhat complicated, and an 
unnecessary expense. But these dials always look very ill by day ; 
and it seems olten to be forgotten that dials are wanted much more 
by day than by night ; and also, that the annual expense of lighting 
3 or 4 dials far exceeds the interest of the entire cost of any 
ordinary clock. Sometimes it exceeds the whole cost of the clov-k 
annually. The use of white opaque glass with black figure! 
IS very superior to the common method. It is used in the 
great Westminster clock diils. It is somewhat of an objection to 
illuminating large dials from the inside, that it makes it impossible 
to counterpoise the hards outside, except with very short, and there- 
fore very heavy, counteqioises. And if hands are only counterpoised 
inside, there is no counterpoise at all to the force ot the wind, which 
is then constantly tending to loosen them on the arbor, and that 
tendency is aggravated by the hand itself pressing on the arbor one 
way as it ascends, and the other way as it descends; and if a large 
hand once gets in the smallest degree loose, it becomes rapidly worse 
by the constant shaking. It is mentioned in Reid's book that tho 
mmute-hand of St Paul a cathedral, which is above 8 feet long, used 
to fall over above a minute as it passed from the left to the right 
side of XII, before it was counterpoised outside. In the conditions 
to be followed in tho Westminster clock it was expressly requirtii 
that "the hands-be counterpoised externally, for wind as well as 
weight." The long hand should be straight and plain, to distinguish 
ifas much as possible from the hour hand, which should end in a 
" heait" or swell. Many clockmakers and architects, on the con- 
trary, seem to aim at making the hands as like each other as they 
can ; and it is not uncommon to see even the counterpoises gilt, 
probably with the same object of producing apparent symmetry and 
the same result of producing real confusion. 

The ...d fashion of having chimes or tunes played by machinery 
on church bells at certain hours of the day has greatly revived in 
the last few years, and it has extended to tomi halls, as also that 
of having very large clock bells, which had almost become extmct 
until the making of the Westminster clock. The old kind of chime 
machinery consisted merely of a large wooden barrel about 2 feet in 
diameter with pins stuck in it like those of a musical box, which 
pulled down levers that lifted hammers on the bells. Generally 
there were several tunes " pricked " on the barrel, which had an 
endway motion acting automatically, so as to make a shift of ter each 
tune, and with a special adjustment by hand to make it play a 
psalm tune on Sundays. But though these tunes were very pleasing 
and popularin the places where such chimes existed they were generally 
feeble and irregular, because the pins and levers were not strong 
enough to lift hammers of suflicient weight for the large bells, and 
there were no means of regulating the time of dropping off the 
levers. Probably the last large chime work of this kind was that 
put up by Bent to play on 18 bells at the Royal Exchange in 
1845, with the improvement of a cast-iron barrel and stronger pins 
than in the old wooden barrels. 

A much improved chime machine has been introduced since, at 
first by an inventor named ImboS', who sold his patent, or the 
right to use it, to llessrs Gillstt and Bland of Crovdon, and also to 
Messrs Lund and Blockley of Pall Jlall, who tave both added 
further improvements of their own. The principle of it is this : 
instead of the hammers being lifted by the pins which let them off, 
they are lifted whenever they are down by an independent set of cam 
wheels of ample strength ; and all that the pins on the barrel have 
to do is to trip them- up by a set of comparatively light levers or 
detents. Consequently the pins are as small as those of a barrel 
organ, and many more tunes can be set on the same barrel than in 
the old plan, and besides that, any number of barrels can be kept, 
and put in from time to time as you please ; so that you may have 
as many tunes as the peal of bells wtII admit. There are various 
provisions for regulating and adjusting the time, and the machinery 
IS altogether of a very perfect kind for its purpose, bnt it must ho 
seen to be understood. 

It is always necessary in chimes to have at least two hammers to 
each bell to enable a note to be repeated quickly. Some ambitious 
musicians determined to try "chords ' or double notes struck at 
once, in spite of warning that they could not be made to strike quit* 
simultaneously, and so it turned out, and it is useless to attempt 
them. The largest peals and chimes yet made have been at Wor- 
cester cathedral, ana the town halls of Bradf'^rd end F.ochdale, and 
a still larger one is now makiug for Manchester, all by GiUeit and 
Bland. The clock at Worce.<!tcr, which as yet ranks next to We.'i- 
minster, was made by Mr Joyce of Whitchurch ; the othere 47.- Lj 
Oillctt and Bland. At Boston chorch they have chunos id iuit*- 



tion of some of the foreign ones on abore 40 saall bells, which were 
■lided for that purpose to the eight of the [wal ; but they are not 
rucceesful, and it is stated in Sir E. Beckett's book on clocks and 
bells, that he warned them that the large and small bells would not 
iunnonizo, though cither might he used separately. Other persons 
hftTO attempted chimes on heniisplierical bells, like those of house 
docks ; but they also are a failure for external bells to be heard at 

• distance. Tliisjiowever belonm rather to the subject of bells ; and 
w« must refer to that book for all practical information about them. 

Teeth of Wheels. 

Before explaining the construction of the largest clock in the 
world it is necessary to consider the shape of wheel teeth suitable for 
rtifferent purposes, and also of the cams requisite to raise heavy 
hammers, which had been too much neglected by clockmakers pre- 
viously. At the same time we are not going to write a treatise on 
ftU the branches of the important subject of wheel-cutting ; but, 
SMnming a knowledge of the general principles of it, to apply them 
to the points chiefly involved in clock-making. The most compre- 
hensive mathematical view of it is perhaps to be found in a paper 
by the astronomer royal in the Cavibridge Transactions many years 
170, which is further expanded in Professor Willis's Principles of 
Mechanism. Respecting the latter book, however, we should advise 
the reader to be content with the mathematical rules there given, 
which are very simple, without attending much to those of the 
rdoKtograph, which seem to give not less but more trouble than 
the mathematical, and are oiily approximate after all, and also do 
•lot explain themselves, or convey any knowledge of the principle 
to those who use them. 

For all wheels that are to work together, the first thing to do is 
to fix the geometrical, or primitive, or pitch circles of the two wheels, 
»'.«., the two .circles which, if they rolled perfectly together, would 
give the velocity-ratio you want. Draw a straight line joining the 
two centres ; then the action which takes place between any two 
t*eth aa they are approach! ng that line is said to be before the line of 
centres ; and the action while they are separating is said to be after 
the line of centres. Now, with a view to reduce the friction, it is 

• ixentiil to have as little action before the line of centres as you 
< an ; for if you make any rude sketch, on a large scale, of a pair of 
Kbeels acting together, and serrate the edges of the teeth (which is 
tn exaggeration of the roughness which produces friction), you will 
i>«e that the further the contact begins before the line of centres, the 
.tore the serration will iuterfere with the motion, and that at a 
oertain distance no forc^ whatever could drive the wheels, but 
wocjd only jam the teeth faster ; and you will see also that this can- 
not happen after the line of centres. But with pibions of the 
numbers generally used in clocks you cannot always get rid, of 
action before the line of centres; for it may be proved (but the 

firoof is too long to give here), that if a pinion has less than II 
eaves, no wheel of any number of teeth can drive it without some 
action before the line of centres. And generally it may be stated 
th«t the greater the number of teeth the less friction there will be, 
u indeed is evident enough from considering that if the teeth were 
infinite in number, and infinitesimal in size, there would be no 
friction at all, but simple rolling of one pitch circle on the other. 
And since in clock-work the wheels always drive the pinions, except 
the hour pinion in the dial work, and the winding pinions in large 
clocks, it has long been recognized as important to have high num- 
bered pinions, except where there is a train remontoire, or a gravity 
cecapement, to obviate that necessity. 

And with regard to this matter, the art of clock-making has in 
one sense retrograded ; for the pinions which are now almost univer- 
sally used in EngUsh and French clocks are of a worse form tha'n 
those of several centuries ago, to- which we have several times 
alluded under the name of lantern pinions, so called from their ro- 
wmbling a lantern with upright ribs. A sketch of one, with a 
«ro3S section on a large scale, is given at fig. 24. Now it is a property 
ftf these pinions, that when they are driven, the action begins just 
when the centre of the pin is on the line of centres, however few 
the pins may be ; and thus the action of a lantern pinion of 6 is 
about equal to that of a leaved, pinion of 10 ; and indeed, f6r some 
reason or other, it appears in practice to be even better, possibly 
from the teeth of the wneel not requiring to be cut so accurately, 
and from the pinion never getting clogged with dirt. Certainly the 
nmning of the American clocks, which all have these pinions, is 
remarkably smooth, and they require a much smaller going weight 
than English clocks ; and the same may be said of the common 
"Dutch," ».«., German clocks. It should be understood, however, 
that as the action upon these pinions is all after the line of centres 
when they are driven, it will be all before the line of centres if they 
drive, and therefore they are not suitable for that purpose. In 
•ome of the French clocks in the 1851 Exhibition they were wrongly 
nsed, not only for the train, but for winding pinions ; and some of 
them also had the pins not fixed in the lantern, but rolling, — a very 

• Cfel-ies Tefinc-meDt, and consitlerably diminishing the strength of the 
Fuion. For It is one of the advantogeaof lantern pinions with Gzcd 

pins, that they are very strong, and there is no risk of their boinf 
broken in hardening, as there is with common pinions. i 

The fundamental rule for the tracing of teeth, though very 
simple, is not so well known as it ought to bt, and therefore we will 
give it, preuiisingthatsomuch of a toothaslieswithiu the pitch 
of the wheel is called its root OT fiank, and the part beyond thc' 
pitch circle is called ihepoint, or the carve, or the addendum; and 
moreover, that before the line of centres the action is always 
between the' flanks of the driver and the points of the driven wheel 
or runner (as it may be called, more appropriately than the usual 
i^Tmfolloiver); and after the line of centres, the action is always 
between the points of the driver and the (lanksof the runuer. Con- 
sequently, if there is no action before the line of centres, no points 
are required for the teeth of the runner 

In fig. 2.'^, let AQ.\ be the pitch ciicle of the runner, and AFV 
that of the driver; and let GAP be any curve whatever of smaller, 
curvature tliau AQ.K (of course a 
circle is always tlie kind of curve 
used); and QP the curve which is 
traced out by any point P in the gene- 
rating circle G.M', as it rolls in. the 
pitch circle AQX; and agjin let UP 
be the curve traced by the point P, as 
the generating circle GAP is rolled on 
the pitch circle ARY ; then RP will 
be the form of the point of a tooth on 
the driver ARY, which will drive with 
uniform and proper motion the flank 
QPof the runner; though not without 
some f'"ictiou, because that can only 
be done with involute teeth, which are 
traced in adilTerentway, and are subject 
to otherconditions, rendering them practically useless for machinery, 
as may be seen in Professor Willis's book. If the motion is 
reversed, so that the runner becomes the driver, then the flank QP 
is of the proper form to drive the point RP, if any action has to 
take place before the line of centres. 

And again, any generating curve, not 'even necessarily the sa"no 
as before, may be used to trace the flanks of the driver and the 
points of the runner, by being rolled within the circle ARY, end on 
the circle AQ.X. 

Now then, to apply this rule to particular cases. Suppose tli» 
generating circle is the same as the pitch circle of the driven pinioD 
itself, it evidently can- ^ 

not roll at all ; and 
the tooth of the pinion 
is Apresented by the 
mere point P on the 
circumference of the 
pitch circle ; and the 
tooth to dtivo it will 
be simply an epicycloid 
traced by rolling the 
pitch circle of the 
pinion on that of the 
wheel. And we know 
that in that case thee 
is no action before 
the line of centres, 
and no necessity for 
any flanks on the teeth 
of the driver. But' in- 
asmuch as the pins 
of a lantern pinion 
must have some thick- 
ness, and cannot be 
mere lines, a further 
p.rocess is necessary to 
get the exact form of 
the teeth; thus if IIP, 
fig. 24, is the tooth 
that would drive a pinion with pins of no sensible thickness, th? 
tooth to drive a pin of the thickness 2 Vp must have the width P 
or Rr gauged off it aU round. This, in fact, brings it very nearly 
to a smaller tooth traced with the same generating circle ; and 
therefore in practice this mode of construction is not much adhered 
to, and the teeth are made of the same shape, ouly thinner, as if 
the pins of the pinion had no thickness. Of course they should be 
thin enough to allow a little shake, or "back-lash," but iu 
clock-work the backs of the teeth never come in contact at all. 

Next suppose the generating circle to be half the size of the pitch 
circle of the pinion. The curve, or hypocycloid, traced by rolling 
this within the pinion, is no other than the diameter of the pinion ; 
and consequently the flanks of the pinion teeth will be merely radii 
of it, and such teeth or leaves are called radial teeth ; and they are 
fai- the most common ; indeed, no others are ever made (except Ian- 
terui) for clock-work. The corresponding epicycloidsj pomtaof 

Flo. 24. — LaDlcrn Pinion. 



\t"JeTin fig «\'rT;^e'"ra"diiro«at form „a tl^o^pos'te 

?i(lc3 of the line of centres 

CA, in order to show the 

dilfercnce bet\5eca(l ruing 

and drivcaor ninning 

te«th, where the numbir 

of the pinion b^iipcns to 

be as much as l'-', so that 

no points arc rtquircd 

its teah when driven^ 

since with that number 

all tlio action may be 

«ftcr the line of centres. 
/The great Westnunster 

clock Affords a very good 

illustration of this, in 

both the l'"j^",?,r"vL:„ and the gVdat wiuding-whoel on the 

thereat wheel ol the train annum b_v ,^^ ^^^^^ in the train 

iber ._' .^< 

Fig. 25 

the great wheel oi me ,'•""'',';"" •■:{;°,ame size ; but in the train 
oihe'I- end of .the l"";'- ,"«■ " ™^ Z pi"fon drives. And there- 
tlie wheel drives, and ui .^™1' ? ^aJ their points' cut off. and 
fore in the train * '«. l''°'°°f f ' ^*;r, the rifht side of fig. 25. 
vheel-teeth '■^^■".'''"^PT^L "obverse ; and'thus in both cases 
and in the winding-wheeLs the ~"^"'^^.' ^ „hi,h there is the 
?fe action ii made to t^l^.^ P^^ following table, "derived organi- 
least friction W.U.s 6" "J '^^ J—J^els^ of the least nun.bers 
cally" (i-C; by ?'='"^\*C Tithout anv action before the line of 

■ inpractice it is ^^ilg:^^^!^^^^'^ 
fohA unless the numbe.s ^J 8''"^ '„^^'','d„„ of those teeth would 
\s any irregularity in t?'^'"; ''"l/^^f.^o't the driver. Sometimes it 
not work smoothly with the teeth o^ the i^jons.of different 

happens that the same w^heel has to ^rue t P ^^^^ .^.^^^ 
numbers. It is evident that > b<"l a^^ Ian W ^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^,^^^,_ radialteeth, they cannot propeily be an « 3, ^^ .^ ^^^ 

because they «•<>"" [^^"''■\i''^dtL*re„c of "antern pinions to the 
that on account of the S^.<^';«" 'f 'T^.fthem. the same wheel will 
accuracy of the teeth w^.ch l'^l°^^X„'^^ the numbers in the 
drive two pmions o \^ ^'^''^^^iC^^rcnsible shake; but that 
rario of even 2 to 1. ^"tf ("^^'y \^^ of course it is not correct. 
,.ouldnotbesowithra.halpn.on^^^^^^^^ ^ ,„ g 2i. 

Jn clonic; of the same 5°"/7^'^Xren[tmdVwtch cannot be so 
Binsterclock thereisacaseof adllerentk . ^^.^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

accommodated ; for there the great wnee ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^ „^ 43 . 
second wheel s pinion »« l^ °' V^ „''^^ Vre made to suit the lantern 
the teah of the great wheel ""« *f ,7'° 'Xij flunks) then depend 
pinion, and those of the ^o^-^'l^eel ( ... the r^^^^^^^ ^P^^j 

those of the g'^L\t Jj*", • r'^„r\L size of the lantern 

proved thatepWcloidal c-s dcscriKd « f^U«w^ «. ^-^J^T 
^f the proper "f em^^fom tha they^m y^^^ ^^ ^^ 
any sensible error. Let r b« 'n^ raa»^ allowing nothing 

«hi^;n the cams are to be set «n""f "^>;;t<.^ard3. for fear the 

* the pitch circle a ^f l^-^ea'cSu^b^t he^ro;*?:?^ 
Thus, if i is 4 inches and r 8 7':''?^* ^cn w a „,i^us of tho 

for an IS-inch stnkmg '^''"^..^''o^O ^2^' The advantage of 
tracing circle from the cams wiU be 9 '"'";' ^ ^^^^ In the 
cams of this kind is that tlj^^ «;!^Vthem Is a Unge^ at its point 
Uft. and keep the I*^" »'-''"SXn^We9 may bl of any length 
the whole way; *nd tl^^eXXnouvraTthe lever to move, 
according to the angle '''""Sh 7' c^jou ^^^^ 

Most peoprebowe^y prefer d«>uthcncl^^ .^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 

instead of -^.r-cyc'"'^: ,""^^^,"' ."efefore gi« another rule, sug- 
calculaHng in most hands. ^J « ;"f"'°( j^e horological jury in the 
gested by Mr E. J. Law'rence. a member of the 1^^ = ^j,J Ji„,i , 
1851 E'^bibition. which IS easier to work., ^«^;^„ ^J^ „, {,ft 
conditions stated just now. though it^^tes^^ ^^^^ ^^^.^ 

than the epicycloidal c."'« ••, .^""l^ '^/^^^'tJ^^ake the lever drop 
points cut olf. as <=P>cycl»;f ^ has t^ be drawn wiYh a different 
oir sooner; because a short earn has to oe u . 

radius from a long one, to ««'•<» '«"■,»■ c°L wUl suit°a lever of 
on the other haul. tb?,?«">^/"™ffj^','.'„';'„u3t take care to put 
any length, 'whereas with ep.cj clodal earns j^u^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

1 the centre or a.xi3 of '^'^|f ' " ,7 '"J "^alcuiated-an easy enough 
of the wheel for « the cu ve ^^^^ fj^^'^^jo^ ^ ^vorkmen to 
thing to do, of course, ''"\-°J'''^^fo" the mere pleasure of doing 
deWSte from your p ans, ^PP"'"^?":"^ maling one machine 
^vrong. It is "'--"j'Kiat on e" ht^^^^^^^^ gradually 

after another, with a little ^^ '*"'Y ^ recognise your onginal 
assumes a form in which 5'°^ "f ° f^fd of bfundering is one of 
design at all. The P^'=;-^°"°";',, S^^^^ f°' »'''"='' 

rmTJn^^^^^m^r^^TclSlueV;^ clocks^, and yet there is „o* 
to which it is IfSf appbed. ^ - ^ . ^^^ ^^^ straight 

lin^J'tt '^:^LTll\l'rT^^^^^ ^raoe of one cam oa 
the pitch circle of the 

cams. A being a little 
below the line of 
centres; AP is tha 
arc of tho lever. 
Draw a tangent to 
the two circles at A, 
and a tangent to the 
cam circle at B ; then 
T. their point of in- 
tersection, will ba 
the centre of the 
circle which is tho 
face of the cam BP; and TB also 


the great; wnec.. a..v....Y---. the 'lantern 

by rolling a r".7''"g/:Lth circle oE ho hour.wtcel ; the 
pinion on the jnsjde of tf pitch ^^'^'^ ° , ^hese are by is a tooth thicker "t 'he bo torn t an ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ 

no means unnecessary rcl,nementsfoMnhete_ ^^^ 

are not proper y *''P'='i,^°, *!,J,j' ° v to ^^i"' ""' '° proportion to 

JKete^ ?:t:i»'SKvXitey are maie of brass 

or soft,al. - . , _, • , , „„ ,0 raiso heavy hammers 

IntheconstructionotclMkswhichhave torai } ^^ 

,t is important to obtain lie best forn^^ 

nrr!t^«&J |pn-^,^^^r^e 

„„d therefore at the end of ^''^r^'il^An^ at both their points. 
on the cam. .In t>'V<'"^"rf„r afnoiiWe by he striking pins 

rl^^-ir^^^c^r "^!^'-^^, But there^^ such ^ctical 
^*''"'l'ni"t''in a wc^l-Vn - book :'trararpropr,a.o name 

tig. 26 ■ 
TA, which is a convenient lest 
lace 01 uiecoLii ^1 , - — . V.i7, Vir.orvn Thc action begins at the 

str^e^:!^^u^s^:^^^s^^^'^'--'^^ ''- 

points of the cast-iron cams. 

Oil fob Clocks. 

sometimes not purihed at ..all. ;\- "^''^^^Voils, as some of thent 
animal oil is better than any of the vo?^!?",^.^' ^scid. For turret 
are too thin, while others «,^? S^t Jhi^k^"; ^ fine enough, and 
clocks-and common hopse clocU good sgerm 0.1 is f^ ^^f,, 

is probably the best. For B"^' 7 f ";°. ^[.^Zc fine and dear by 
cafion Even common ne^ soot oil ^a> be m^ ^^_^^ ^uanti.v.of 

the following method. ■ ,*l'* " '^ , ... f„ll, until it becomes like 

water, and shake it in « 1"S« .^^ ^ne o 1 appears at the top. which 
a white soup;, then let. ts^and^Ull fine -^ ^1^^^^^ ^^^^ .^^ ^ 

maybe skimmed off; 'V,h .,ottor^ dirt in the middle, and fine 
scparated-into water at the ottom^mri^ ^ ^^^_^^^ 

oil at the top. And It shou 'I be done in ^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^ 
heat makes some oil '"'"'^ «V], "' ""^'^ ;„",„,,! „e.,ther that fine oil 
among the dirty oil m the middle ana in c vegetable 



npplinJ to it, and none but actual use for a considerable time would 
b« of much valuu. 

Tub Westminster Clock 

It 19 unnecessary to repeat the account of the long dispute between 
the Covernmeut, the architect of the House of Parliament, the 
«3tronomer royal, Sir E. Beckett, and some of the London clock- 
makers, which ended in the employment of the late E. J. Dentaad 
hie successor F. Dent from the designs and under tlie suptrintond- 
ence of Sir E. Beckett, as the inscription on it records The fullest 
account of these was given in the 4th and 5th editious of tho 
Trealhe on Clocks, and we shall now only describe its construction. 
Fig. 27 is a front elevation or section lengthwise of tho clock. The 
frame is 16 feet long and 54 wide, and it rests on two iron plates 
lying on the top of the walls of the shaft near the middle of the 
tower, down which the weights desci-nd That wall reaches up to 
the bell chamber, and those iron plates are built vight through it, 
and so is the great cock which carries the pendulun,. The clock- 
room is 23 feet x 19, the remaining 9 of the square being occupied 
by the staircase and an air-shaft for ventilating the whole building. 

The going part of the clock, however, not requiring such a long 
barrel as the striking parts, which have steel wire ropes "55 inch 
thick, is shorter than they are, and is carried by an intermediate 
bar or frame bolted to the cross bars of the principal fianie. The 
back of them is about 25 feet from the wali, to leave room for a man 
behind, and the pendulum cock is so made as. to let his head come 
within it in order to look square at the escapement. The escape- 
ment is the double three legs (fig. 13), and the length of the teeth or 
legs is 6 inches. The drawing represents the w-heels (except the 
\[j»eUcd wheels leading oW to tne dials) as more circles to prevent 

confusion. The numbers of tvctb add the time or revolution ofth* 
pnucipal ones arc insulted and require no further notice. Their sizt 
can bo taken fiom the scale; the great wheels of tho striking parts 
aie 24 and ofthegoiiig part 2iuchcs thick, aud all the wheels are of 
cast-iron except the smaller ones of Uie escapement, which are brass. 
but are painted like the iron ones. 

The maiutaining power for keeping the clock going while windinff 
is peculiar and probably uuique. Noue of those already described 
could have kept in gear' long enough, maintaiuing sidhcient force 
all the time, as that part takes 10 niiniites to wind, eveu if tho 
man does not loiter over it. This is managed without a single extra 
wheel beyond the ordinary winding pinion of large clocks. The 
winding wheel on the end of tho barrel is close to the great wheel, 
and you see the pinion with the winding arbor in the oblique jiieca 
of the front frame of the clock. Consetjuently that arbor is about 
6 feet long, and a little movement of its back eud makes no material 
obliquity in the two bushes; i.e., it may go a little out of parallel 
with all the other arbors in the clock withoutiiny iinpediiucnt to its 
action. Its back pivot is carried, not in aiixed bush, but in the 
lower end of tt,bar a little longer thanthe great wheel's ladius, hang- 
ing from the backi of the great arbor ; and that bar has a spring 
click upon it which takes into ratchet teeth cast; on the back of tho 
great wheel. When the great wheel is turning, and you are not 
winding, the ratchets pass the click as usual, but as soon as you begin 
to wind the back end of the winding arbor would rise but lor the 
click catching those teeth, and so the gieat wheel itself become the 
fulcrum for winding for the time. , Alter the winding has gone »* 
few minutes a long tooth projecting fiom the back of tho arbor" 
catches against a stop, because that end of the hanging bar and 
pinion have all risen a little with the motion of the cicat wheel.. 

27. — Section of Westminster Clock. 

Then the man is obliged to turn the handle back a little, which lets 
down the pinion, !:c., and the click takes up some lower teeth ; and 
60 if he chooses to loiter an hour over the winding he can do uo 
harm. The winding pinion "pumps" into gear and out again as 
usual. The going part will go SJ days, to provide for the possible 
forgetting of a day in winding. The weight is about 160 lb ; but 
only one-14th of the whole force of that weight is requisite to drive 
the pendulum, as was found by trial ; tho rest goes in overcoming 
the friction of all them.ichinery, including a ton aud ahalf of hands 
and counterpoises, and in providing force enough to drive them 
through all weathers, e.xcept heavy snows, which occasionally acci;jiu- 
late thick enough on several minute hands at once, on the left sido 
of the dials, to stop the clock, those hands being 11 feet long. For 
ihe dials are 22^ feet in diameter, or contain 400 square feet each, 
and there 'very few rooms where such a dial could be 
painted on the floor. They are made of iron framing filled in with 
opal glass. Each minute is 14 inches wide. The only larger dial 
in the world is in Mechlin church, which is 40 feet wide ; but it has 
no minute band, which makes an enormous difference in the force 
required in the clock. They are completely walled off from the 
clock-room by a passage all round, and there are a multitude of gas 
lights behind them, which are lighted' by hand, though provision 
■was originally made in the clock for doing it automatically. The 
hour hands go so slow that their weight is immaterial, and were left 
as they were made of gun metal under the architect's direction ; 
but it was impossible to have rainnte hands of that construction ami 
weight without injury to the clock, and so they were removed by 
Sir E. f^eckett, and others made of copper tubes, wi*h a section com- 
Jiosed of two circular arcs put together, and are consequently very 
«litf, while weighing only 28 rt>. The great wp-^ht is in the wheels, 
tubes, and counterpoises. The minute hands are partlycounterpoise^ 
outside, making Ihcir total length 14 feet, to relieve the strain uyou 

their arbors. They all run on friction wheels imbedded in the 
larger tubes 5J inches wide, which carry the hour hands, which 
themselves run on fixed friction wheels. 

There is nothing peculiar in the qua'rter striking part except its 
size, and perhaps in tho barrel turning in an hour and a-half, i.e., 
in three repetitions of the five chimes already described. The 
cams are of wrought iron with hard steel faces. Each bell has two 
hammers, which enables the cams to be longer and the pressure on 
them less. The honr-stiiking wheel has tencams24 in. widecaston 
it ; but those cams have solid steel faces screwed On them. All this 
work was made for a hammer of 7 cwt.. lifted 13 inches from the 
boll, i.e., about 9 inches of vertical lift. The haninKi \\a:i reduced to 
4- cwt. after the partial cracking of the bell. The rod from the lever to 
the hammer is made of thesame wire rope as the weight ropes, and the 
result is that there is no noise in the room while the clock is stiik. 
ing. Tho lever is 5 feet 4 inches long, and stiikes against the 
buffer spring shown in the drawing, to prevent concussion on the 
clock-frame, of which you cannot feel the least. The quarter ham- 
mer levers h,ave smaller springs for the same purpose, aud the 
stops of the striking part are also set on springs instead of 
rigid as nsual. The Hies, for which there was not room in the 
diawing, are near the top of the room and are each 2 feet 4 inches 
square. They make a considerable wind in the room wdieu revolv- 
ing. The only noise made in striking is their riinuing on over 
their rati'hcts when the striking stops. Each striking weight is 
n ton and a half— or was before the gi'cat hammer wa» reduced. 
They take 5 hours to wind up, and it has to be done twice a week, 
which was thought better than making the parts larger and tha 
teeth more numerous and the weights twice as much, to so a week, 
and of course the winding must have taken twice as long, as it was 
adapted to whnt a man ran do continuously for some, hours. Cou' 
soiuently it was ncccsisarv to contrive something to stop the i»ia 

C L — C L 


(HiiJin" just before cadi -time of stiikiiip:. And that is done \>y 
i leverTjeiug tipped ov«r by the snail at tliat tirae, which at once 
jtops the winding. When the strildng is done the man can put 
the levor up again and go on. The loose winding wheels are not 
pumped in and out of gear aa usua), being too heavy, but one end 
of the arbor is pushed into gear by an eccentric bush turned by the 
oblique handle or lever wliich you see near the upper corner of each 
striking part, and thi>v can be turned in a moment. They are held 
in their place for gear" by a spring catch to prevent any risk of slip- 
ping out Moreover the ropes themselvesstop the winding whert the 
weighta came to the fop, pretty much as they do in a spring clock 
or a watch, though not exactly. 

The mode of letting off the hour striking is pecuJiar, with a view 
to the first blow of the hour being exacHy at the 60th second of 
the 60th minute. It was found that this could not be depended nu 
to a single beat of the pendulum, and probably it never can in any 
clock, by a mere snail turning in an hour, unless it was of a very 
inconvenient size. Therefore the common snail only lets it olf par- 
tially, and the striking stop still rests against a lever which 
is not dropped but tipped up with a slight blow by another 
weighted lever resting on a snail on the ISminute wheel, which 
moves more exactly with the escapement than the common snail 
lower in the train. The hammer is left on the lift, ready to fall, 
and it always does fall within half a second after the last beat of 
the pendulum at the hour. This is shown in fig 28, where BE is the 
eprin'T stop noticed above, and P the ordinary first stop on the long 
lifting lever PQ (which goes on far beyond the reach of this figure 
to the hour snail). The second or warning stop is CD, and BAS is 
the extra lever with its heavy end at S on the 15-miniite snail. 
When that falls the end B tips up CD with certainty by the blow, 
and then the striking is free. The first, second, and third quarters 
begin at the proper times ; but the fourth quarter chimes begin 
about 20 seconds before the hour. ^i.' 

The clock reports its own rate to Greenwich Observatory by gal- 
vanic action twice a day, i.e., an electric circuit is made and broken 
by the pressing together of certain springs at two given hours. And 
in this way the rate o^ the clock is ascertained and recorded, and 
the general results published by the astronomer royal in his 
annual report. This has been for some years so remarkably uniform, 
that the error haa only reached 3 seconds on 3 per cent, of the days 

in the year, ana is generally uuder twc. He lias also reported that 
" the rate of the clock is certain to much less than a second % 
week " — subject to abnormal disturbances by thunder storms which 
sometimes amount to seven or eight seconds, and other casualtiet, 
which are easily distinguishable from the epontaneous variations. 

15 milt 

Fig. 28. 

The original stipulation in 1845 was that the rate sliouM not vi\- 
muie than a second a day — not a week ; and this was pronounced 
impossible by Mr Vulliamy and the London Company of Clock- 
makeis, and it is tine that up to that time no such rate had ever 
been attained by any lai'e clook. In 1851 it was by the above- 
mentioned clock, now at King's Cross Station, by means of the train 
remontoirc, which was then intended to be used at Westminster, but 
was superseded by the gravity escapement. .^ 

The great hour bell, of the note E, weighs 134 tons and is 
9 feet diameter and 9 inches thick. The quarter bells weigh 
respectively 78, 33J, 26, and 21 cwt. ; with diameters 6 feet, 4J, 4, 
and 3 feet 9 inches, and notes B, E, F sh. and G sh. The hammers 
are on double levers embracing the bells, and turning op pivota pro- 
jecting from the iron collars which cany thc^nushroom shaped tops 
of the bells. The bells, including £750 for recasting the first great 
hell, €»■ nearly £6000, and the clock £4080. The bell frame, which 
is of w»iught iron plates, and the dials and hands, all provided 
by the architect, cost £11,934 — a curtous case of the accessories 
costing more than the principals. (E. B. ) 

CLOISTER (Latin, c?a«sfrum> Trench, clotlre ; Italian, 
thiostro ; Spanish, c/aus^ro; German, Wosfe?-). The word, 
" cloister," though now restricted to the four-sided 
enclosure, surrounded with covered ambulatories, usually 
attached to conventual and cathedral churches, and some- 
times to colleges, or by a still further limitation to the 
ambulatories themselves, originally signified the entire 
monastery. In this sense it is of frequent occurrence in our 
earlier literature {e.(/., Shakespeare, Meas. for Meas., i. 3, 
"This day my sister should the cloister enter"), and is 
still employed in poetry. The Latin claustrum, aa its 
derivation implies, primarily denoted no more than" the 
enclosing wall of a religious house, and theii came to be 
used for the whole building enclosed within the wall. To 
this sense the German " kloster " is still limited, the covered 
walks, or cloister in the modern sense, being 'called 
" klostergang," or " kreuzgang." In French, as with uS, 
the word ctoUre retains the double sense. 

In the special sense now most common, the word 
"cloister " denotes the quadrilateral area in a monastery 
or college of canons, round which the principal buildings are 
ranged, and which is usually provided with a covered way 
or ainbul.itory running all round, and affording a means of 
communication between the various centres of the eccle- 
siastical life, without exposure to the weather. According 
to the Benedictine arrangement, which from its suitability to 
the requirements of monastic life was generally adopted in 
the West, one side of the cloister was formed by the church, 
the refectory occupying the side opposite to it, that the 
worshippers might have the least annoyance from the noise 
or smell of the repasts. On the eastern side the chapter- 
house WHS placed, with other apartments belonging to the 
common life of the brethren adjacent to it, and, as a 
common rule, the dormitory occupied the whole uf ''<e 

upper story. On the opposite or western side were generally 
the cellarer's lodgings, with the cellars and store-houses, in 
which the provisions necessary for the sustenance of the 
confraternity were housed. In Cistercian monasteries tho 
western side was usually occupied by the "domus con- 
versorum," or lodgings of the lay-brethren, with their day- 
rooms and workshops below, and dormitory above. The 
cloister, with its surrounding buildings, generally stood on 
the south side of the church, to secure as much sunshina 
as possible. A very early example of this disposition ij 
seen in the plan of the monastery of St Gall (Abbp.v, 
vol. i. p. 12). Local requirements, in some instances, 
caused the cloister to be placed to the north of the church. 
This is the case in the English cathedrals, formerly Bene- 
dictine abbeys, of Canterbury, Gloucester, and Chester, as 
well as in that of Lincoln. Other examples of the north- 
ward situation are at Tinlern, Buildwas, and Sherborne. 
Although the covered amoulatories are absolutely essential 
to the completeness of a monastic cloister, a chief object of 
which was to enable the inmates to pa-ss from one part of 
the monastery to another without inconvenience from rain, 
wind, or sun, it appears that they were sometimes wanting. 
The cloister at St Alban's seems to have been deficient in 
ambulatories till the abbacy of Robert of Gorham, 1151- 
11G6, when the eastern walk was erected. This, as was 
often the case with the earliest ambulatories, was of wood 
covered with a pentice roof. We learn from Osbern'i 
account of the conflagration of thr monastery of Christ 
Church, Canterbury, 1067, that a cloister with covered 
ways existed at that time, affording communication be- 
tween the church, tho dormitory, and the refectory. We 
learn from an early drawing of the monastery of Canter- 
bury that this cloister was formed by an arcade of Norman 
arches suopbrted on shafts, <nnd covered by a sljed roof. 


C L — C L 

A fragment of an arcaJed cloister of this pattern is still 
found on the eastern side of the infirmary-cloister of the 
same foundation. This earlier form of cloister has been 
■generally superseded with us by a range of windows, usually 
ungljzed, but sometimes, as at Gloucester, provided wit^ 
glass, lighting a vaulted ambulatory, of which the cloisters 
of Vv'cstminster Abbey, Salisbury, and Norwich are typical 
examples. The older design was preserved in the South, 
where " the cloister is never a window, or anything in the 
least approaching to it in design, but a range of small 
elegant pillars, sometimes single, sometimes coupled, and 
supporting arches of a light and elegant design, all the 
features being of a character suited to the place where they 
are used, and to that only" (Fergusson, Hist, of Arch., i. 
p. CIO). As examples of this description of cloister, we 
may refer to the exquieite cloisters of St John Lateran, 
and St Paul's without the walls, at Kome, where the 
coupled shafts and arches are richly ornamented with 
ribbons of mosaic, and those of the convent of St Scholastica 
at Subiaco, all of the 13th century, and to the beautiful 
cloisters at Aries, in southern France, '' than which no 
building in this style, perhaps, has been so often drawn or 
80 much admired " (Fergusson) ; and those of Aix, Fonti- 
froide, EIne, kc, are of the same type ; as also the 
Romanesque cloisters at Zurich, where the design suffers 
from the deep abacus having only a single elsuder shaft 
to support it, and at Laach, where the quadrangle occupies 
the place of the "atrium "of the early basilicas at the 
westTnd, as at St Clement's at Rome, and St Ambrose 
ot Milan. Spain also presents some magnificent cloisters 
of both types, of which that of the royal convent of 
Huelgas, near Burgos, of the arcaded form, is, according 
ro Mr Fergusson, " unrivalled for beauty both of detail and 
design, and is perhaps unsurpassed by anything in its age 
and style in any part of Europe." Few cloisters are more 
beautiful than those of Monreale and Cef^lu in Sicily, 
where the arrangement is the same, of slender columns in 
imirs with capitals, of elaborate foliage supporting pointed^ 
arches ffi great elegance of form. 

All other cloisters are surpassed in dimensions and in 
sumptuousness of decoration by the " Campo Santo " -at 
Pisa. This magnificent cloister consists of four ambu- 
latories as wide and lofty as the nave of a church, erected 
in 1278 by Giovanni Pisano round a cemetery composed of 
soil brought from Palestine by Archbishop Lanfranchi in 
the middle of the 12th century. The window openings 
are semicircular, filled with elaborate tracery in the latter 
halt of the. 15th century. The inner walls are covered 
with frescoS" invaluable in the history of art by Orgagna, 
Sitaone Memmi, Buffalmacco, Benozzo Gozzoli, and other 
early painters of the Florentine school. The ambulatories 
now serve as a museum of sculpture. The intertral dimen- 
sions are 415 feet 6 inches in length, 137 feet 10 inches 
in breadth, while each ambulatory is 34 feet 6 inches 
wide by 46 feet high. 

The cloister of. a religious house was the scene of a large 
part of U-i life of the inmates of a monastery. When not 
in church, refectory, or dormitory, or engaged in manual 
labour, the monks ■syere usually to be found here. The 
north walk of the cloister of St Gall appears to have served 
as the chapter-house. The cloister was the place of 
education for the younger members, and of study for the 
elders. A canon of the Roman council held under 
Ei;^eniu3 II., in 826, enjeins the erection of a cloister as an 
essential portion of an ecclesiastical establishment for the 
better disfiipline and instruction of the clerks. Peter of 
Blois {Servi.- 25) describes schools for the novices as being 
tn the west walk, and moral lectures delivered in that next 
the chnrch. At Canterbury the monks' school was in the 
Jr.esteru ambulatoi7, and it was in the same walk that the 

novices were taught at Durham (Willis, STonastic FiuildinffS 
of Canterbury, \). 44; Rites of Durham, \t. 71), The other 
alleys, especially that nest the church, were devoted to the 
studies of the elder monks. The constitutions of Hildemar 
and Dunstan enact that between the services of the church 
the brethren should sit in the cloister and read theology. 
For this purpose small studies, known ascarro/s, from their 
square shape, were often found in the recesses of the 
windows. Of this arrangement we have examples at 
Gloucester, Chester (recently restored), and elsewhere. 
The use of these studies is thus described in the Biles of 
Durham : — " In every wyndowe " in the north alley 
" were iii pewes or carrells, where every one of the olde 
monkes had his carrell severally by himselfe, that when 
they had dyncd they dyd resorte to that place of cloister, 
and there studyed upon their books, every one in his carrell 
all the afternonne unto evensong tyme. This was there 
exercise every dale." On the opposite wall were cupboards 
full of books for the use of the students in the carrols. The 
cloister arrangements at Canterbury were similar to those 
just described. New studies were made by Prior De Estn^ 
in 1317, and Prior Selling (1472-94) glazed the south 
alley for the use of the studious brethren, and constructed 
" the new framed contrivances, of late styled carrols" 
(Willis, Mon. Buildings, p. 45). The cloisters were used 
not for study only but also for recreation. The constitutions 
of Archbishop Lanfranc, sect. 3, permitted the brethren to 
converse together there at certain hours of the day. Tu 
maintain necessary discipline a special oflScer was appointed 
under the title of prior datistri. The cloister was always 
furnished with a stone bench running along the side. It 
was also provided with a lavatory, usually adjacent to the 
refectory, but sometimes standing in the central area, 
termed the cloister-garth, as at Durham. The cloister- 
garth was used as a place of sepulture, as well as the sur- 
rounding alleys. . The cloister was in some few instances 
of two stories, as at Old St Paul'3,-efld St Stephen's Chapel, 
Westminster, and occasionally, as at Wells, Chichester, and 
Hereford, had only three alleys, the"re beiug no ambulatory 
under the church <vall. ' 

The la.rgcr monastic establishments lad more than one 
cloister ; there was usually a second connected with the 
infirmary, of which we have examples at Westminster 
Abbey and at Canterbury ; and sometimes one giving 
access to the kitchen and other domestic offices. -- 
, The- cloiftfef was not an appendage of monastic houses 
exclusively. We find it also attached to colleges of secular 
canons, as at the cathedrals of Lincoln, Salisbury, W^ells; 
Hereford, .and Chichester, and formerly at St Paul's and 
Exeter. It is, however, absent at York, Lichfield, Beverley, 
Ripon, Southwell, and Wimborne. A cloister forms an 
essential part of the colleges of Eton and of St Mary's, 
Winchester, and New and Magdalen at Oxford, and was 
designed by Wolsey at Christ Church. These were used 
/or religious processions and lectures, for ambulatories for 
the studious at all times, and for places of exercise for the 
inmates in wet weather, as well as in some in- 
stances for sepulture. - __ 

For the arrangements of the Carthusian cloisters, as 
well as for some account of those appended to the 
monasteries of the East, see the article Abbey. (e. v.) 

CLONMEL, a parliamentary and municipal borough of 
Ireland, in the province of Munster, partly in the south 
.-iding of Tipperary and partly in Waterford county, 1 04 
miles sonth-west from Dublin. It is built on both sides 
of -the Suir, and also occupies Moore and Long Islands, 
which are connettW with the mainland by three bridges. 
The principal buildings are the parish church, two Roman 
Catholic churches, a Franciscan friary,, two convents, an 
endowed school dating from 1685, a model school under the 

C L O — C L 


national board, a mechanics' institute, a court-houso and 
prison, a fever hospital and disfiensary, two lunatic 
asylums, a .narkct-houso, a workhouse, and barracks. Till 
the Uiiion the woollen mauufacture e-itablished in 1607 
was extsnsively carried on. The town cootaius a brewery, 
flour-milb, and tanneries, publishes two newspapers, and 
has a considerable export trade in grain, cattle, butter, and 
provisions. Tlie river is uavigable foriaiges of 50 tons 
to Waterford. Cloiimel ui a station on the Waterford and 
Limerick Railway; it was the centre of asysttni, established 
by Mr Hiancom, for the conveyance of travellers on light 
■virs, extending over a great pai t of I.einster, Munster, and 
Coimaaght. It is governed by a corporation, consisting 
of a mayor, free burgesses, and a commonalty, and returus 
one member to parliament. Population in 1851, 15,203 ; 
in 1871, 10,112. '_ 

Cionmel, or Cbiain incnVn, the Vale of Honey, is a plnce of un. 
doubteti antiquity. In 1*269 it was cho:*en a-s the seal of a Fran- 
cisouD friary by utho Jo Granilison, the first English possessor of 
the district; and it frequently comes into notice m the foilowiii;' 
centuries In lfi41 it ileclarecl for the Roman Catholic party, ami 
in 1050 it W.1S gallantly defended by Hugh O'Neal against the 
English under C'roruweli. Compelled at last to capitulate, it was 
completely dismaatled. and has nev2r again been fortified. Sterae 
was born in the town in 1713. 

CLOOTZ, Jea^ Baptiste, Baron (1755-1791), better 
known ,13 Anachars'S Clootz, was born near Cleves. A 
baron by descent, and heir to a great fortune, hi was sen^ 
at eleven to Paris to complete his education. There he 
imbibed the theories of his uncle, Cornelius de Pauw, and 
of the great anarchists of the epoch. He rejected his title 
.and his baptismal names, adopted the pseudonym of Ana- 
charsis from the famous philosophical romance of Abb^ 
Bartheleiny, and traversed Europe, preaching the new ideas 
OS an apostle, and spending bis money as a man of pleasure. 
On the breaking out of the Revolution he returned in 
1789 to Paris. In the e.'ceicise of the function ha assumed 
of " Orator of the Human Race," he demanded at the bar 
of the National Assembly a share in the federation for all 
nations, presenting at the same time a petition against the 
despots of the world. In 1792 he placed 12,000 livres 
at the disposal of the Kepublic — " for the arming of forty 
or fifty fighters in the sacred cause of man against tyrant." 
The 10th of August impelled him to a still higher flight; 
he declared himself the personal enemy of Jesus Christ, 
abjured all revealed religions, and commenced pre.achmg 
materialism. In the same month he had the rights of 
citizenship conferred on him ; and having in September 
been elected a member of the Convention, he voted the 
king's death in the name of the human race. Excluded 
at the instance of Robespierre from the Jacobin Club, he 
was soon afterwards implicated in an accusation levelled 
against Hubert and others. His innocence was manifest, 
bat he was condemned and put to death. 

Clootz left several works in which his extravagances are 
developed with much solemnity. The principal of these are 
Ld CertUude des Preuves du Mahomitisnie, L'Oraleur du 
Gaire I/iimain, and La Jiepuhl i/^ue Universelle. 

CLOT, Antoine (1795-1808), was born in the neigh- 
bourhood of Marseilles, and was brought up at the chanty 
school of that town. After studying at Montpellicr ho 
commenced to practise as surgeon in his native place ; but 
at the age of twenty-eight he was made chief surgeon to 
Mohcmet Ali, viceroy of Egypt. At Abuzabel, near Cairo, 
ho founded a hospital and schools for all branches of medical 
instruction, as well as for the study of the French language ; 
und, notwithstanding the most serious religious difficulties, 
be prevailed on some of the Arabs to study anatomy by 
moans of dissection. In 1832 Mehemet Ah gave him the 
dignity of bey without requiring him to abjure his religion ; 
and in 1836 ho received the rank of general, and was 

appointed head of the medical administration of the'conntiy,' 
In 1 8-19 he returned to Marseilles. Clot published — Relation 
des epidimies de cholera qui out rigne i I'tieggiaz, d, Suez, et 
eii. Egijpte (1832); De la pes'.e ohservee eii EgypCe (1840); 
Apeifu giiiiral siir ( Egyple (1810) ; Coii/> d^CRxl sur la 
■pnte et tes qnaraiuaiitfs (1851); De I'op/U/uilmie (1864). 

CLOTILDA, S.AiN-T (475-545), was the daughter of 
Chilporic, king of Burgundy, and tho wife of Clovis, king 
of the Franks. Her father, mothe;-, and brothers were pul 
to death by Oundebald, her uncle, but Clotilda was spared 
and educated. Gundebald opposed her marriage with 
Clovis, but by the aid of the clergy she escaped to tlio 
Frankish court (493), was married, and, having adhered all 
along to the pure Catholic faith of her mother, etl'ected tlia 
conversion ol Clovis to Christianity (490). He lost no tiuio 
in avenging tho murder of his wife's parents ; Gundebald 
was defeated, and became his tributary. After her husband's 
death Clotilda persuaded her three .sons — Clodomir, Cbilde- 
bert, and Clotaire — to renew the quarrel, and to visit on 
Sigismund, Gundebald's son, his father s crime. The war 
which followed resulted in the union of Burgundy to tha 
Frank empire. Clotilda retired to Tours, and practised there 
the austerities of a devout life till her death. She was 
buried in the Parisian church of St Genevieve, which Clovis 
had built, and was canonized a few years afterwards by 
Pelagius I. Her remains, preserved till the Revolution, 
were burned at that period by the devout Aiihi Rousselet, 
who dreaded their desecration ; the ashes are now m tha 
httle church of St Leu. A statue of her adorns the Luxem- 
bourg, and a splendid church has recently been erected ia 
her honour in Paris, not far from the spot where her bones 
rested during so many centuries. See France. 

CLOUGH,ARTHUii Hugh (1819-1861), a minor English 
poet, was born at Liverpool in 1819, and belonged to a 
family of old Welsh descent. His father, a cotton merchant, 
having removed to the United States about 1823, Arthur 
spent a number of years at home in Charleston ; but in 
1828 he was brought back to England and sent to school. 
From Rugby, where he was a favourite pupil of Dr 
Arnold's, he passed in 1836 to Oxford ; and there, in spite of 
an almost unaccountable failure in some of his e.<ainina> 
tions, he attained a high reputation for scholarship, ability, 
and character. In 1842 he was chosen fellow of Oriel, 
and in 1843 appointed tutor in the same college ; but he 
soon grew dissatisfied with his position, and ultimately 
decided that it was his duty to resign. Under the influencs 
of the great religious fermentation which had been going 
on during his university career, he had become deeply 
sceptical in l*is habits of thought ; and all connection 
seemed impossible with a system that interfered with tha 
liberty of speculative investigation. After his resignation 
in 1848 he was for some time principal of L'niversity 
Hall, London. In 1852 he visited America, where he 
enjoyed the friendship of Longfellow and Emerson ; and 
in tha following year he was called home to accept an 
appointment as examiner in the Education Office of the 
Privy Council During the succeeding years he was fre- 
quently abroad ; and it was on a tour in Italy in 1861 
that ha was suddenly cut off by fever at Florence. 
Clough was a man of singalar purity and integrity of 
character, witli great sensitiveness of feeling, and fine sub- 
tlety of thought, "at once reserved and retiring aud full of 
a genial humanity of disposition, with much humour and 
mirthfulncss, and yet capable of a righteous indignation 
that could hardly have been expected to find fuel in so 
kindly a breast. A disciple of the great roaster of Rugby, 
in the midst of his most relentless scepticism he maintained 
a spirit of reverence and worship ; and his most daring 
attacks on the popular creed are modified by an under- 
1 current of toleration and diflidcnce. His poems are hie 


C L — C L U 

priiioipal works, and of tlicse tlie best known is the 
Bothit of 2'obtr-na-Vuohch. It was written aud published 
ii) 1848, after his removal from Oxford , and while 
warmly praised by such men as Canon Kingsley it was 
condemned by others as immoral and communistac. The 
interest of the poem depends on its graphic description 
of Scottish scenery and the fine analysis of contrasted 
characters. Under the inlluence partly of Longfellow's 
^vangelint, which had been published in 1847, and 
partly of his own attachment to the old classical forms, 
he employed the so-called hexameter ; but it is seldom 
that he attains the tuneful cadence of the American 
poet, and much of the versification is rugged and broken 
in the extreme Of greater power than the Botkxe, at 
least in individual passages, is the strange irregular 
tragedy of Dipst/chits, which shines at times with jagged 
fragments of satire and irony. Amours de IWa^f, a rhymed 
epistolary novelette, and Mari Magno, a small collection of 
tales after the fashion of the Waynde Inn, along with 
various minor poems, have been republished in the 
second volume of Tht Poems and Prose Jfemains of Arthur 
11. Ctourjh, edited by his wife, and accompanied by a 
sketch of his life by F. T Palgrave, 1869. These will 
probably do less to keep green the poet's name than the 
noble poem of Thyrns, which Jfatthew Arnold dedicated to 
his memory. One work of importance remains to be 
mentioned, — a careful and scholarly rehabilitation of 
Cryden's Translation of Plutarch, published in 1859. 

CLOVES are the une.xpandedflower-budsof Caryopkylhts 
aromalicus, a tree belonging to the natural order ilyrtacece. 
Tliey are so named from the French word cloii, on account 
of their resemblance to a nail. The clove tree is a beauti- 
ful evergreen which grows to a height of from 30 to 40 
feet, having large oblong leaves and crimson flowers in 
numerous groups of terminal cymes. The flower-buds are 
at first of a pale colour and gradually become green, after 
which they develop into a bright red, when they are ready 
for collecting. Cloves are rather more than half an inch 
ill length, and consist of a long cylindrical calyx, 
terminating in four spreading sepals, and four unopened 
petals which form a small ball in the centre. The tree is 
a native of the small group 'of islands in the Indian 
Archipelago called the Moluccas, or Spice Islands ; but it 
was long cultivated by the Dutch In A'mboyna and two or 
three small neighbouring islands. Cloves were one of the 
principal Oriental spices which early excited the cupidity 
of Western commercial communities, having been the 
basis of a rich and lucrative trade from an early part of 
(ho Christian era. The Portuguese, by doubling the 
Capo of Good Hope, obtained possession of the principal 
portion of the clove trade, which they continued to hold 
for nearly a century, when, in 1 605, they were expelled f rojn 
the Moluccas by the Dutch. That power exerted great anH 
inhuman efforts to obtain a complete monopoly of the 
trade, attempting to extirpate all the clove trees growing 
in their native islands, and to concentrate the whole pro- 
duction in the Amboyna Islands. With great difficulty 
the French succeeded in introducing the clove tree into 
Mauritius in the year 1770; subsequently the cultivation 
was introduced into Guiaua, and at the end of the century 
the trees were planted at Zanzibar. The chief commercial 
BOMrces of supply are now Zanzibar and its neighbouring 
island Pemba on the East African coast, and "Amboyna. 
Cloves are also grown in Java, Sumatra, liiunion, Guiana, 
and the West India Islands. 

Cloves as they come into the market have a deep brown 
colour, a powerfully fragrant odour, and a taste too hot and 
acrid to be pleasant. When pressed with the nail they 
exude a volatile oil wiii which they are charged to the 
tnusual proportion of aboul iS ner cent The oil is 

obtained ns a commercial prndufl by ?Uljin,,ting tbc c1iive» 
With water to repeated dibtillalion. It is, when uew and 
properly prepared, a pale yellow or almost colourless fluid, 
becoming alter some time of a bruwn colour; and it 
possesses the odour and taste peculiar to cloves. The 
essential oil of cloves is a mixture of two oils — one a 
hydrocarbon isomeric with oil of turpentine, and the othei 
an oxygenated oil, eugenol or eugenic acid, which possesses 
the taste and odcJUr of cloves. Cloves are employed 
principally as -a condiment in culinary operations, iii con- 
fectionery, and in the preparation of liqueurs. In medicine 
they are tonic and carminative, but they are little used 
except as adjuncts to other substances on account ol their 
flavour, or with purgatives to prevent nausea and gnpuig. 
The essential oil forms a convenient medium for using 
cloves for flavouring or medicinal purposes, and it also la 
frequently employed to relieve toothache. - 

CLOVIO, Uiuuo (1498-1578), by birth a Croat and 
by profession a priest, is said to have learned the elements 
ofdesign in his own country, and to have studied after- 
wards >vith intense diligence at Rome under Giuho 
llomano, and ijt Verona under Girolanio de Libri. He 
excelled in historical pieces and portraits, painting as for 
microscopical examination, and yet contrmng to handle 
his subjects with great force and precision. In the Vatican 
li^ary is preserved a MS. life of Frederick, duke of Urbino, 
superbly illustrated by Clovio, who is fante pnnceps among 
Italian miniaturists.-, 

CLOVIS, king of the Franks. See France. 

CLOYNE (in Irish Cluain-Uamha, or the Meadow of 
the Cave), a market town and formerly an episcopal see 
of Ireland, in the county of Cork, and about four miles froni 
the east side of Cork harbour. It is now a small place oi 
1200 inhabitants, but it Etdl gives it« name to a Roman 
Catholic diocese. The cathedral, which was founded in the 
6th century by Colman, a disciple of Fin-Bane of Cork, ia 
still in existence. It contains a few handsome monuments 
to its former bishops, but, singular to say, nothing to pre- 
serve the memory of the illustrious Dr George Berkeley, 
who filled the see from 1734 to 1753. Opposite the 
cathedral is a very fine round tower still 96 feet in height, 
though the conical roof was destroyed by lightning in 1748. 
The Roman Catholic church is a spacious building with a 
highly decorated front. The town was several times plun- 
dered by the Danes in the 9th century ; it was laid Waste by 
Dermot O'Brien in 1071, and was burned in 1137. In 
1430 the bishopric was united to that of Coik ; in 1638 
it again became independent, and in 1660 it was agaia 
united to Cork and Ross. In 1678 it was once more de- 
clared independent, and so continued till 1835, when it 
was again joined to Cork and Ross The Pipe Roll of 
Cloyne, compiled by Bishop Swaffham in 1 364, is a very 
remarkable record, embracing a full account of the feudal 
tenures of the- see, the natnre of the impositions, and the 
duties the pvri homines Sancli Colmam were bound to per- 
form at a very early period. The roll is now in the Record 
Office, Dublin. It was edited by Richard Caulfield in ] 859. 

CLUB. The records of all nations agree in attributing 
the institution of clubs and private companies to the earliest, 
or one of the earliest, rulers or legislators of whom they 
have retained any memory. Indeed such associations seem, 
as Addison has said, " to be a natui-al and necessary offshoot 
of men's gregarious and social nature." In the infancy 
of national existences, they are almost essentia) for purposes 
of mutual support and protection, and to supply the short- 
comings of a weak Government. But over and above those 
fellowships which spring from the inalienable right of self- 
preservation, and wbioh are founded either in the ties of 
kindred or community of material interestSj there aro 
coaunonlv found, even in matured and well-organized states^ 



a DumOur of ueoonJary or accidental (Societies, established 
{or the promotion of aume common object ; and a wise and 
strong Governmefrt usually protects and encourages them 
as a most important co[ldition of human progress. They 
may be roughly divided into four different classes, according 
to their several objects ; they may be either religions, poli- 
tical, commercial, or merely social ; and an attempt has 
been sometimes made to assign these to diflerent periods of 
national development. Suchadistinctiou, however, cannot 
be successfully maintained, since the various elements were 
often must closely united in the same clubs, almost (or 
quite) from their very foundation. Thus, the corporations 
in Rome whose foundation was attributed to Numa would 
eeem at first sight to have been merely for convenience of 
trade. But; we are told that they had also a social or poli- 
tical purpose, viz., to break down the barriers which sepa- 
rated Romans from Sabines in the infant state. Moreover, 
Plutarch introduces a religious element into them also, 
saying that Numa " fixed certain times of meeting for 
these companies, and certain honours to the gods, assigning 
to each what was suitable for them." So again in Greece 
we have the testimony of Aristotle that members of the 
same tribe or borough used to club together, men follow- 
ing the same occupations, as soldiers or sailors, and others 
agiin for mere sucial amusemeut ; yet he immediately 
adds — " these meet together for the sake of one another's 
company, and to offer sacrifices ; when they meet they 
both pay certain houours to the gods, and at the same 
time take pleasurable relaxation among themselves." • It 
is clear, then, that whatever may have been the precise 
object with which each private club or association was 
originally formed in pagan times, these distinctive 
marks were very soon blurred, and finally, in the lapse of 
time, altogether obliterated. 

We need nut say anything of the religious sodalities 
which were appointed in a regular way both in Greece and 
Home for the worship of the gods recognized by the state. 
It is the history of secret contraternities for the exercise of 
foreign religioiis rites unknown to the stats and strictly 
forbidden that is more curious and attractive In Athens 
the penalty of death stood enacted in the statute book 
against those who should introduce the worship of strange 
gods , but it is only on very rare and scandalous occasions 
that we hear of this statute in real life There wasa great 
invasion of foreign gods into Attica after the Persian war, 
and they were not so easily driven out as were the hosts 
of Xer-^ces who had imported tbein. Moreover, inde- 
pendently of foreign armies, the mere commercial activity 
of Athens herself did much to promote the same evil. 
Her sailors and soldiers, colonists and merchants, had 
explored the coasts of the /EgeanSea, and had brought home 
Irom Thrace, from Phrygia, from Cyi)ru3, and elsewhere, a 
whole host of deities, not more false indeed, but certainly 
more dangerous, than those whom they had been wout to 
worship at home. These gods and goddesses soon found" 
little knots of devotee?, who were led to form a kind of 
confraternity among themselves, for the support of the 
forbidden worship. Fragments both of tragic and comic 
poets have preserved to iw some notice of the kind of 
worship that wa.^ offered, and it was obviously in every 
way less respectable than the worship sanctioned by the 
state. In the stale temples the priests and other officers 
were obbged to be freemen, citizens, and the sons of citizens ; 
any taint of servile or foreign blood was a fatal disquali- 
fication. But hero slaves, foreigners, and women were 
admitted indiscriminately. Indeed, if we may judge from 
monuments that have recently come to light, these secret 
confraternities found their pnncipal support among these 
classes. At Rhodes there was one consisting exclusively 
of the lowest class of slaves, — the public slaves of the 

town , at Salamis, one exclusively of women ; ift that of 
Cnidus eleven members out of twelve were foreigoeis. 
All these monuments come from islands ; and of course it 
waj there, and in the seaport towns of the peninsula, that 
such illicit corporations were likely to be first introduced 
and to take deepest root. By-and-by it became necessary 
even to give an official recognition to some of them, e.^., io 
the Piraius, for the convemence of foreigners who wera 
either detained there for a considerable lime by business, 
or perhaps had even taken up their permanent abode therew 
Excavations made within the last twenty years in the 
Pirseus, and stiU Uioie recently in the nc-iglibourhood of 
the silver mines of Laurium, enable us to assist at the 
birth and early growth of some of these illicit clubs, but 
there is nothing in the history specially inviting, la 
Rome the general policy of the state towards foreign 
religions was more tolerant than in Greece. Neverthelesa 
here also the practice of certain religions was forbidden, 
and the prohibition naturally produced certain secret 
societies amongst those who were attached to them. The 
law indeed forbade the wofthip of any deity that had not 
been approved by the senate, but then the senate was by 
no means illiberd in granting its diploma of approbation, 
and as often as a new deity was introduced, or even a uev* 
temple built to an old deity, a new sodality seems to have 
sprung up, or to have been officially appointed, to look 
after its interests. It is disputed whether the prohibition 
of the worship of unknown, unrecognized gods, applied 
only to acts of public worship, or extended even to the 
innermost secrecy of private life. Cicero may be quoted 
in defence of the latter view, Livy of the former. Probably 
the letter of the law favoured the stricter side and spoka 
universally, but traditional practice ruled differently. 
Certainly the Romans had a scruple about interfering with 
anything which even pretended to lay claim to a religious 
character. Even when they repressed with such severity 
the secret meetings of the Bacchanalians, this was dune 
not so much in the interest of the other gods, as of public 
order and morality and the security of the state. They even 
continued lo tolerate such foul associations as these, only 
they imposed the condition that not more than five 
worshippers should meet together at once ; and under cover 
of this permission the number of tUtast was much multiplied 
in the city, and these exercised a powerful attraction over 
women by the promise which they made of effecting a real 
purification of the soul. At a later period, wheu Augustus 
destroyedallthe temples of Serapis which had been erected in 
Rome during his absence, he was careful to assign a politi- 
cal motive for this unusual interference with religious liberty. 
If we turn from these religious associations to consider 
the craft gilds in ancient Rome, the first thing that strikes 
us IS their extraordinary number. In the days of Numa 
we are told that there were only eight ; but as time went 
on they so multiplied that in the imperial period we 
count more than fourscore of them, including almost every 
profession and handicraft one can think of, from bankers 
and doctors down to donkey-drivers and muleteers. Nor 
does the mere enumeration of the different trades and 
professions give us at all an adequate idea of their 
number ; for when a club became very large, it was first 
subdivided into centuries, and then these again broke 
off into separate clubs. Again, there was one club or 
company of the watermen who plied their trade on the 
Saone, and another of the watcrnen on the Rhone, though 
both these companies had their headquarters at Lyons. 
The other navigable rivers, too, each had its own company. 
Thus, the most ancient notice wo have of Paris is derived 
from a monument which has come down to us of the water- 
men on the Seine. Vie find mention, also, of more craft- 
gilds than one even in a single street of Rome ; nay, furtiiet 



still, within the limits of a single house, t.^., of the imperial 
palace, and probably of other princely establishments, which 
couuttd their hundreds or thousands of dependants. Each 
di>.33 of slaves engaged in diflcrcnt domestic occupations had 
t'lieir owu clubs. Thus tlie cht/ de cuisine (magister 
tCKjuorum) of Augustus bequeathed a sum of money to the 
collegium, or club, of cooks, in bis imperial majesty's house- 
hold, and there is evidence ihat there were five or six other 
clubs in the palace at the same time. We do not know how 
largo each club may have been ; an old inscriptiun tells us 
of forty seats reserved for a particular club in the amphi- 
theatre ^at. Nimes, but theso belonged probably to the 
officers of the club, not to the ordinary members indis- 
criminately'. Sometimcsthe numberof members was limited, 
either by tho original constitution of the body, or by condi- 
tions subsequently imposed by benefactors who did not wish 
their donations to be frittered away and rendered useless 
by too minute subdivisions. As/to the internal organiza- 
tion of the clubs, the general hlws and principles which 
governed their constitution, both in Athens and in Home, 
they were moulded, as was only natural, very much after 
tho pattern of the civil institutions of the country'. The^'^ 
were republican therefore in spirit, the administration of 
affairs being wholly in the hands of the members them- 
eelves, all of whom had equal rights ; their watchful control 
was incessant, and their authority absolute ; their officers 
were elected by universal suffrage, sometimes by acclama- 
tion ; they were called by the same names as were borne by 
the magistrates of the state, ap\oi'T(<;, qnceslorfs, mayislii 
quinquenuates, curatores, &c. ; they were elected annually, 
and on entering into office they touk an oath that they 
would observe the constitution and laws of the corporation ; 
and on retiring from office they gave an account of their 
stewardship to the assembled members, who exercised a 
right of judgment over them. This judgment seems to have 
been almost uniformly favourable; a commendatory decree 
was voted almost as much a matter of course as a vote of 
thanks to the chairman of our own public meetings. In 
Greece this vote was accompanied by the offering of a crown 
of leaves, of olive, ivy, or poplar, according to the supposed 
choice of the god or goddess to whom the club was dedicated. 
Tn the East, e.g., Bithynia, we find crowns of ribands and 
flowers ; in Rhodes, Uelos, and the adjacent islands, it was 
not uncommonly of gold,— of very little intrinsic worth, 
however, aud provided by special contributions at each 
monthly meeting. But the most valued part of the reward 
to these retiring officers (in Greece) seems to have been 
the proclamation of the honour obtained, which proclama- 
tion took place either after the ceremonies of the chief 
iiunual festival, or sometimes on every occasion of meeting. 
It was also engraved on a column which was set up in some 
conspicuous spot in or near their [ilace of meeting. When 
any special services seemed to call for special recognition, 
the title of benefactor or benefactress was awarded, and 
this, too, was of course added to the inscription. A still 
higher and rarer honour was to ofi"er the retiring officer 
a statue or portrait of himself, either full length or 
half figure only or sometimes both together, and 
even more than one of each But only once among 
Greek inscriptions belonging to these clubs do we find 
any mtuuon oi a salary awarded to the secretary, 
in consideration of the zeal and justice with which 
he had attended to the general interests of the community, 
the exactness with which lie had rendered his own reports 
and accounts, as well as audited those of others who from 
limo to time had been specially deputed to do anything for 
the club, and his constant devotion to the interests of all 
the members both collectively and individually Even in 
this instance, however, Xho zealous and disinterested 
iecretary or treasurer declined the profTered salary, where- 

upon the club voted him a golden crown, which again he 
gave up fur the decoration of the temple in which they met. 
And this, indeed, was the usual fate of these complimentary 
ofTerings. The officers fulfilled the duties of their post 
gratuitously, and often at great expense to themselves, just 
as the civil magistrates were obliged to do ; and it seems 
to have been pretty generally understood, that any extra- 
ordinary complimeuts, such as the offer of a statue or 
portrait, should, if accepted, be carried out at the expense, 
not of the donor, but of the receiver. In Rome, also, 
whenever an inscription states that the members of a 
collegium decree that a statue shall be erected in honour of 
some patron or benefactor, it is generally added that ha 
undertook to pay for the statue himself (honore contenlus, 
impeiisam remisit). Besides the acting officials of these 
clubs, there were also certain honorary patrons, whose 
connection with them was probably much the same as that 
of most patrons of benevolent societies in our own day. 
It was a compliment to invite them to become patrons, and 
they were expected to contribute to the funds in return. 

It only remains that we shbuld say a few words about 
the merely social clubs of 'pagan times, — those clubs which 
had no other bond of union, either commercial, political,' 
or religious, but which aimed only at the amusement or 
private advantage of their members. There was nothing 
in the functions of these clubs to obtain for them a place 
in the, page nf history. The evidence, therefore, of their 
existence and constitution is but scanty. Monumental 
inscriptions, however, tell us of clubs of Roman citizens in 
some of the cities of Spain, of a club of strangers from; 
Asia resident in Malaga, of Phcenician residents at 
Pozzuoli, and of other strangers elsewhere. These all were 
probably devised as remedies against that sense of oinui 
and isolation which is apt to come over a number of' 
foreigners residing at a distance from their native country.' 
Something of the same kind of feeling may have lei to the 
toleration of a club consisting of old soldiers who had beeii: 
in the armies of Augustus ; these were allowed to meet and 
fight their battles over again, spite of the legal prohibition 
of military clubs. Another military club of a different 
kind existed aniung the oflicers of a regiment engaged m 
foreign service in Africa. Its existence can have been no 
secret, for its rules were engraved on pillars which were set' 
up near the headquarters of the general, where they havu 
lately been found in the ruins of the camp. The contribu 
tion of each member on admission scarcely fell short of 
£25, and two-thirds of this sum weje to be paid to his 
heir or representative on the occasion- ('f his death, or he 
might himself recover this proportion of his original sub- 
scription on retirement from military service. The 
peculiarity, however, of this aristocratic collegium was this, 
that it provided that a i>ortion of the funds might also be 
spent for other useful purposes, e.g., for foreign travelling. 
It is to be presumed that a member who had availed him- 
self of this privilege thereby forfeited all claim to he 
buried at the expense of his club. 

Clubs were by no means the exclusive privilege of the' 
male sex in ancient days. Women also were united in' 
similar associations. Their religious sodalities, indeed, were 
not generally edifying ; but they combined together also, 
for social and political purposes. The most remarkable u,l 
theso was the great assembly of matrons, called at one 
time, in a mock-heroic way, "the iniiu)r senate." This 
ladies' club received its title from iiniierial authority, winch 
also legislated as to the needful qualilications of its 
members, the times of its meeting, and the subjects of its 
debates. These concerned the gravest questions of etiquette, 
such as what dress ladies should wciir according to tlieit 
sociu' '"■ink ; who was to take precedence one of another 
on publio occasions of state, iu processions. 6r other 



ceiertionies ; who might ride in a carriage drawn "Dy 
borses , who must be cofttctit to sit behind mules ; whose 
sedan-chair might have fittings of ivory, whose of silver, 
Jsc. Not all ladies could attain to a seat in this little 
senate, which dealt with such delicate questions of etiquette ; 
but we find them forming other clubs of their own which 
qccasionally meddled with questions of municipal, if not of 
general, interest. They deliberated' on the rewards to be 
given to this or that magistrate, and voted funds lor 
monSments and statues in honour of those who had earned 
their approbation. The names of women are not unfre- 
quenlly set down as patronesses of certain craft-gilds, of 
which they can hardly have been ordinary members ; and 
111 one instance at least in Africa, and in another in 
.Majorca, inscriptions distinctly mention that certain ladies 
had filled all the official posts in a collegium. (j. s. n.) 

■ Modern Clubs. — The word club, denoting the promotion 
of intercoDimunity and good fellowship, is not very old, and 
only became common in the time of the Tutler and Spec- 
uuor : it claims a descent, however, from the Anglo-Saxon, 
being derived from clenfan, to divide, because the expenses 
are divided into shares. Thomas Occleve (temp. Henry 
IV.) mentions a club designated- La Court de Bone 
'7om,pai(jnie of whicli he was a member. Aubrey (1G59) 

■ peaks thus of the word : " We now use the word cluhbe 
for a sodality in a taverne." He also mentions the ballot 
box, that potential instrument too often used in modern 

lays for the indulgence of secret spleen : "Here we had 
,very formally) a ballottiny box, and bal lotted how things 
should be carried." Dr Johnson, according to Boswell, 
defines a club to be an "assembly of good fellows meeting 
.under certain conditions." And to the same authority may 
be traced the words '• clubable " and "unclubable." 

» The numerous London clubs which sprang into existence 
in the last and previous century had their place and origin 
almost entirely in the coSee-houses and taverns then 
so much in vogue. Of these the earliest known was the 
livead Street or Friday Street Club originated by Sir 
Walter Raleigh, and meeting at the Mermaid Tavern. 
Shakespeare, Beaumont, Fletcher, Selden, Donne, and others 
were members of this clnb. Other clubs were subsequently 
formed, such as that meeting at the Devd Tavern near 
Temple Bar, of which Ben Jonsoii was supposed to be the 
founder; and later on (in 176-t) we find the Literarij C^iub 
was established chiefly at the instance of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, which soon acquired a renown no mors thau pro- 
jjortionate to its merits — a renown mamtained and brought 
clown to the present day. 

». Addison, in the Spectator, has a paper on the clubs 
of his day (No. 9, vol. i. 1710). Of the description of 
club there sketched many exist at the present time, having 
no object but that of good fellowship and dining. In 
this category may be included the Royal Society Club, 
the history of which has been written by the late Admiral 
Win. Henry Smyth, F.R.S., m the privately printed Sketc/i 
of the Jiise and PrO'/ress of the Royal Society Club, published 
111 VSCO. 

Of the more notable of the clubs of the past and the 
early part of the present century but few resembled the 
club of the Victorian era. Of those which survive may be 
mentioned •n'/'uVe's, originally established in 1G98. This 
club was formerly oi a high Tory character, and though no 
longer political is still somewhat conservative and undoubt- 
edly aristocratic. Brooks's club, sirai'ar to White's in the 
character of its members, and nearly coeval in date, has 
|continued to maintain a political aspect, and is considered 
to be identitied with Whig principles. Boodle's, of later 
date, has always been deemed the resort of country gentle- 
men, and especially of masters of fox-hounds. Arthur's, in 
aorne respects an olIj,hoot of White's, was established fully 

a century ago, and continues to this dsj a ciub of gentle-, 
men associated for no special purpose, bil» united only bj 
congeniality of tastes and ideas 

The number of regularly established clubs in London ii 
upwards of fifty, divided mto political, literary and ecieu' 
tific, university, naval and military, and general clubs. Of th« 
political clubs the principal are the Carlton, the Contenid: 
live, the Junior Carlton, and the St Steplu-n's, the Reform, 
and the Devous'tire (a kind of junior Reform, club), tin 
conditions of admission into which arc of a political nature. 
Of the literary and scientific, \.\\i' , Athenaeum was " insti- 
tuted for the association of individuals known for theii 
scientific or literary attainments, artists of eminence in 
any class of the fine aits, and noblemen and gentlenicu 
distinguished as liberal patrons of science, literature, 
or the arts," and has long enjoyed a high reputation, 
rendering admission to its ranks both tedious as regard.% 
the length of tim-j a candidate has to wait before being 
put up for ballot, and difficult when he is subjected to that 
crucial test. Of university clubs the United University is 
the oldest, tbo others being the Oxford and Cambridye, 
the -Vew University, and others, the qualification for mem< 
bership of whiiih would be that of connection with the 
chief universities. The naval and military clubs include 
the United Service, the Junior United Service, the Army 
and Navy, with numerous others intended for military 
and naval officers, and in some instances for officers of 
militia. The general clubs include the Travellers , to be 
deemed eligible for which a candidate must have " travelled 
out of the British Islands to a distance of at least 500 
miles from London in a direct line " (not a very onerous 
condition in the present day, but one of soma weight 
in 1815 when the club was founded), and the Oriental 
and East India United Service clubs, intended more 
especially for members of Her Majesty's Indian services 
both civil and military. Besides these there are numerous 
clubs of a special character, such as the Windham, whose 
object IS stated to be " to secure a convenient and agreeable 
place of meeting for a society of gentlemen all connected 
with each other by a common bond of literary or personal 
acquaintance;" the National club, consisting of "members 
who hold the doctrines and principles of the Reformed faith, 
as revealed in Holy Scripture, asserted at the Reformation, 
and generally embodied in the articles of the Church of 
England;" or the Gamck, which was instituted in 1831 for 
"the general patronage of the drama, for bringing together 
the .'supporters of the drama, and for the formation of a 
theatrical library with works on costume.'' 

This list might be extended, but the general aims of the 
modern style of club -are sufficiently indicated in this 
reference to the salient features of the clubs named. 

The architectural elevations of the London club-house* 
are such as have lent dignity and character to the parts of' 
London in which they are situated. Pall ilall notably is 
thus now a street of palaces. Nor should the contents of, 
these handsome and convenient mansions pass unnoticed.' 
The AtliencEum has probably the choicest library of its kind, 
consisting mainly of books of reference, and including 
■15,000 volumes. The Garrick club has an exceedingly 
valuable collection of oil and water-colour paintings, chiefly 
as might be expected, relating to dramatic episodes. The 
United Service, the Reform, the Oriental, and some other 
clubs have an assemblage of portraits of members who have 
won fame, or of paintings of celebrated battles and public 
events. The furciture and arrangements of the ditVerent 
apartments correspond to the exteriors, every convenience 
and luxury being placed at the disposal of the members. 

The mode of election of ratmbers varies. In some rluba 
the committee alone have tlio power of choosing new 
members. In others the election is by ballot of the whole 


C L U— C L U 

t-lub, one black ball in ton ordluarily excluding. In the 
AtheiuBum, whilst the principle of election by ballot of the 
whole club obtains, the duty is also cast upon the committee 
of annually selecting nine members who are to be " of 
distinguished eminence in science, literature, or the arts, 
or for public services," and the rule makes stringent 
provision for the conduct of these elections. On the com- 
mittee of tho same club is likewise conferred power to 
elect without ballot princes of the blood royal. Cabinet 
ministers, bishops, spealcer of the House of Commons, 
jadges, &c. 

The general concerns of clubs are managed by committees 
constituted of the trustees, who are usually permanent mem- 
bers thereof, and of ordinarily twenty-four other members, 
chosen by the club at large, one-third of whom go out of 
office annually. These committees have plenary powers to 
deal with the affairs of the club committed to their charge, 
assembling weekly to transact current busmess and audit 
the accounts. Once a year a meetmg of the whole club is 
held, before which a report is laid, and any action taken 
thereupon which may be necessary. 

The entrance fee varies from £40 at the United Service 
and Army and Navy clubs to 20 guineas at the Carlton 
elub. The annual subscription in like manner ranges from 
10 guineas in the Carlton, Reform, and several others, to 7 
guineas in the United Service club. The largest income 
derived from these and all other sources may be stated to 
be that uf the Army and Navy club, which in the year 
1875 amounted to £30,813, of which £19,383 was raised 
by entrance fees and subscriptions alone. The expenditure 
is, however, most commonly of nearly equal amount, and 
of few of the clubs can it be said that they are entirely free 
from debt. The number of members included in a London 
club varies from 2200 in the Ai-my and Navy to 475 in 
the St James's club. 

Numerous provincial clubs are established throughout 
the country. In both Edinburgh and Dublin are clubs 
fully coming up to the metropolitan societies. Nor is this 
great public convenience lacking in the cities and towns 
of Europe, the United States, and the British colonies. 
> Of a different nature and with widely different objects 
are 'the learned bodies designated publishing clubs, of 
which the Abbots/ord, the Bannalyne, the Roxburghe, and 
others are examples. These societies devoted themselves 
solely to the editing of unpublished MSS., or the reprint- 
of rare and valuable works. (j c. w.) 

Arnold (Walter), Life and Death of (ht Sublime Society of Beef, 
tieaks, 1871 ; Aubrey (Jobn), Letters of Eminent Persons, 2 Vols."; 
ilarsh (C), Clubs of London, with Anecdotes of their Afembers, 
Sketches of Character and Conversation, 1832, 2 vols. ; Notes and 
Queries, 3d series, vols. 1, 9, 10; Pyne (W. H.), Wine and WaU 
nuts, 1823, 2 v»ls. ; Smyth (Admiral), Sketch of the Use and Pro- 
gress of the Royal Society Club, 1860; Timbg (John), Club Life oj 
London, with Anecdotes of Clubs, Coffce-Houscs and Taverns, 1866, 
2 vols., and History of Clvbs and Club Life, 1872 ; Walker (Th. ), 
Tht Original, fifth edition, by W A (5uy, 1875 ; The Secret 
History of Clubs of all Descriptions [by Ned Ward], 1709 ; Com- 
plete and Humourous Account of alt the Remarkable Clubs and 
Societies in this Cities of London and IVestminsler [by Ned Ward], 
seventh edition, 1756 ; The Lonkon Clubs ■ their Anecdotes, History, 
Piimie Pules, and Regulations, 1853, 12mo ; Hume (Rev. A.), 
Learned Socieltes and Printing Clubs, 1847. 

CLUB-FOOT (Talipes). The pathology and treatment 
of the various deformities of the foot, which are included 
under the above general title, come strictly under ortbo- 
psdic _ surgery. Several forms of clubfoot have been 
recognized by surgeons There are four primary forms : — 
(1) Talipes eguinus, in which the heel does not touch the 
ground, the child resting on the toes ; (2) Talipes varus, 
in which the foot is turned inwards and shortened, the 
inner edge of the foot raised, the outer edge of the foot 
only touching the ground ; (3) Talipes caUan^s, a rare 

form, in which the heel only toucbes tfre ground, the toes 
being raised; (4) Talipes valgus, 19 •:<Qich the foot is turned 
outwards. The third and fourtu varieties are so rare that 
they are of no practical interest, and need not be further 
alluded to. It is possible to confound true talipes valgus 
with flat-foot, a deformity which is the result of undue 
stretching, from weakness, of the fascial and ligamentous 
structures which maintain the arched form of the foot. lu 
flat-foot the arch is lost, the patient is splay or flat-footed, 
and as a secondary deformity the foot is turned outwards, 
resembling and often confounded with true talipes valgus. 

The two common primary forms of club-foot are talipes 
eqninus and talipes varus. These two varieties are frequently 
combined ; thedeformity is then termed talipes equino-varus. 
A shortening or contraction of one group, or of allied groups, 
of muscles is always to be observed ; as, for instance, in 
talipes equmus, to which the muscles of the calf are con 
tracted, or in talipes varus, in which the group of muscles 
which turn the foot inwards are contracted, or in talipes 
equtno-varus, in which both sets are at fault. This con- 
traction is due either to excessive primary irritation of the 
muscular group implicated, or is secondary to and tho 
result of paralysis of an opposing group of muscles. In 
certain cases the paralysis affects more or less all the musclta 
of the limb ; the result of this is a deformity m the direc- 
tion of the most powerful group. The primary cause of 
these diseased conditions is some irritation of the cerebro- 
spinal central nervous system, either occurring before birth; 
and termed congenital, or appearing after birth, generally 
during the period of first dentition, and termed non-congenital. 
As a rule well-marked cases are congeaital. Such 
deformities are frequently hereditary. Both feet may or 
may not be affected. Recognition of club-foot is of import- 
ance, because if not treated early a change takes place in 
the shape of the bones of the foot, which renders treatment 
much more difficult, and in some neglected cases it is impos- 
sible to restore the foot to its normal shape. 

It is to Stromeyer in Germany (1837), and to Little and 
Adams in England, that we owe a true understanding of 
the pathology and treatment of these affections. 

The following broad principles, which govern the treat, 
ment, are now universally understood and adopted by sur- 
geons: — (1) A subcutaneous division, by the operation of 
tenotomy, of the contracted tendons ; and (2) A stretching 
of the newly formed embryonic tissue which is deposited 
between the cut extremities of the tendons in the inter 
space, the result of their retraction after division. This 
is managed by means of a mechanical appliance termed 
a club-foot boot. Various forms of boot have been used 
by surgeons ; in all the essential feature is that the foot 
is fixed to the boot by sticking-plaster or by straps, and the 
stretching is gradually accomplished by the elasticity of 
Indian-rubber bands, or by steel springs, or by screws. In 
this way the foot gradually assumes a normal appearance. 

As a general rule, after it is evident that the deformity 
is a persistent one, the earlier the operation is per- 
formed the better. Only in exceptional cases should 
interference be delayed beyond the third or fourth month 
of life. If a change takes place in the bones, or if the 
child is allowed to walk before treatment of the deformity, 
the cure is rendered more difficult and more tadious. In 
many cases when the child is young tlie cutting operation 
will not be necessary ; the foot can be restored to its normal 
position by mechanical appliances alone. 

Various rules have been laid down for the proper 
performance of tenotomy. The simple rule to begin with 
the most tense tendon, and to divide it where it is most 
tense, is of universal application. In talipei eqninus the 
tendo achillis, in talipes varus the tibialis posticus and 
tibialis anticu-a require division. In the commou forin. 

C L U— C L Y 


icutpei equiiio-mrus, both groups must bo operated on. 
Very frequently tho plantar fascia is shortened and has 
also to be divided. After the operation, which is greatly 
facilitated by the administration of chloroform, tho foot is 
kept at rest with a bandage for three or four days until 
the small punctures are healed. The boot is then carefully 
applied, and gradually the foot is restored to its normal 
bhapa without causing pain, which interferes with the 
object in view, namely, a moulding (by stretching) of the 
newly-formed tissue between the divided ends of tho 
tendons If there is distinct paralysis the appropriate 
remedies — friction, passive exercise, and the electric battery 
— may be indicated. The boot should be worn for some time 
after the foot has regained its normal appearance, because 
there is always a tendency for a considerable period to the 
return of the deformity. (j. c.) 

CLUNY, or Cluoni, a lown of France, in the department 
of SaOae-et-Loire, about twclve.milcs by rail north-west of 
Macon, oa the left bank of the Grone, a tributary of the 
Saono, crossed there by two bridges. It is a place of 
upwarcis of 4000 inhabitants, and carries on a considerable 
agricultural trade, and tho manufacture of pottery, paper, 
and vinegai. The main interest in the town is due to its 
specimens of mediaeval architecture, which include, besides 
its celebrated abbey, the church of Notre Dame, dating 
from the 13th century; the church of Saint Marcel with a 
beautiful spire ; the ruins of Saint Mayeul ; portions of the 
ancient fortifications ; and a number of picturesque houses 
belonging to various periods from the 12th century 
downwards, classed among the historic monuments of 
France. A mere village at the time when William the 
Pious and Berhon, abbot of Gigny and Baume, laid the 
foundations of what was destined to be one of the principal 
monasteries of Europe, it gradually increased with the 
development of the religious fraternity, and was raised to 
the rank of a town. Before the erection of St Peter's at 
Rome, the abbey church, which was consecrated by 
Innocent II., was recognized as the largest building of its 
kind in Europe, its length being no less than 656 feet and 
its breadth 130. During the wars of the 16 th century the 
abbatial buildings were greatly damaged ; and in the 
Revolution of 1789 a great part of them were completely 
demolished. Restorations have since bpen effected at 
various times, and different portions of the enormous pile 
ore appropriated to civic purposes. The abbot's palace 
contains a museum and a library ; the cloisters are occu- 
pied by a school ; and the site of the abbey church 
affords room for a Government stud. The 12th century 
was the period at which the monks of Cluny reached the 
height of their prosperity ; and about that time no fewer 
than 2000 religious establishments throughout Europe 
acknowledged allegiance. Shortly after they began to 
decline from the ancient rigidity of their rule ; and their 
iufluence gave way before the rising power of the Cister- 
cians. Among the great men whom they have produced 
are Gregory VII., Urban II., and Pascal II. The town 
residence erected in Paris by the abbots of Cluny about the 
end of the 15th century is still extant, and, under the name 
of H6tel de Cluny, .is occupied by the Sommerard arcbseo- 
logical collection ; but the College de Cluny, which was 
founded in 12C9 by Ives de Vergy, has dbappeared. 
CLUSIUM. See Cbiusi. 

CLUYER, Philip (1580-1023), a German geographer 
still regarded as an authority, was bom at Danzig in 1580. 
After travelling in Poland and Germany, ha commenced 
the study of law at Leyden , but ho soon turned his 
attention to geography, vshich was then taught there by 
Joseph Scaligor. Displeased with his desertion of the law, 
his father refused to support him ; and he was forced 
to enter the armj, with whiist he served for two years ia 

Bohemia and Hungary. After leaving the army ho under- 
took to get printed in Holland an apology for Baron Popel. 
who had been imprisoned by the emperor; and in 
consequence he was himself thrown into prison. On hia 
release be visited England, where he married, and became 
acquainted with Dr Holland and Dr Prideaux. Aft^ 
spending some time in Scotland and France, he returned to 
Holland; and in IGll he commenced to publish hisTvorlis, 
being,after ICIC, supported by a pension from the Academy 
of Leyden. His principal works arc — Germania A^itijtia 
(1616), SicilvTi Anliqu<s lihri duo, Sardinia et Corsica 
Antiqua (lOlO), Italia Anliqua (1G24), Introductloin Uni- 
versam Geographiam (1629) 

CLYDE, the most importano river of Scotland, and the 
third in point of magnitude, has its origin from numerous 
small streams rising at a height of about 1400 feet above 
the level of the sea, in the mountains which separate 
Lanarkshire from tho counties of Peebles and Dumfries. 
It flows first in a northerly direction, with a slight inclinii 
tion eastward as far as Biggar, where, in time of floods, 
a junction is sometimes established with the system of ths 
Tweed by means of the Biggar Water. After uniting with 
the Douglas near Harperfield, it takes a north-west course, 
passing Lanark, Hamilton, and Glasgow, and merges in the 
Firth of Clyde below Dumbarton. From its source to 
Dumbarton it is about 73 miles in length, the direct district 
being about 52. Its principal tributaries are the Douglas, 
the Nethan, the Avon, and the Cart from the left, and the 
Medwyn, the Mouse, the Calder, the Kelvin, and the Leven 
from tho right. Of the celebrated Falls of Clyde, three 
are above and one below Lanark ; the uppermost is Ben- 
nington Linn, the height of whicU is about 30 feet ; tho 
second is Corra Linn, whore the water dashes over the 
rock in three distinct leaps, and resumes its course at a 
level S4 feet lower. Dundaff Linn is a omall fall of 10 
feet ; and at Stonebyres there are three successive falls, 
together measuring 76 feet in height. At high water the 
Clyde is navigable to Glasgow for the -largest class of 
merchant vessels. See Glasgow. 

CLYDE, Lord (1792-1863), oetter known as Si3 
CoLiK Cajipbsll, was bom at Glasgow on the 16th of 
October 1792. He received his education at the high 
school of that city, and when only sixteen years of age 
obtained an ensignc;, in the 9th foot, through the influence 
of Colonel Campbell, his maternal uncle. The youthful 
officer had an early opportunity of engaging in active 
service. He fought under Sir Arthur Wellesley at Timiera, 
took part in the retreat of Sir John Moore, and was present 
at the battle of Coruiia, He shared in ail the fighting of 
the nest Peninsular campaign, and was severely wounded 
while leading a storming-party at the attack on San 
Sebastian. He was again wounded at the passage of the 
'Bidassoa, and compelled to return to England, when his 
conspicuous gallantry was rewarded with the rank of 
captain and lieutenant, without purchase. Campbell held 
a command in the American expedition of 1814 ; and 
after the peace of the following year he devoted himself 
to studying the theoretical branches of his profession. In 
1823 he quelled the negro insurrection in Demeraia, and 
two years later obtained his majority by purchase. In 
1832 he became lieutenant-colonel of the 98th foot, and 
with that regiment rendered distinguished service in the 
Chinese war of 1842. ' Colonel Campbell was next 
employed in the Sikh war of 1848— 49, under Lord Gough. 
At Chillianwalla, where he was wounded, and at the 
decisive victory of Goojerat, his skill and valour largely 
contributed to the success of the British arms ; and his 
"steady coolness and military precision" were highly 
praised in official despatches. He was created a K.C.B. in 
1849, and specially named in tha thanks of rarlip.meDb 


C L Y — C N 

After rendering important services in India, Sir Colin 
Campbell returned home in 1853. Nest year the Crimean 
war broke out, and he accepted the command of the 
Highland brigade, which formed the left wing of the duke 
of Cambridge's division. The success of the British at 
%he Alma was mainly due to his intrepidity , and with 
his "thin red line" of Highlanders he repulsed the Russian 
attack on Balaklava. At the close of the war Sir Colin 
was promoted to be Knight Grand Cross of the Bath, and 
elected honorary D>C.L. of Oxford. His military services, 
however, had as yet met with tardy recognition , but, 
when the crisis came, his true worth was appreciated. 
The outbreak of the Indian Mutiny called for a general of 
tried experience; and ou July 11, 1857, the command 
was oflfered to him by Lord Palmerston. On being asked 
when he would be ready to set out, the veteran replied, 
" Within twenty four hours." He was as good as his word ; 
Le left England the next evening, and reached Calcutta on 
August 13. The position was one of unusual difficulty, 
but his energy and resource did not fail for a moment. 
Having formed an army as hastily as possible, he marched 
with 6000 men and 36 guns to the relief of Lucknow. 
The odds against him were great, and nothing fave con- 
eummate dexterity of manoeuvring could have achieved 
success. When the British guns were silenced by the fire 
of the rebels, Sir Colin himself beaded the final assault, 
carried the fort, and saved the besieged. He afterwards, 
by his skilful tactics, thoroughly defeated the enemy, and 
captured their strongholds, — thus crushing the mutiny and 
preserving the British rule in India. For these services 
he was raised to the peerage in 1858, by the title of Lord 
Clyde ; and returning to England in the next year he re- 
ceived the thanks ef both Houses of Parliament. He 
enjoyed a pension of £2000 a year until his death, which 
occurred on the 14th of August 1863. 

Lord Clyde possessed in abundant measure all the 
tiualitie* which go to make a successful general. He com- 
bined the daring of the subaltern with the calm prudence 
of the veteran commander. Th" soldiers whom he led 
were devotedly attached to tiim ; and his courteous 
demeanour and manly independence of character won him 
unvarying respect. Though adequate recognition of his 
merits came slowly, he never allowed any feeling of pique 
to interfere with duty; and he deserves to- be regarded 
ns one of the most distinguished generals that Britain has 

CLYT^MNESTRA. the daughter of Tyndareus and 
Leda, and wife of Agamemnon. See Agamemnon. 

CNIDUS, now Tektr, an ancient city of Caria, in Asia 
Minor, situated at the extremity of the long peninsula that 
forms the southern side of the Sinus Ceraraicus, or Gulf 
of Cos. It was built partly on the mainland and partly on 
the Island of Triopion, or Cape Krio, which anciently com- 
municated with the continent by a causeway and bridge, 
and-is now permanently connected by a narrow sandy isth- 
mus. By means of the causeway the channel between 
island and mainland was formed into two harbours, of which 
the larger, or southern, now known as port Freano, was 
further enclosed by two strongly-built moles that are still 
in good part entire. The extreme length of the city was 
little less than a mile, and the whole intramural area is still 
thickly strewn with architectural remaius. The walls, both 
insular and continental, can be traced throughout their 
whole circuit ; and in many places, especially round the 
acropolis, at the north-east corner of the city, they are re- 
markably perfect. Our knowledge of the site is largely due 
to the mission of the Dilettanti Society in 1812, and the 
excavations executed by Mr C. T. Newton in 1857-8. The 
agora, the theatre, an odeum, a temple of Dionysus, a 
temple of the Musss, a temple of Venue, aad a great number 

of minor buildings have been identified, and the general plan 
o/ ihe city has been very clearly made out. In a temple- 
enclosure Mr Newton discovered a fine seated statue of 
Demeter, which now adorns the British Museum ; and 
about three miles south-east of the city he came upon the 
ruins of a splendid tomb, and a colossal figure of a lion 
carved out of one block of Pentelic marble, 10 feet in length 
and 6 in height, which has been supposed to commemorate 
the great naval victory of Conon over the Lacedaemonians in 
394 B.C. (see Akchitecture, vol. ii. p, 412). Among the 
minor antiquities obtained from the city itself, or the great 
necropolis to the east, perhaps the most interesting are tha 
leaden KaraSccr/noi, or imprecationary tablets, found in the 
temple of Demeter, and copied in facsimile in the appendix 
to the second volume of Newton's work. 

Cnidus was a city of high antiquity and probably of 
Lacedseraonian colonization. Along with Halicarnassus 
and Cos, and the Rhodian cities of Lindus, Camirus, and 
lalysus. It formed the Dorian Hexapolis, which held its ' 
confederate assemblies on the Triopian headland, and there 
celebrated games in honour of Apollo, Poseidon, and the 
nymphs. The city was at first governed by an oligarchic 
senate, composed of sixty members, known as d^ni'rj/noi'e?, 
and presided over by a magistrate called an aptarrip , but, 
though it is proved by inscriptions that the old names con- 
tinued to a very late period, the constitution underwent a 
popular transformation. The situation of the city was 
favourable for commerce, and the Cnidians acquired con- 
siderable wealth, and were able to colonize the island of 
Lipara and founded the city of Corcyra Nigra in the Adri- 
atic. They ultimately submitted to Cyrus, and from the 
battle of Eurymedon to the latter part of the Peloponnesian 
war they were subject to Athens. The Romans easily ob- 
tained their allegiance, and rewarded them by leaving them 
the freedom of their city. During the Byzantine period 
there must still have been a Considerable population ; for 
the ruins contain a large number of buildings belonging to 
the Byzantine style, and Christian sepulchres are common 
in the neighbourhood. Eudoxus, the astronomer, Ctesias, 
the writer on Persian history, and Sostratus, the builder 
of the celebrated Pharos at Alexandria, are the most 
remarkable of the Cnidians mentioned in history. 

See 'Rts.'a.ioTX' a Ionian Antiquities, 1811, and Karamania, 1818; 
Hamilton's Researches, 1842 ; Newton's Travels and Diseoveries in 
the- Levant, 1865 ; and Waddington in the Hevue Kumxanatiqut, 

CNOSSUS, or Gnossus, the most important city o! 
Crete, on the left bank of the Cceratus, a small stream 
which falls into the sea on the north side of the island. 
The city was situated at a distance of about 3 miles from 
the coast, and, according to the old traditions, was founded 
by Minos, the mythical king of Crete. The locality was 
associated with a number of the most interesting legends of 
Grecian mythology, particularly with those which related to 
Jupiter, who was said to have been born, to have been 
married, and to have been buried in the vicinity. Cnossus 
is also assigned as the site of the fabled labyrinth in which 
the Minotaur was confined, and a physical basis for the 
legend may perhaps have been found in the caverns and 
excavations cf the district. As the city w-as originally 
peopled by Dorians, the manners, customs, and political 
institutions of its inhabitants were all Dcnan. Along 
with Gortyna and Cydonia, it held for many years the 
supremacy over the whole of Crete ; and it always took s 
prominent part m the civil wars which from time to time 
desolated the island. When the rest of Crete fell under 
the Roman dominion, Cnossus shared the same fate, 
and became a Roman colony. .^Enesidemus, the sceptnr 
philosopher, and Cbersiphron, the architect of the temple 
of Diana at Ephesus, were natives of Cnotsus. 



IN Jt» most general sense the term coal includes all 
varieties of carbonaceous minerals used as fuel, but it 
18 BOW usual in England to restrict it to the particular varie- 
ties of such miucrals occurring in the older Carboniferous 
furmationa On the continent of Europe it is C'lstomary 
to consider coal as divisible into two creat classes, depend- 
ing upon ditrerences of colour, namely, brown coal, corre 
s])unding to the terra "lignite" used in England and 
France, and black or stone coal, which is equivalent to 
coal as understood in England. Stone coal is also a local 
English term, but with a signification restricted to the 
eubstance known by mineralogists as anthracite. la old 
English writings the terms pit-coal and sea-coal are com 
monly used. These have reference to the mode in which 
the mineral is obtained, and the manner in which it is 
transported to market. 

The root kol is common to all the Teutonic nations, 
while in French" and other Romance languages derivatives 
of the Latin carho are used, e.g., charbon de ieire. In 
France and Belgium, however, a peculiar Tvord, houille, 
is generally used to signify mineral coal. This tvord is 
supposed to be derived from the Walloon hole, correspond- 
ing to the medisval Latin kullce. Liltr6 suggests that it 
may be related to the Gothic havrja, coal. Anthracite is 
from the Greek avBpa^, and' the term lithxmtkrax, stone 
coitl, 8tilJ survives, with the same meaning in the Italian 

i< It must be borne in mind that the signification now 
attached to the word coal is different from that which for- 
merly obtained when wood was the only fuel in general 
use. Coal then meant the carbonaceous residue obtained 
in the destructive distillation of wood, or what is known 
as charcoal, and the name collier was applied indifferently 
to both coal-miners and charcoal-burners. 

The spelling "cole" was generally used up to the middle 
of the 1 7th century, when it was gradually superseded by 
the modern form, "coal." The plural, coab, seems to have 
been used from a very early period to signify the broken 
fragments of the mineral as prepared for use. 

Coal is an amorphous substance of variable composition, 
ond therefore cannot be as strictly defined as a crystallized 
or definite mineral can. It varies in colour from a light 
brown in the newest lignites to a pure black, often with 
a bluish or yellowish tint in the more compact anthracite 
of the older formations. It- is opaque, except in eioced- 
ingly thin slices, such as made for microscopic investigation, 
which are imperfectly transparent, and of a dark brown 
colour by transmitted light. The streak is black in an- 
Ihracite, but more or less brown in the softer varieties. 
The maximum hardness is from 2o to 3 in anthracite and 
hard bituminous coals, but considerably less in lignites, 
which are nearly as soft as rotten wood. A greater hardness 
is due to the presence of earthy impurities. 'I ht- densest 
anthracite is often of a semi-metallic lustre, resembling 
somewhat that of graphite. Bright, glance, or pitch coal 
is another brilliant variety, brittle, and breaking into regu- 
lar fragmcMf.s of a black colour and pitchy lustre. Lignite 
ond cannei are usually dull and earthy, and of an irregular 
fracture, the latter being much t<wgher than the black coal. 
Some lignites are. however, quite as brilliant as anthracite; 
lannel and ict may be turned in the lathe, and are suscep- 
tible of taking a brilliant polish. The specific gravity is 
highest in anthracite and lowest in lignite, bituminous 
coals giving intermediate values (see Table I.) As a rule 
>he dpn.sity increases with the amount of carbdn, bnt in 
Sumo instances a very high specific gravity is due to inter- 

mixed e.irtby ni.ittcrs, which may be separated by me- 
chanical treatment. 

Coal is perfectly amorphous, the nearest approach to any 
thing like crystalline structure being a compound fibrous 
grouping resembling that of gypsum or arragonite, which 
occurs in some of the steam coals of S. Wales, and is 
locally known as " cone in cone," but no definite form or 
arrangement can be made out of the fibres. The impres- 
sions of leaves, woody fibre, and other vegetable remains 
are to be considered as pseudomorphs in coaly matter of 
the original plant structures, and do not actually represent 
the structure of the coal itself. There is generally a ten- 
dency in coals towards cleaN-ing into cubical oP" prismatic 
blocks, but sometimes the cohesion between the particles 
is so feeble that the mass breaks up into dust when struck. 
These peculiarities of stnicture may vary very considerably 
within small areas ; and the position of the divisional 
planes or cleats with reference to the mass, and the pro- 
portion of small coal or slack to the larger fragments when 
the coal is broken up by cutting-tools, are points of great 
inrportance in the working of coal on a large scale.- 
, The divisional planes often contain small films of other 
minerals, the commonest being calcite, gypsum, and iron 
pyrites, but in some cases zeolitic minerals and galena 
have been observed. Salt, in the form of brine, is some- 
times present in coal. Some years ago a weak brine occur- 
ring in this way was utilized at a bathing establishment 
at Ashby-de-la-Zouche. Hydrocarbons, such as petroleum, 
bitumen, paraffin, ic, are also found occasionally in coal, 
but more generally in the associated sandstones and limg' 
stones of the Carboniferous formation. Gases, consisting 
principally of light carburetted hydrogen or marsh gas, 
are often present in considerable quantity in coal, in a 
dissolved or occluded state, and the evolution of these upon 
exposure to the air, especially when a sudden diminution of 
atmospheric pressure takes place, constitutes one of the most, 
formidable dangers that the coal miner has to encounter. 

The classification of the different kinds of coal may_be Classlfica' 
considered from vanous points of view, such as their t'°"- 
chemical composition, their behaviour when subjected to 
heat or when burnt, and their geological position and origin. 
They all contain carbon, hydrogen, o.xygcn, and nitrogen, 
forming the carbonaceous or combustible portion, and some 
quantity of mineral matter, which remains after combustion 
as a residue or " ash." As the amount of ash varies very 
considerably in different coals, and stands in no relation to 
the proportion of the other constituents, it is necessary in 
forming a chemical classification to compute the results 
of analysis after deduction of the ash and hygroscopic 
water. Examples of analyses treated in this manner are 
furnished in the last column of Table I., from which it will 
be seen that the nearest approach to pure carbon is fur- 
nished by anthracite, which contains above 90 per cent, /n'hraoita 
This class of coal burns with a very small amount of flame, 
producing intense local heat and no smoke. It is especially 
used for drying hops and malt, and in air or blast fur- 
naces where a high temperature is required, but is not 
suited for reverberatory furnaces. The American anthracite 
is largely used in iron smelting, as is also that of South 
Wales, but to a less extent, the latter having the disad- 
vantageous property of decrepitating when first heated. Bitnmin- 

The most important class of coals is that generally known ous coale. 
as bituminous, from their property of softening or under- 
going an apparent fusion when heated to a temperature far 
below that at which actual combustion takes place. This 
term is bounded on a luisapprebension of the nature of the 




occurrence, since, altliough the softening takes place at a 
low temperature, still it marks the point at which destructive 
distillation commences, and hydrocarbons both of a solid 
and gaseous character are formed. That nothing analagous 
to bitumen exists in coals is proved by the fact that the 
ordinaiy solvents for bituminous substances, such as bisul- 
phide of carbon and benzole, have no effect upon them, as 
would bo the case if they contained bitumen soluble in 
these reagents. The term. is, however, a convenient one, 
and one whose is almost a necessity, from its having an 
almost universal currency among coal miners. The propor- 
tion of carbon in bituminous coals may vary from 80 to 90 
per cent. — the amount being highest as they approach the 
character of anthracitp, and least in those which are nearest 
to lignites. The amoimt of hydrogen is from 4i to 6 ner 

cent., Willie tnc oxygen may vary within much wider limits, 
or from about 3 to 14 per cent. These variations in com- 
position are attended with corresponding differences in quali- 
ties, which are distinguished by special' names. Thus the 
serai-anthracitic coals of South Walesare known as "dry" or 
"steam coals," being especially valuable for use in marine 
steam-boilers, as they burn more readily than anthracite and 
with a larger amount of flame, while gi\nng out a great 
amount of heat, and practically without producing smoke. 
Coals richer in hydrogen, on the other hand, are more useful 
for burning in open fires — smiths' forges and furnaces— 
where a long flame is required. 

The excess of hydrogen in a coal, above the amount 
necessary to combine with its oxygen to form water, is 
known as "disposable" hydrogen, and is a measure of the 

Table I. — Elemeniary Composition of Coal {the figures denote the amounts per cent). 


1. South Wales ... 

2. Pennsylvania .. 

3. Peru 

Bituminous Steam and 
Coking Coal. 

4. Risca, South -'Wales... 

5. Aberdare, Do. 

6. Hartley, Northumberl'd 

7. Dudley, Staffordshire 

8. Stranitzen, Stjiia 

■ Cannel or Gas Coal. 
9. Wigan, Lancashire 

10. Boghead, Scotland 

11. Albertite, Nova Scotia.. 

12. Tasmanite, Tan Die- ) 

man's Land j 

Lignite and Brown Coal. 

13. Cologne 

14. Bovey, Devonshire 

15. Trifail, Styria 





1 13 








2 43 












6 78 



12-88 1-84 

1275 0-64 

8-08 2-12 


4 93 

22-86 I 0-57 
33-18 I 2-80 












2 36 

2 00 

1 12 

1 13 



calculated exclusive of Water, 

SuJphur, and Ash. 












94 89 





82 67 


69 63 

Hydrogen 0. and N 

3 39 

5 90 



10 99 


1 00 

13 63 


S 21 

24 57 
39 09 

fitness of the coal for use in gas-making. This excess is 
greatest in what we know as cannel coal, the Lancashire 
kennel or candle coal, so named from the bright light 
it gives out when burning. This, although of very small 
value as fuel, commands a specially high price for gas- 
making. Cannel is more compact and duller than ordi- 
nary coal, and can be wrought in the lathe and polished. 
These properties are most higlily developed in the substance 
known as jet, which is a variety of cannel found in the 
lower oolitic strata of Yorkshire, and is almost entirely 
used for ornamental purposes, the whole quantity produced 
near ^Vhilby, together with a further supply from Spain, 
being manufactured into articles of jewellery at that town. 
When coal is heated to redness out of contact -with the 
nir, the more volatile constituents, water, hydrogen, oxygen, 
and nitrogen are expelled, a portion of the carbon being 
also volatilized in the form of hydrocarbons and carbonic 
oxide, — the greater part, however, remaining behind, to- 
gether -nnth all the mineral matter or ash, in the form of 
coke, or, as it is also called, "fixed carbon." The proportion 
of this residue is greatest in the more anthracitic or drier 
coals, but a more valuable product is yielded by those 
richer in hydrogen. Very important distinctions — those of 
caking or non-caking — are founded on the behaviour of 
coals when subjected to the process of coking. The former 
class undergo an incipient fusion or softening when heated, 
so that the fragments coalesce and yield a compact coke, 

while the latter (also called free-burning) preserve thei 
form, producing a coke which is only serviceable when 
made from large pieces of coal, the smaller pieces being 
incoherent and of no value. The reason of this difference 
is not clearly made out, as non-caking coals are often of very 
similar ultimate chemical composition as those in which tho 
caking property is very highly developed. As matter of 
experience, it is found that caking coals lose that property 
when exposed to the action of the air for a lengthened 
period, or by heating to about 300 C, and that the dust 
or slack of non-caking coal may, in some instances, be 
converted into a coherent cake by exposing it suddenly to 
a very high temperature. 

Lignite or brown coal includes all varieties which art 
intermediate in properties between wood and coals of t' e 
older formations. A coal of this kind is generally to br; 
distinguished by its brown colour, either in mass or in tho 
blacker varieties in the streak. The proportion of carbon is 
comparatively low, usually not exceeding 70 per cent., 
whQe the oxygen and hygroscopic water are much higher 
than in true coals. The property of caking or yielding a 
coherent cake is usually absent, and the ash is often very 
high. The specific gravity is low when not brought up by 
an excessive amount of earthy matter. Sometimes it is 
almost pasty, and crumbles to powder when dried, so as to 
be susceptible of use as a ■ pigment, forming the colour 
kno-wn as Cologne earth, which resembles umbet or sepia 

OltlGTX I 

In Nassau and Bavaria woody structure is very common, 
and it is from this circumstance that the term bgnite is 
derived. The best varieties are black and pitchy in lustre, 
or even bright and scarcely to be distinguished from true 
coaU. These kinds are most common in Eastern Enrope. 
Lignites, as a rule, are generally found in strata of a ncv er 
geological age, but there are many instances of perfect 
coals being found in such strata. 

By the term "ash" is understood the mineral matter re- 
maining unconsumed after the comjilete combustion of the 
carbonaceous portion of a coal. This represents part of 
the mineral matter present in the plants from which the 
coal was originally formed, with such further addition by 
infiltration and mechanical admixture as may have arisen 
during consolidation and subsequent changes. The com- 
position o{ the ashes of different coals is subject to consi- 
derable variation, as will be seen by the following list of 
analyses : — 

Table II. — Compositinn nf the Ashes nf Coah. 







r -3 

t- — 










Tiut Coals 

DowUI% South Wales 
Ebbff Val«. do- 
Kdnltc«gnit>e. SUcsia 

39 64 
55 41 

41 CO 


39 JO 
41 lU 

11 5T 


11 <4 

7 40 




258 ... 
S-20 ... 
1 87 2 05 
1-28 1 S2 


3 01 


97 13 


H*^lai»tadt. Saxony... 
' FJcKacy, Hungaiy.. 

3 64 

2 64 

12 35 

The composition of the ash of true coal approximates to 
that of a fire-clay, allowance being made for lime, which 
may be present either as carbonate or sulphate, and for 
sulphuric acid. The latter is derived mainly from iron 
pyrites, which yields suli)liate by combustion. An indi- 
cation of the character of the ash of a coal is afforded by its 
colour, white ash coals being generally freer from sulphur 
than those containing iron pyrites, which yield a red ash. 
There are, however, several striking exceptions, as for 
instance in the anthracite from Peru, given in Table I., 
which contains more than 10 per cent, of sulphur, and 
yields but a very small percentage of a white ash. In this 
ooal, as well as in the lignite of Tasmania, known as white 
coal or Tasmanite, the sul[jhur occurs in organic com- 
bination, but is so firmly held that it can only be very 
partially ezpelled, even by exposure to a very high and 
continued heating out of contact with the air. An 
anthracite occurring in connection with the old volcanic 
rocks of .Arthur's Seat, Edinburgh, which contains a large 
amount of sulphur in proportion to the ash, has been 
found to behave in a similar manner. Under ordinary 
conditions, from i to J of the whole amount of sulphur 
ill a coal is volatilized during combustion, the remaining 
' to J being found in the ash. 

The amount of water present in freshly raised coals 
varies very considcrab'v. It is generally largest in lignites, 
which may sometimes contain 30 per cent, or even more, 
while in the coals of the coal measures it does not usually 
exceed from 5 to 10 per cent. The less of weight by 
exposure to the atmosphere from drying may be from I to 
( of the total amount of water contained. 

Coal is undoubtedly the result of the transformation of 
vegetable matter, mainly woody fibre, by the partial eli- 
mination of oxygen and hydrogen giving rise to a substance 
richer in carbon than the original wood, — the mineral 
matter being modified simultaneously by the almosi entire 
removal of the alkalies and lime, and the addition of 
materials analagons in compositiou to clay, as will be 
seen by comparing the analyses in Table H. The 

following table, given by Percy, shows the relative irtt 
portions of the different components of mineral fuels. 

Tarle III. — Composition of Fuels (assumini/ Carbon = 100), 




rnii;k Coal, S. Staffordshire.. 

Hartley Steam Coal 

South Wales Coals 

American Anthracite 











55 67 











5 91 


3 62 


4 75 


4 09 



1 74 

2 63 

Mohr has computed that the transformation of wood 
into coal is attended with a loss of about 75 per cent, iii 
weight ; and, having regard to the difference in density of 
the two substances, the volume of the coal can only be 
from -j'j to ^ of the woody fibre from which it is derived. 
Th^ nature of the change is essentially a slow oxidation 
under water or any covering sufficient to protect the dead 
wood from the direct action of atmospheric air, as ia the 
latter case the vegetable mould or humus would be pro- 
duced. The products of such decomposition vary with the 
length of time and the nature of the plants acted on, and 
in the of anthracite the change is so great that uo 
portion of the original plant structure can be recognized, 
at the same time the density and conductivity for heat 
and electricity are increased. Thia, however, is a case of 
metamorphosis analogous to the transformation of sedi- 
mentary into crystalline rocks, the extreme term of such 
metamorphosis being the production of graphite or plum- 
bago. Daubr^e has shown that wood may be converteu 
into anthracite by exposure to the action of superheated 
water at a temperature of 400° C. 

The plants concerned in the production of coal vary vciy Coiljuti 
considerably in different geological periods. In the coal ducing 
measures proper, acrogens, ferns, equisetums, and similar f ^'"*' 
allied forms are most abundant. It is stated by some 
observers that entire beds of coal are sometimes made up 
of the spores of ferns. This, however, appears to depend 
upon the inspection of microscopic sections, and may not 
be capable of rigorous quantitative demonstration. In the 
coals of newer date exogenous wood and leaves are more 
common than in those of the coal measures; the former 
also contain resins, sometimes in considerable quantity. 

The number of species of land plants in the British 
sedimentary formations, which may be taken as a measure 
of the comparative prevalence of coal ia the different 
series, is as follows : — 

DevoDian strata s» species.. 

C.-xrboniferous do 320 ,, 

rermiaa do 20 ,, • 

Triassic do ." 9 ,, 

Lias and Oolitic do 160 ,, 

Purleck and Wealden do 33 ,, 

Cret.ueousdo , 19 ,. 

Tertiary do 224 ,, 

The most generally received opinion is that much it iidl 
all coal results from the tnnsforin.ition of plants upoi. 
the site of their growth. The principal evidence in favour 
of such a supposition is afforded by the common occur- 
rence of a bed of clay, the so-called "under-day," con- 
taining the roots of plants, representing i.-- old soil, 
immediately below every coal seam — a fact that was first 
pointed out by the late Sir W. E. Logan in South Wales. 
In Yorkshire the same thing is observed in tho siliceous 
rock called ganister occurring in similar positions, show- 
ing that the coal plants grew there upon .sandy soils 

The action of water in bringing down drift wood may 
have also contributed some material, but much less than 
the local growth.. This may probably have iKcn concerned 



[sequence 'of strata. 

m the prcKluction of the very thick masses of coal of small 
extent fouud in somecoal-fields in Soathern Europe. 

Another theory, that proposed by Dr Mohr, deserves 
notice, namely, that coal may bo of marine origin, and 
derived from the carbonization of sea weeds, such as the, 
great kelp plant of the PaciQc Ocean. This has been very 
ingeniously elaborated by the author, and much apparently 
good e\'ideDce adduced in support (see his Geschickte der 
Erde, Bonn, 1875). But the positive evidence afforded by 
roots found in the under clays is sufficient to render such. 
an hypothesis unnecessary in the majority of instances. 

It must be remembered, however, that, although cellulose 
»,. wood fibre is most probably the chief material concerned 
in the production of coal, this substance is readily con- 
■ vertible into dextrine by the action of protein or analogous 
fermentescible matters containing nitrogen, a change that 
is attended with the loss of structure, the fibre being con- 
verted into a gummy mass. Some forms of cellulose, such 
as that in the lichens known as Icelarhi moss, are soluble in 
-water, and are without fibre. The preservation of recogniz- 
able woody tissue therefore in coals can only be regarded 
as accidental, and any argument founded upon the relative 
quantity of the recognizable vegetable structures in mi- 
croscopic sections is likely to be unsound, unless the rela- 
tive durability of the different portions of the plants be 
taken into account. Thus the bark of trees is, as a 
rule, less perishable than the solid wood, while tissues im- 
pregnated with resinous matters are almost indestructible 
by atmospheric agency. Instances of this are afforded by 
the fossil trees found in the coal measures, which are often 
entirely converted into siliceous masses, the bulk of the 
wood having decayed and been replaced by silica, while 
the bark is represented, by an external layer of bright coal. 
Fossil resins, such as amber, are.of common occurrence in 
coals, especially those of secondary or tertiary age. 

In an investigation of the coking properties of the Saar- 
briicken coals by Schondorff, it was found that they could 
be separated into three different materials, which hfe dis- 
tinguished as glance or bright coal, dull or striped coal, 
and fibrous coal. The last, which is known in England 
as ''mother of coal," resembles a soft, dull, black charcoal, 
containing abundant traces of vegetable fibre, and yielding 
a high proportion of non-coherent coke, behaving, in fact, 
Hke charcoal The bright or glance coal is without any 
apparent structure, cleaving into cubical masses, contains 
but little mineral rratter, and yields a strong coke. The 
striped coal consists mainly of a dull substance, with fine 
alternations of bright matter, and is essentially a gas coal 
yielding only an inferior coke. These differences are sup- 
posed to be due to original differences in the substances 
from which the coals have been derived. Thus the fibrous 
c«il may result from unaltered cellulose, the glance coal 
from the insoluble mucilage derived from the maceration 
of the plants in water, and the dull coal from the soluble 
parts, such as gum and dextrine, either original or produced 
by the transformation of cellulose and starch. That some- 
thing analogotis to a pulping process has gone on in the pro- 
duction of coal is evident from the intimate intermixture 
of the mineral matter constituting the ash, which is quite 
unrecognizable before burning in the majority of instances,! 

F. Muck (Chemische Aphorisvten iiber Steinkohlen, 
Bochum, 1873) has recorded some interesting experiments 
on the behaviour of the three isomeric carbohydrates, — 
cellulose, starch, and gum arable, — which are all of the 
same ultimate composition, namely, CgHjjjOj. When sub- 
jected to the process of coking, cellulose, in the form of 
Swedish filter paper, gave a residue of 6-7'l per cent.-of a 
perfectly non-coherent coke, starch 11-30 per cent, of a 
bright vesicalar coke like that from strongly coking coal, 
cod gum-arabic 20-42 per cent, of a hard duD. cokerc; 

scmbling that prodaced from imperfectly coking gas coals. 
The volume of gas given off by cellulose and starch is 
much larger and of a higher illuminating power than that 
produced from gum under the same conditions. 

The conditions favourable to the production of coal 
seem therefore to have been — forest growth in swampj 
ground about the mouths of rivers, and rapid oscillation 
of level, the coal produced during subsidence being 
covered up by the sediment brought down by the rivei 
forming beds of sand or clay, which, on re-elevation, formed 
the soil for fresh growths, the alternation being occasion- 
ally broken by the deposit of purely marine beds. We 
might therefore exi)ect to find coal wherever strata of 
estuarine origin are developed in great mass ; and this is 
actually the case, — the Carboniferous, Cretaceous, and 
Oolitic series being all coal bearing horizons, though in un- 
equal degrees, — the first being known as the coal measures 
proper, while the others are of small economic value in 
Great Britain, though more productive in workable coals 
on the continent of Europe. The coal measures which 
form part of the Palaozoic or oldest of the three great 
geological divisions are mainly confined to the countries 
north of the Equator, Mesozoio coals being more abundant 
in the southern hemisphere, while Tertiary coals seem to 
be tolerably uniformly distributed irrespective of latitude. 

The nature of the coal measures will be best understood 
by considering in detail the areas within which they occur 
in Britain, together with the rocks with which they are 
most intimately associated. The general succession of these 
rjcks is given in fig. 1 (cols. 1 to 4), which is taken from 

Fia. 1.— Succession of Carboniferous Strata, 
the index of strata issued by the Geological Survey. 


V0£. FI 




Mnp of thf 




E If G L 

.mcrcioptoi* »«ii»«iiica. mikih eoiiioh 




commencement of the carboniieroua period is maiked by 
a mass of limestones known as the Carboniferous or moun- 
tain limestone, which contains a large assemblage of marine 
fossils, and has a maximum thickness in S.W. England and 
Wales of about 2000 fefet. The upper portion of this 
group consists of shales and sandstones kBOwn as the 
Yoredale Rocks, which are highly developed in the moor- 
land region between Lancashire and the north side of 
Yorkshire. These are also called the upper limestone 
ehale, a similar group being found in places below the 
limestone, and called the lower limestone shale, or, in 
the North of England, the Tuedian group. Going north- 
ward the beds of limestone diminish in thickness, with a 
proportional increase in the intercalated sandstones and 
•hales, until in Scotland they are entirely subordinate to 
a mass of coal-bearing strata, which forms the most pro- 
ductive members of the Scotch coal fields. The next 
member of the series is a mass of coarse sandstones, 
with some slates and a few thin coals, known as the Mill- 
Btono Grit, which is about equally developed in England 
and in Scotland. In the southern coal-fields it is usually 
known by the miners' name of Farewell Rock, from its 
marking the lower limit of possible coal working. The 
Coal Measures, forming the third great member of the car- 
boniferous series, consist of alternations of shales and sand- 
stones, with beds of coal and nodular ironstones, which 
together make up a thickness of many thousands of feet — 
from 12,000 to 14,000 feet when at the maximum of deve- 
lopment. They are divisible into three parts, the lower coal 
measures, the middle or Pennant, a mass of sandstone con- 
taining some coals, and the upper coal measures, also con- 
taining workable coal. The latter member is marked by a 
thin limestone band near the top, containing Spirorbis 
earbonarius, a small marine univalve. 

The uppermost portion of the coal measures consists of 
red sandstone so closely resembling that of the Permian 
group, which are next in geological sequence, that it is often 
difficult to decide upon the true line of demarcation 
between the two formations. These are not, however, 
always found together, the coal measures being often 
covered by strata belonging to the Trias or upper New 
Red Sandstone series. 

The areas containing productive coal measures are 
usually known as coal fields or basins, within which coal 
occurs in more or less regular beds, also called seams or veins, 
which can often be followed over a considerable length of 
country without change of character, although, like all 
stratified rocks, their continuity may be interrupted by 
faults or dislocations, also known as slips, hitckes, heaves, 
or troubles (fig. 2). 

Pio. 2. represeDting » stam of coal *, worked toirsidB m, mtermpted 
by fauJU or hitches. The fault at AC is called an opthrow, that 
at BD a downthrow 

The thickness of coal Beams varies in this conntry 
6— i 

from a mere film to 33 or 40 feet; but in the sonij 
of France and in India ma-sses of coal are known up 
to 200 feet in thickness. These very thick seama are, 
however, rarely constant in character for any great distance, 
being found commonly to degenerate into carbonaceous 
shales, or to split up into thinner beds by the intercalatioa 
of shale bands or partings. One of the most striking 
examples of this is afforded by the thick or ten-yard seam of 
South Staffordshire, which is from 30 to 45 feet thick in one 
connected mass in the neighbourhood of Dudley, but splits 
up into eight scams, which, with the intermediate shales 
and sandstones, are of a total thickness of 400 feet in the 
northern part of the coal-field in Cannock Chase. Seams 
of a medium thickness of 3 to 7 feet are usually the 
most regular and continuous in character. Cannel coals 
are generaUy variable in quality, being liable to change 
into shales or black-band ironstones within very short 
horizontal limits. In some instances the coal seams may 
be changed as a whole, as for instance in South Wales, 
where the coking coals of the eastern side of the basin 
pass through the state of dry steam coal in the centre, 
and become anthracite in the western side. 

British Coal-field). 

There are about twenty principal coal-fields of Great 
Britain, besides several smaller ones, whose position is 
shown in Plate I., which may be classed under three 
heads: — 1. Those forming complete basins, entirely cir- 
cumscribed by the lower members of the carboniferous 
series; 2. Those in which one limb of the basin only is 
visible, the opposite one being obscured by Permian or other 
strata of newer date; and 3. Those in which the boun- 
daries are formed by faults, which bring down the upper 
nverlying strata into contact with the coal measures. The 
South Wales and Dean Forest basins are examples of the 
first of the above classes, the North of England and 
Yorkshire and Derbyshire fields of the second, and the 
South Staffordshire of the third. The last two classes, 
are of the greatest geological interest, as giving rise to the 
important problem of their probable extension within 
workable limits beneath the overlying strata. Examples 
of the three different cases are given in Plate II., — the first 
being represented by the section across the Forest of Dean, 
fig. 1 ; the second by that of the Lancashire coal-fields, fig. 
2 ; and the third by the North Staffordshire section, fig. 3. - 

The largest and most important of the British coal-fields Sooth 
is that of South Wales, which extends from Pontypool in Wale* 
Monmouthshire on the east, to Kidwelly in Pembrokeshire, 
a length of about 50 miles, and from Tredegar on the 
north to Llantrissant on the south, a breadth of about 18 
miles, in addition to which a further narrow slip of about 
20 miles long, E. and W., extends across Pembrokeshire. 
Excluding the latter portion, it forms a complete basin of 
an approximately elliptical shape, surrounded by older rocks, 
the Carboniferous limestone and Devonian shale dipping 
generally towards the centre. The basin-shaped structure 
is. however, modified by a central anticlinal axis, which 
brings the lower bed within reach of the surface. The 
total thickness of the coal measures is estimated at about 
11,000 feet on the south, and 7000 feet on the north side 
in the westCTn district. In the central portion between 
Britton Ferry and the River Taff, it diminishes to 4600 
feet on the north side, and is still further reduced in Mon- 
mouthshire and OQ the eastern side generally to about 2500 
feet. The coal-bearing portions are divisible into thr«« 
groups, known as- 

1. Cpper Pensant series. 

2. Lower Pennant series. 
S. White Aah series. 

The Upper Pennant series attains the mairiinnin devel<^ 





ment of p.bout 3000 feet on the south rise of the measures 
near Swansea ; at Neath the thickness is reduced to about 
1200 feet, and in Monmouthshire to between 500 and 700 
feet. It contains all the free burning and bituminous 
coals of the Swansea aud Neath districts, and the house- 
coals of Monmouthshire and the eastern districts, which 
latter contain 26 seams above 12 inches thick, making a 
total of about 1 00 feet of coal, an amount that increases 
westward to S2 seams and 182 feet. The Lower Pennant 
.series averac;es from 1100 to 1500 feet between the TafT 
Vat«»and Llauelly, but on the north side of the anticlinal 
thickens to 3000 feet. The average total of workable coal 
in seams which do not exceed 3 feet is 25 feet, among 
which are some fair steam coals, associated in places with 
black-b.ind ironstone and good manufacturing and house- 
hold coals, j-ielding slack suitable for coking, — the most 
valuable among them being those of the Rhondda valley. 
The lowest or White Ash series contains the bulk of the 
valuable steam and iron making coals which have given the 
coal field its great reputation. It is about 500 feet thick. 
on the eastern side, and about ) 000 feet in the centre of 
the basin. The coals and accompanying ironstone are 
geaerally thicker and more abundant on the south than on 
the north coast. The workable coals in this division 
amount to about 5,0 feet, in seams varying from 3 to 9 feet 
in thickness. The western extension into Pembrokeshire 
belongs, to this part of th^ series ; it covers about 70 
square miles, extending in a narrow east and west belt, 
varying from 2 to 6 miles in breadth from Tenby to 
St Bride's Bay. The measures are very much dis- 
turbed, but are probably about 1500 feet, containing in 
the upper 1000 feet 8 seams of anthracite of about 18 fee.t 
total thickness. 

The total area of the coal-field is about 1000 square 
miles, of which amount about 153 square miles lie beneath 
\h.e sea in Swansea and Carmarthen Bays. Only one square 
mile is covered by newer formations. 

According to the quantity of the coal produced, the area 
la di^-ided as follows : — 

Bituminous coal district 410 square miles. 

Anthracite, 410 ,, 

Intermediate, or Semi-Anthracite ...180 ,, 

The most valuable class of South Wales coals is the 
semi-anthracite or smokeless steam coal of the lower 
measures, which is in constant demand for the use of 
ocean steamers all over the world. It is principally ex- 
ported from Cardiff, Neath, and Swansea. 

The configuration of the ground, owing to the deep north 
and south valleys of the Usk, Ebbw, Taff, Rhondda, and 
Neath Rivers, and the longitudinal anticfmal axis, renders 
the coals of comparatively easy access. The surface rises to a 
height of about 2000 feet above the sea-level, and in the 
valleys a greater vertical range is brought within working 
limits than is the case in any other coal-field of similar 
Forest of The Forest of Dean basin is an outlying portion of that 
Liean coal- of South Wales, from which, as is shown by Ramsay, it 
has been separated by denudation. It is of triangular form, 
occupying an area of 34 square miles, between the Wye 
and the Severn estuary, with a total thickness of 2765 feet 
and 31 seams, together 42 feet thick, only 9 of ^hich are 
above 2 feet in thickness. The depth from the surface to 
thebottom of the basin, in the centre, is about 2500 feet. 
The lower beds of sandstone and the Carboniferous lime- 
stone contain considerable quantities of brown hematite, in 
irregular deposits, which is smelted in part on the spot and 
partly exported to other districts. Owing to the symme- 
trical basin-shaped form of the measures (Plate II. fig. 1 ), 
the coals have been worked from the surface downwards 
%long the outcrops of the seams, leaving large hollows for 

the accumulation of water, which render the working of iht 
lower ground difficult, on account of the great piiinping- 
power required to keep down the water flowing in Iroiu the 
old shallow mines. 

North of the Malvern Hills a straggling patch of coal S»»eni 
measures extends about 35 miles N. and S., from near V».iley 
Worcester to Newport in Shropshire. This is divisible into '*"''■"''"*• 
two nearly equal areas of triangular form. The southern 
part is known as Forest of Wyre, and the northern as Cole- 
brookdalo. The former is unimportant, having a great 
thickness of measures which rest directly on the Devonian 
rocks, but scarcely any workable coal scams. The Cole- 
brookdale measures rest Upon the Upper Silurian rocks, are 
about 800 feet thick, with about 50 feet of coal in 18 
seams, and many beds of nodular ironstone, which has 
given the district a celebrity in the production of iron- 
work, especially high-class castings. The eastern boundary 
is concealed by overlying Permian strata, and it was for- 
merly supposed that the productive measures had been 
removed by denudation on this side ; but there is little 
doubt of their contifiuity towards South Staffordshire. 

To the westward of Colebrookdale are the two small 
fields of Leebotwood and • Shrewsbury. These lie on the 
Silurian rocks. The exposed area of the former extends 
to 12 square miles; that of the latter (which stretches in 
a crescent shape to the south and west of Shrewsbury) to., 
18. Both are partly hidden by Permian strata. 

The South Staffordshire coal-field extends about 22 miles S. Staffera 
N. and S., from Rugeley to Halesowen, with a greatest ^'"" "'*^' 
breadth of about 10 miles from Wolverhampton to Oldbury. ^ ' 
It is entirely surrounded by NewRed Sandstone rocks, which 
in some places are faulted against the coal measures, render- 
ing it difficult to decide upon the chances of a profitable ex- 
tension beneath the visible boundaries. The coal measures 
rest upon the Upper Silurian rocks, which are exposed 
at se'.'eral points within the area, especially at Dudley and 
the Wren's Nest. This district is remarkable as containing 
the thickest known coal seam in England, the Thick or 
Ten Yard Seam, which vanes from 30 to 45 feet in thick- 
ness in the neighbourhood of Dudley, but splits up north- 
wards into several thinner seams in the northern or Cannock 
Chase district. There are 6 principal seams, with a total 
of from 57 to 70 feet in 1300 feet of measures. The field 
was formerly very productive of clay ironstone, but tlia 
supply has now considerably diminished. The coals are 
also subject to curious alterations in places, from the in- 
trusion of igueous rock, especially in the Rowley Hills, 
near Dudley. 

The Warwickshire or Tamworth coal-field is a narrow '^^'1'?'','^''' 
strip of measures, with a maximum thickness of 3000 '" 
feet, extending about 12 miles in a N.W. and S.E. line 
from Coventry to Tamworth. It contains 5 seams, which 
are mainly worked for house coal and steam purposes. It 
is entirely surrounded by New Red Sandstone strata, ex- 
cept for a short distance near Atherstone, where it is seen 
to rest upon the millstone grit, which is altered into 
quartzite by intrusive igneous rocks. 

The Leicestershire or Ashby coal-field is an irregular Leicester- 
patch of 30 square miles, on the east side of Charnwood f"" """' 
Forest, about midway between Leicester and Burton-on- 
Trent. It has 7 principal seams, and probably rests upon 
the mountain limestone, except at the eastern end, where 
it may bo upon the old slatey rocks of Charnwood Forest. 
Southward it extends under the New Red marl towards 
Leicester. In the centre is a patch of barren measures 
upon which the town of Ashby-de-la-Zouche stands, after 
which the coal-field is often named. The eastern side, 
which contains the mines of Whitwick, Snibston, and Cole- 
Orton. contains some igneous rocks apparently connected 
W'th those of Charnwood Forest, which are not seen on the 





western or Moira side, which contains the more important 
workings, None of the seams occurring in either division 
can be identified with certainty in the other, although only 
a few miles distant. The total thickness of the coal 
measures is about 2000 feet, the principal seams occurring 
about the middle, as is also the case in Warwickshire. 

North of the Trent the carboniferous strata present a more 
complete and regular development than is seep in the central 
coal-fields. The Carboniferous limestone and millstone grit 
formations form a central ridge of high moorlands and hills, 
the so-called Pennine chain, in a gently sloping anticlinal, 
running nearly north and south from the north of Derby- 
shire to the borders of Scotland. The coal measures 
'occur on both flanks of this ridge, the largest connected 
(mass being that of the Derbyshire and Yorkshire coal- 
, field, which e.xtends north and south for about 60 miles 
from Bradford to within a few miles from Derby, where 
it 13 covered by the New Red Sandstone formation. The 
exposed breadth varies from 9 miles at the south end to 
22 miles at the north. The measures dip regularly at a 
low angle to the eastward, and pass under the Permian or 
magnesian limestone formation, which forms the eastern 
boundary continuously from Nottingham through Worksop 
and Doncaster to Wakefield. The total thickness of 
measures is about 4000 feet (with about 20 seams), be- 
longing to the middle and lower ganister series, the upper 
series being absent. A generalized section of the strata in 
this coal-field is given in the fifth column of fig. 1. The 
principal seams are the Black shale, or Silkstone, from 5 
to 7 feet thick, which is extensively worked as a house 
coal, and the Top hard, or Barnsl6y coal, which is much 
used for steam purposes. At the north end of the 
field, in the neighbourhood of Leeds and Bradford, two 
thin seams, known as .the I<ow Moor black bed and 
better bed, rema,rkable for their exceptional purity, are 
used for iron-making purposes at Bowling and Low 
Moor. Iron ores are also found in considerable quantity 
on the Derbyshire side of the field, which are smelted at 
Butterly and other works near Chesterfield. The area 
covered by the magnesian limestone formation has been 
proved by several borings and sinkings, the first winning 
having been opened at Shireoak near Worksop, where the 
Top hara coal was reached at 1548 feet below the surface. 
It is estimated that about two-thirds of the total area of 
this field IS to be looked for within the concealed part. 

On the west side of the Pennine axis, and between the 
same parallels as the Derbyshire and Yorkshire coal-fields, 
are those of North StaiTordshire and Lancashire, which ex- 
tend from Longton on the south to Colne on the north, the 
continuity being, however, broken by a small fold of the 
Carboniferous limestone shales, which is brought to the 
surface between Macclesfield and Congleton. Parallel to 
this group, however, and to the e.istward of it, is situated the 
small but important coalfield of North Staffordshire, also 
known as the Pottery coal-field. It has an exposed area 
of about 94 square miles, which is very irregular in form, 
being 17 miles in greatest breadth E. to W., and about 13 
miles from N. to S. The south-eastern portion, which is 
nearly detached, is known as the basin of Cheadle, or 
FroghalL, which is chiefly remarkable for a band of cal- 
careous iron ore formerly exported to StaS"ordshire, but 
now nearly exhausted. The main or western portion con 
sists of a mass of strata about 5000 feet thick, with 37 
eeams of coal, out of which 22, measuring together 97 feet, 
are over 2 feet in thickness ; in addition to which there 
are many valuable beds of ironstone, both argillaceoils and 
black-band. The strata, which are less regularly arranged 
than those of S. Lancashire, as will be seen by the trans- 
verse sections, figs. 2 and 3 in Plate II., being bent in 
contrasted curves, and much broken by faults, form the 

eastern limb of a basin having a general westerly dip, 
which carries them in a short distance below the New Bed 
marl plain of Cheshire. 

The Lancashire coal-field is of an irregular four-sided I.«no«ihfc 
form. The greatest breadth, from Oldham on the east to ''*'-'•'* 
Saint Helen's on the west, is about 52 miles, and the length, 
from Burnley on the north to Ashton-under-Lyne. about 
1 9 miles. AVithin the area are, however, two large islands 
of the millstone grit, which divide the northern or Burnley 
district from the main coal-field of Wigan and Manchester. 
This barren area is about compensated by a tongue of coal 
measure, which extends southward from Stockport t« 
Macclesfield. The thickness of the measure is very great, 
and as the ground is much broken by faults, and the beds 
dip at a high angle, the workings have extended a greate! 
depth than in any other district, the deepest workings 
being at Rose Bridge pits near Wigan, which have been sunk 
to 815 yards, and at Dukinfield, east of Manchester, where 
the Astley pit is C72 yards deep, and the coals nave 
been wrought to a total depth of 772 yards by inclines. 
The greatest thickness is observed in the Manchester dis- 
trict, where the total section is as follows, according to 

Upper Coal Measures 
2013 feet. 

lliddle Coal Measures 
424? feet 

Lower Coal Mca.™res 
GaDister, ]370 feet, i 

Millstone Grit, 

Limestone Shale, about 

Limestone series, 600 feet 

To Oppenshaw Coal 600 ,, 

To Yard Coal, .".... 4S5 „ 

Barren Measures 1678 ,, 

Unknown Strata 

Sod Mine to Black Mine, .-.. 2000 ,, 

Black Mine to Royley Mine, 897 „ 

Royley Mine to Rongh Rock, 1370 „ 

2000 „ 

2000 „ 

There is a total of 100 feet of coal in workable seams 
(exceeding 2 feet), which are chiefly situated in the 3000 
feet forming the bottom of the middle and top of the 
lower coal measures. In the Wigan district there are 18 
workable seams, about 65 feet in all, the total section 
being: — 

Upper Measures, barren, 1500 feet 

Middle Measures, mass seams, 2550 ,, 

Ganister Measures, 1800 ,, 

The Wigan district is remarkable for the prodactioo of 
a large quantity of cannel coal. 

In the Burnley district the lower and middle coal 
measures together are from 2500 to 3000 feet in thick- 
ness, the upper measures being unrepresented. 

The coalfield of Northumberland and Durham lies Korthnw 
north of that of Yorkshire, on the east side of the Pennine berland 
axis. In the intermediate ground between Leeds and *"'* ^"' 
Darlington, about 55 miles, the lower Carboniferous rocks g^"** 
are directly overlain by the magnesian limestone, which 
preserves the north and south course observed further 
south until it reaches the sea at the mouth of the Tyne. 
The coal-field extends north and south from Darlington 
through Durham to the mouth of the Coquet, about 65 
miles, with a greatest breadth of about 22 miles in Durham. 
From the Tyne to the Coquet the eastern boundary is 
formed by the sea, while in the remaining area, from the 
Tyne to the Tees, which is included in Durham, the coal 
measures dip beneath the magnesian limestone. The 
measures are, as a rule, very regular, their dip being lower 
than that observed in other districts.. The total thickness 
is about 2000 feet, with 1 6 seams of coal, together about 
47 feet thick. The m'illstone grit is continuously exposed 
below the coal measures along the eastern edge as far as 
the Tees, where it is overlapped by the magnesian lime- 
stone and Triassic rocks, so that there is a portion of 
the coal-field hidden beyond the exposed southern bound- 
ary, but the extent is probably not large. The eeaward 
extension has been proved in several deep mines io tba 


(J O A L 


neighbourhood of Sunderland, more especially at Uyhope 
and Monkwearmouth which are worked at a depth of 
about lo50 feet to a short distance from the shore. At 
thesy points the coals are nearly flat, but at Harton, near 
Shields, they rise to the eastward, proving that the centre 
of the basin has there been passed. The best estimate 
gives 11 feet of coal, and about IG square miles of area, 
as the probable e.vteiit of this submarine portion of the 
coal measures. The character of the coal produced 
varies in-'the different parts of the basin. The southern 
and western districts adjoining Bishop Auckland and 
Ferryhill prod\ice a strongly caking coal, which is chiefly 
employed in the manufacture of a pure aud dense coke 
for use in the Cleveland and Cumberland iron works, 
a considerable amount being also exported for foundry use. 
The central district, adjoining Newcastle and Sunderland, 
produces the best class of coal, known in London 
under the name of Wallsend, from the pits on the Tyne 
where it was originally mined, which were close to the 
eastern termination of the wall built by the Romans to 
protect the country between the Tyne and the Solway 
from the incursions of the Picts. These collieries have 
been long since abandoned, but the name is still given 
in the London market to the best Durham house coals, 
and even to much that has been produced in other 
places, as indicating a coal of superlative excellence. The 
great merit of Wallsend coal is in its small proportion of 
ash, which also, being dark -coloured, is not so obtrusive on 
the hearth as the white ash generally characteristic of the 
Midland coals. The strongly caking property, and the large 
amount of gas given out in burning, tend to produce a 
bright and enduring fire. In the district north of the 
Tyne the produce is principally steam coal, which is 
known as Hartley coal, being named after one of the 
principal collieries. It is largely used for sea-going 
steamers, and was lately in use in the Royal Navy mixed 
>vith South Wales coal, a combination which was supposed 
to give a higher evaporating value in raising steam than 
when either class was burnt alone. Although of a lower 
calorific power, and making more smoke than South Wales 
coal, the north country coal deteriorates less rapidly than 
the former when stored in' hot climates. There are two 
. . small coal-fields in the mountain Limestone district of the 

Tyne near Hexham, and another on the Solway at Can- 
nobie; these are, however, of small importance. 
Comher- The Cumberland field extends along the coast of the 

land coal- South Irish Channel frc(m Saint Bees northward for 1 5 
•** miles to Maryport, where it turns eastward for about 17 

miles, and is exposed with constantly diminishing breadth 
until it disappears under the Permian rocks of the Vale of 
Eden. The greatest breadth is about 5 miles at White- 
haven and Workington, but, as in Northumberland and 
Durham, the beds dip and the coals have been worked 
below the sSa to a distance of 1 1 miles from the shore or 
2k miles from the pit. The total thickness of the mea- 
Kifres 19 1500 feet, with three workable seams. The pro- 
duce is largely consumed within the district, a considerable 
iportion of the export being to Belfast and other Irish ports. 
' The coal measures of North Staffordshire aud Lanca- 
shire reappear on the western side of the plain of Cheshire 
in the coalfields of Denbighshire and Flintshire, which 
form a nearly continuous tract from the neighbourhood of 
Oswestry through Ruabon and Wrexham to the mouth of 
the Dee, and along the Welsh coast near Mostyn. The 
separation between them is formed by a slight roll in the 
mountain limestone near Greaford, corresponding to that 
dividing the two coal-fields on the eastern out-crop. The 
Deabighshire field is about 18 miles long, having 7 seams, 
together from 26 to 30 feet in thickness. The principal 
Rrorkings are near Ruabon, where there are several hirgs 

collieries producing a much esteemed house coaJ. Th? 
Flintshire field is about 15 miles long. The greate.-it 
breadth is in the neighbourhood of Mold, whence it nar- 
rows in a N W direction, being covered by the estuary vi 
the Dee. At Mostj-n coal has been extensively worked 
under the river, but great difficulty was experienced in 
keeping the mines clear of water. The details of the 
measures in this district have not been fully worked out, 
but the southern portion is the most valuable. The higher 
measures contain six seams, including some valuable beds 
of cannel, the total being about 28 feet. In the northern 
district bordering the Dee the beds are much disturbed 
by faults, but the deeper coals are said to be of good quality. 

The basin formed by the North Wales, Lancashire, and Coal-fieio 
North Staffordshire coal-field is probably the most extensive telow th« 
tract of coal measures in the country, as it may bo ^^j^ 
assumed to extend under the overlying Triassic strata 
under the Dee and the Mersey to South Lancashire and 
across the plain of Cheshire, an area of 800 to 1000 square 
miles. Much of this, however, is far beyond workable 
limits,- the depth to the top of the coal measures being 
estimated at 10,000 feet below the surface at the point of 
greatest depression. The area within the limits of 4000 
feet below the surface, which has been assumed as a 
possible maximum working depth, may be seen by refer- 
ence to Plate I. 

There is a small coal-field in the Island of Anglesea, Anglesey 
which is interesting for its geological peculianties, but it 
is of very small economic value. 

The Somersetshire coal-field appears at the surface in Somerset- 
the form of several disconnected patches, the largest of shire coal- 
which extends northward of Bristol for about 12 miles, ^^"^• 
while the remainder stretches southward for about the same 
distance to the Mendip hills. The Carboniferous lime- 
stone is seen at many places along the western flank, but 
the connection is generally hidden by a peculiar modifi- 
cation of the New Red Sandstone known as the Dolomitic 
Conglomerate, which overlaps both formations indifi'erenlly. 
Towards the east the measures are further obscured by the 
overlap of the Has and oolitic rocks, this being the only field 
in which such an overlap takes place in England. The 
exposed area of the coal measures is only about 14 square 
miles, but it is estimated that they extend over 238 square 
miles, the remainder being concealed by overlying strata. 
The character of the measures is similar to those of South 
Wales and Dean Forest, namely an upper and lower pro- 
ductive series separated by a nearly "barren mass of Pen- 
nant sandstones. The sections, which vary*very consider- 
ably, are summarized by Prestwich as follows ; — 

Upper series. 2600 feet thick, with Ifi seama together 2fi ft 10 in. thick. 

Peasant sandstone, 2500 to 3000 ,, 4 , . 6 0, 

Lower series 2800 26 „ „ Cfi 8 ., 

Together 7900to8400 46 88 4 

The disturbance of the strata by faults is much greater 
than in any other British coal-field. The whole series 
is squeezed into a comparatively narrow trough, which 
throws the bottom of the basin to about 8000 feet below 
the surface. The coals are in some instances tilted up 
vertically, or even turned over, a kind of disturbance 
which is usually attended with considerable shattering of 
the strata. In one instance the upper series of measures 
have been shifted horizontally by an inclined or slide 
fault for a distance of about 200 feet above the lower 
series. In spite of the difficulties caused by these disturb- 
ances, coal seams of only a foot in thickness are regiilarly 
worked in Somersetshire, which is far below the limiti 
considered to be pro6table in other districts. 

The coal-bearing strata of Scotland' are confined to the Scottinb 

' For the following arcoant of the coal-fields of ScotlajvJ the wnior 
is indebted to }ir i. Geilue. F.R.S. 





Oarboniferoas formation, the only exceptionB being the little 
patch of Oolitic coal at Brora in Sutherland and certain 
thin seams which occur intercalated among the Miocene 
▼olcanio rocks of the Western Islands. The Scottish Car- 
boniferous Formation is divisible into four series, viz., — 
1. Coal Measures; 2. Millstone Grit; 3. Carboniferous 
Limestone series ; i. Calciferous Sandstone series. Coal is 
confined chiefly to the first and third of these groups, but 
itt West Lothian and Mid-Lothian the lowest (calciferous 
sandstones) yields some coals, one of which has been worked 
■ (Houston coal, 6 feet thick). These coals are associated 
with the well-known " oil-shales," forming a peculiar deve- 
lopment of the upper portion of the calciferous sandstone 
aeries which is not repeated elsewhere in Scotland, The 
millstone grit contains no workable coals. The coal bear- 
ing strata of the coal measures and limestone series are 
irregularly distributed over the central or lowland district 
of the country between a line drawn from St Andrews to 
Ardrossan, and a second line traced parallel to the first 
from Dunbar to Girvan. Throughout this region the 
strata are disposed in a series of basins, of which there 
are properly speaking only three, namely, — (1) The basin 
of Mid-Lothian and FifesMre, which is bounded on the west 
by the calciferous sandstone series and some older strata, 
forming the Pentland hiUs, Arthur's Seat, the rolling 
ground that extends west of Edinburgh into Linlithgow- 
shire, and the heights behind Burntisland in Fifeshire, and 
in the east by the barren sandstones and igneous rocks of 
the calciferous sandstone series in the east of Hadding- 
tonshire and Fifeshire; (2) The basin of Lanarkshire 
and Stirlingshire, the eastern boundary of which begins in 
the south at Wilsontown, and runs north by Bathgate and 
Borrowstounness to the borders of Clackmannan, extends 
west to the foot of the Campsie and Kilbarchan Hills, and 
is separated by the Paisley and Dunlop Hills from (3) the 
basin of Ayrshire, the main mass of which is bounded in 
the sooth and east by the valley of the Doon, the SQurian 
uplands behind DalmeUington and New Cumnock, and the 
calciferous sandstone and Old Red Sandstone heights which 
overlook tha heads of the Ayr and Irvine valleys. Two 
small outlj-ing coal-fields lie beyond these boundary lines, 
viz., the Girvan and Sanquhar (Dumfriesshire) coal- 
fields, but both belong geologicaUy to the Ayrshire basin. 
Although there are thus only three great basins, it is usual, 
nevertheless, to speak of five principal coal-fields, each of 
which is numed after the county in which it is most 
abundantly developed. Thus we have the coal-fields of 
AjTshire, Lanarkshire, Stirlingshire, Fifeshire, and Mid- 
huo. Ayrshire Coal-fields. — The Ayrshire basin, owing to 
undulations and faultings of the strata, comprises a number 
of subsidiary coal-fields, such as those of Girvan, Sanquhar 
(Dumfriesshire), DalmeUington, New Cumnock, Lugar and 
Muirkirk, Kilmarnock, Kilwinning, Dairy, <Scc. The coal 
measures of this basin are of variable thickness ; they 
contain from 5 to 8 and 11 principal coal-seams, yielding 
a united thickness of from 13 ft. to 40 ft. The Carboni- 
ferous limestone series of Ayrshire sometimes contains no 
workable scams of coal, while occasionally its seams equal 
or surpass in number and thickness those of the coal mea- 
sures. Thus in the Girvan field there are 7 coals with an 
aggregate thickness of 50 feet, while at Muirkirk the same 
number yield a thickness of 40 feet of workable coal. The 
Ayrshire coals consist chiefly of common coals, including 
" hard " or " splint " and " soft" varieties. lu some districts 
the intrusion of igueous rocks has converted certain seams 
into " blind coal," a kind of anthracite, much used for 
steam purposes. Gas or parrot coal (so called from its 
decrepitating or chattering when heated) is met with here 
aud there, chiefly near New CumnucL Parrot cool often 

occurs in thin lines o.* bands, which, when intercalated and 
alternating, with dark carbonaceous ironstone and coaly 
matter, form seams of what is called black-band ironstone. 
The Ayrshire black-bands occur chiefly at Dairy, Lugar, 
and DalmeUington. 

Lanarkshire Coal-fitldt. — These are the most extensive Laiuu« 
in Scotland, covering an area of not less than 150 square •'"'^ 
mOes. The coal measures, which attain a thickness of 
upward of 2000 feet, contain about 18 workable coals; 
but all these are not continuous throughout the whole coal- 
field, wMle some are too thin in places to'pay the cost of 
working. At their best they yield an aggregate thickness 
of 70 feet or thereabout, but in many places they do not 
average more than 40 or 30 feet, or even less. The Uma- 
stone serios is weU-developed in the Lanarkshire coal-fields, 
but it is a very variable group, as indeed is the case 
throughout Scotland. It consists of upper, middle, and 
lower groups, the coals being confined chiefly to the middle 
group, only one or two seams occurring in the lower, 
while in the upper only one seam occasionally attains a 
workable thickness. The principal coals of the limestone 
serios vary in number from 1 to 9, their aggregate thick- 
ness seldom reaching more than 15 feet. The Lanarkshire 
coals consist chiefiy of varieties of common coal, namely, 
hard or splint, soft, dross, ic. But here and there excel- 
lent gas coal is worked, as at Auchenheath, Wilsontown, 
itc, the former being considered the finest of aU the Scotch 
gas coals. Another well-known parrot coal is that of Bog- 
head near Bathgate, the subject of much litigation. Par- 
rot or gas coal frequently occurs forming a part of mussel- 
band and black-band ironstones, which seams, when traced 
along their crop, are often seen to pass into gas coal. The 
best known blackbands are those wrought at Palacecraig, 
Airdrie, and Quarter, BeUside, Calderbraes, Bowhousebay 
and Braco, GoodockhUl and Crofthead, Eamockmuir, 
BossU, Garscadden, and Johnstone. 

At Quarrelton, Renfrewshire, an abnormal development 
of coal seams occurs below the horizon of the main or 
Hurlet limestone, which is usuaUy the lowest important 
bed in the limestone series. The strata underlying that 
limestone contain here and there irregular lenticular 
patches of coal, never of aiiy valua At Quarrelton, how- 
ever, a number of these seams come together, and form a 
mass of coal more than 30 feet thick. 

Stirlingshire Coal-fields. — These embrace the coal-fields StirUiip 
of Falkirk, Carron, and Grangemouth, Siamannan, Clack- 'J""' 
mannan, and Borrowstounness. In the Falkirk, Carron, 
and Grangemouth fields, the coal measures are about 600 
feet thick, and contain 9 workable seams of coal, yielding 
an aggregate thickness of 30 or 31 feet; the thickest seam 
is only 4 feet. In the Siamannan field, the coal measures 
are some 720 feet thick, and show 6 workable coals, yielding 
an aggregate thickness of 15 or 16 feet, the thickest seam 
being 4 J feet, A smaU outlier of coal measures at Coney- 
park, however, gives a depth of 1140 feet of strata, con- 
taining 1£ workable coals (two of which are 7 feet thick re- 
spectively), which yield an aggregate thickness of 44 feet. 
The coal measures of the Clackmaiman district attain a 
thickness of 900 feet, and yield 10 workable seams of coal 
(thickest seam 9 feet) with an united thickness of 41 feet 
The limestone measures of the StirUngshire basins contain, 
as a rule, few coal seams. Where these are best developed, 
they vary in number from 5 (Bannockbum) to 11 seams 
(Oakley); and their aggregate thickness ranges from \\\ 
feet to 37 feet. The coals embrace the variety usuaUy met 
with in Scotland, viz., hard (or splint) and soft coals, some 
of the seams being good caking coals. Good gas coal was 
formerly obtained at Oakley; and other coarse parrot coals 
occur in vanous parts of the fields. Oil shale and black- 
I band ironstone are also met with. The coal- Geld of Bor- 




rowstonnness ia remarkable (oi containing thick sheets of 
basalt rocks, which are of contemporaneous ongin, and do 
not alter the beda that rest upon them. 

Mui-Lothuin and Fifeshire Coal Fields.— The Mid- 
Lothian coal 6eld I8 disposed in what are for Scotland 
unusually symmetncal and unbroken lines. Tbe basins 
lie with their principal synclinal axes from north to south. 
In the deepest basin tbe coal measures lie in a trough 2j 
miles broad and 9 miles in length, stretching from the sea 
at Musselburgh through Dalkeith to Camngton. The 
trough IS underlaid by the miJbtone grit (Roshn Sandstone 
or Moor Rock), whose outcrop surrounds that of the coal 
measures in a band rarely more than half a mile broad. 
The Carboniferous limestone series rises from beneath the 
basin of millstone grit and coal measures on its west side, 
and crosses at a high angle, in a band about a mile in 
breadth, through Portobello, Gilmerton, and Penicuik. 
South of Penicuik the millstone grit forms another basin 
at Auchencorse Moss, but the trough is not deep enough 
to bring in the coal measures. West of Dalkeith the 
limestone senes forms a shallow undulating basin with an 
outcrop of about 7 miles broad, extending from the sea aj 
Cockenzie by Tranent and Pathhead. The Dalkeith basin 
of the coal measures has a total thickness of 1 1 80 feet. 
There are 14 coal seams of a workable thickness, with an 
aggregate of 43 ft. 4 m. The limestone series of Mid- 
Lothian contains numerous coaLseams. The total thick- 
ness of the series is 1 582 feet, with 23 workable coal seams, 
•ggregating 68 ft. 3 in. ' The " great seam " averages 
between 8 and 1 1 feet, and in one place is 12 ft. 6 in. thick. 
The coals of the Afid-Lothian basins are of the usual 
varieties met with in Scotland. The basins of the Mid; 
Xothian coal-fields reappear on the southern coast of Fife, 
and are undoubtedly continuous (though somewhat de- 
nuded) beneath the Firth of Forth. A segment of the 
western half of the coal measures trough (the prolongation 
of that of Dalkeith) extends from Dysart by Markinch, 
Kennoway, and Largo Bay. On the north this trough is 
bounded by faults, and on the east and south it is covered 
by the sea. Measured from Coaltown to Methil (at right 
angles to the line of strike) the thickness of the coal 
measure strata exposed to view may be roughly estimated 
at 4600 feet ; but as the centre of the basin is not reached 
at the coast, the total thickness of strata is not seen. There 
are about 1 1 workable seams, with an aggregate of 61 feet. 
The Dysart Mam coal is 16 feet thick. Another little 
basin, comprising the lower seams of the coal measures, 
s<:curs at Kinglassie. The Dysart or Leven coal measure 
basin occupies about 18 square miles, and that of Kin- 
glassie from 3 to 4. The limestone seriac of Fife lies in 
several much broken basins on the south side of the Ochils 
and Lomond Hills from Alloa to Earlsferry. The prin- 
cipal coal fields in this series are those of Dunfermline, 
Halbeath, Lochgelly, and Kelty; but coals have been 
worked in many other places,- as at Ceres, Rademie, 
Largo Ward, Markinch, <kc. The coal-bearing strata 
vary in thickness, but do not exceed 600 feet. In 
the Dunfermline coal-field there are 10 seams, with an 
aggregate thickness of 41 feet. Halbeath coal-field yields 
8 seams, with an aggregate thickness of 29^ feet ; 
Lochgelly coal-field contams some 14 seams, with an 
aggregate thickness of about 65 feet ; in tbe Kelty and 
Beath coal-field there are 12 seams, yielding an aggre- 
gate of 43^ feet The workable seams in these separate 
fields range in thickness from about 2 feet up to 10 and 14 
feet. The 1 4 feet coal of Lochgelly is divided by thrn nbs 
of stone, which thicken out eventually so as to divide the 
eoal into 6 separate workable seams, which, with the inter- 
%-eiune strata, yield a thickness of 10 fathoms of strata. 
it >• worth noting that, in tbe lower Carboniferous rocks 

of Fifeshire, two coals are worked at Balcanno and else- 
where. As a rule, this series in Scotland K barren. 

The carboniferous strata of Ireland consist chiefly of Ireland 
the Carboniferous limestone, which covers the greater por- 
tion of the island in one connected mass. The coal 
measures have probably been at one time nearly as exten- 
sive, but they have been almost entirely removed by 
denudation, the largest remaimng basins being . that of 
Castlecomer, near Kilkenny, and another in the west, 
between TraJee, Mallow, and Kilamey. In the northrthe 
small basin of Coal Island, on the west side of Lough 
Neagh, is partly covered by New Red Sandstone strata, 
and tnals have been made to discover a possible extension 
of the coal measures in the valley of the Lagan, between 
Belfast and Lisburn. 

The two coal fields of South Wales and Somersetshire Probable 
differ from those of the central and northern counties in coal-mea- 
their strike or direction, their longer axes being placed east |°e ^J" 
and west, instead of north and south, which is the prevail- Engiani 
ing direction of the latter, — the strata in the Somersetshire 
area being sharply bent and broken on a north and south 
line in a manner which is not seen elsewhere in this 
country, but is reproduced on a much larger scale in the 
north of France and Belgium. The most easterly point in 
England at which the coal measures have been worked is 
near Bath, where the overlying Liassic and New Red Sand- 
stone strata are about 360 feet thick, beneath which the 
coal has been followed for some 5 or 6 miles from the 
outcrop. From this point nothing certain is known of 
their extension until we reach the neighbourhood of Valen- 
ciennes,' where a coal field, known as that of Hainault 
and Valenciennes, extends with -a general east and west 
strike as far as Namur, a distance of 65 miles. At Namur 
the width is about 2 miles, near Charleroi from 7 to 8, and 
through the north of France from 6 to 7. Only tbe eactem 
half, between Charleroi and Namur, comes to the surface, 
the western portion being covered' by Tertiary and Creta- 
ceous strata. Within 30 miles of Calais the coal measures 
end, the shales of the Carboniferous limestone having 
been pierced in a boring of 1113 feet deep at the latter 
place. East of Namur the coal measures come in again 
at Li^ge, continuing for about 45 miles, with a width of 
from 3 to 8 miles to beyond Aix la ChapeUe, where they 
are divided by a ridge of Carboniferous limestone into two 
parallel basins, covered by Cretaceous and newer deposits, 
till they appear again on the right bank of the Rhine 
in the valley of the Ruhr, in the great Westphalian basin, 
which is probably the largest in Europe. 

The same general structure is apparent along the whole 
of this line, which, from the western end' of the South 
Wales basm to Frome, and from the N. of France to the 
Ruhr, is about 470 miles long. The measures generally 
dip regularly from N. to S. along the northern line of out- 
crop where it is known, but on the southern side they are 
bent into sharp folds hy the elevation force which has up- 
lifted the underlying Carboniferous limestone and Devonian 
strata along an east and west line, extending from the 
old slaty rock of the Ardennes to the Mendip Hills and 
the western part of Pembrokeshire. The known coal fields 
extend for about 350 miles out of the above amount of 470, 
and from the similarity of their position and structure many 
geologists are of opinion that other basins similarly placed 
may be reasonably supposed to exist in the intermediate 
ground between Somersetshire and Belgium. This subject 
has been treated in great detail by Mr Godwin Austen and 
Prof. Prestwich in the Reports of the Royal Commission 
ttpon Coal. The probable direction of this axis is shown 
on the map, Plate I. The only actual determinations 
of the rocks made within this ares have been in two 
borings at Kentish Town and Haiwich. ~lu theformet. 




gandstones, supposed to be of Devonian age, were reached 
bi'low the Cretaceous strata at 1113 feet, and in the 
latter the Carboniferous hmestone shale at 1025 feet. The 
most Liltely positions for the coal measure trough are con- 
sidered byPrestwich to be in Essex and Hertfordshire, while 
Mr Godwin Austen places them in the valley of the 
Thames or under the North Downs. The latter seems to 
be the more probable than the line further north. The 
point, however, is purely speculative in the absence of 
any trial borings as guides ; and a great number of these 
would certainly be required before any generalization as to 
the position of workable coal measures even within a wide 
range could be accepted. The deep boring on the southern 
part of the Wealden area, near Hastings, which it was sup- 
posed would have thrown a considerable amount of light on 
this matter, has hitherto been without other result than the 
proof of the existence of a tot;illy unexpected and exceed- 
ingly great thickness of the upper Oolitic clays, similar to 
what is known on the French coast, near Boulogne. 

On the south side of the Mendip axis a very large area 
in Devonshire is occupied by the lowest coal measures or 
culm series, which consist almost entirely of clay slates, 
with a few beds of anthracite in the northern portion of the 
district, near Barnstaple and Bideford. These are only 
worked to a small extent, their principal use being, not for 
fuel, but as a pigment for covering ironwork, which is 
known as Bideford black. 
it\ The coal-bearing areas of Secondary and Tertiary age in 

J,*^' 7 the United Kingdom are of very small importance. In 
KwU. Devonshire a lignite-bearing series of strata of Miocene 
ige occurs in the flank of the granite of Dartmoor at 
Bovey Tracey, near Newton Abbot. This is principally 
remarkable for its associated clays, which are derived from 
the waste of the granite, and contain numerous impressions 
of dicotyledonous leaves and other plant remains. The coal 
is a lignite resembling a mere heap of tree stems drifted 
together and partially decomposed. It is not now worked, 
(he original excavations being filled with water ; and as 
the demand is restricted to supplying the wants of the 
local potteries, there is no opening for profitable mining. 
I In the Great Oolite of Yorkshire, some thin seams of coal 
or lignite were formerly worked at numerous points upon the 
moorJ between the Cleveland Hills and the Vale of Picker- 
ing. The most important product of this district, however, 
ie the jet which is obtained from the waste of coal-bearing 
strata of the same age along the cliffs near Whitby, where 
It is manufactured into ornaments. The largest Oolitic 
coal deposit in .this country is that of Brora in Sutherland, 
where a seam of about 3J feet in thickness has been 
worked at intervals for a considerable period, but never to 
any considerable extent except during the prevalence of 
high prices in the coal trade, 
linen Another area in which coal is found in strata of Second- 
jcodJ. ary age is that of Scania, near Helsingborg, in south- 
"" ■ western the tbree coal-fields of Hoganas,Stabbarp, 
and R6ddinge. These are situated in the uppermost Triassic 
or Rha;tic series. At the first, which is the most im- 
portant locality, the strata vary from 100 to 800 feet in 
thickness, with two seams of coal respectively 1 and 4 h feet 
in thickness. There is a good fire-clay associated with the 
lower seam, which is extensively worked for fire bricks and 
pottery, a large proportion of the coal being used on the spot. 
In the Danish Island of Bornholm similar coal-bearing strata, 
probably of Liassic age, form a narrow belt along the south 
and south-west coast, which it is supposed may continue 
nnder the alluvial plain of the Baltic into Poraerania. 

The Coal-fiMi of the Continent of Europe. ' 

The coal-fields of the continent of Europe, though more 
«cattered aoddistuibod than tbo.^eof England, may be simi- 

larly divided into two groups according to their geolo- 
gical structure, the first being those in which the series ii 
complete, the coal measures being symmetrically arranged 
upon the Carboniferous limestone and Devonian strata. 
Examples of this structure are afforded by the long line of 
coal-fields extending through the north of France and 
Belgium to the Rhine valley on the north side of the 
Ardennes, and those of the more easterly district of Silesia 
and of the north of Spain. The remaining and far m'>r8 
numerous European coal-fielda are either contained in 
hollows in crystalline schists, or rest on the older Palaeozoic 
rocks, e.ff., the central and southern French basins, and 
those of Saxony and Bohemia. Further east, in central 
and southern Russia, the order observed in Scotland is 
reproduced, there being a large development of coal in Car- 
boniferous limestone strata, and something of the same 
kind seems to be pcobably the case in China. 

The best developed portions of the Franco-Belgian coal- PraocoJ- 
field are seen within the territory of Belgium, the westerly ^'f"/^ i 
extension into France being entirely covered by a great 
thickness of newer strata. Commencing at the eastern 
side, the first field or basin is that of Li^ge, which 
extends from the Prussian frontier near Verviers in a 
S.W. direction for about 45 miles, the greatest breadth 
being about 9 miles near Li^ge. The principal working 
points are concentrated on the western edge, where the 
lower beds rest on the Carboniferous limestone, the eastern 
portion being partly covered by Cretaceous and Tertiary 
strata. The number of coal seams is 83, the upper peries 
of 31 being so-called fat coals, suitable for coking and 
smiths' fires; the middle series of 21 seams are semi-dry 
or flaming coals ; and the remainder or lower series of 31 
are dry, lean, or semi-anthracitic coals. The upper series, 
which are the most valued, are found only in a small area 
near the centre of the basin at Ougr^e, near Lii5ge. The 
seams vary from 6 inches to 5J feet in thickness, the 
average being barely 3 feet. This order of succession is 
observed in the whole of the districts along this axis. The 
same general structure also prevails throughout the strata 
which have a comparatively small slope on the northern 
crop, and are very sharply contorted, faulted, or broken 
along on the south side of the basins. The local terms 
platteurs and dressants are used to distinguish the flat and 
steep portions of the coals respectively. 

The ne.xt basin, that- of the Sambre, extends for 
about 30 miles from Namur to Charleroi, the greatest 
exposed breadth being about 91 miles. The western and 
a greater part of the northern side are covered by Tertiary 
strata, which are very heavily watered. At Montceau, 
near Charleroi, there are 73 seams, which pass through the 
various conditions of fat, flaming, and drj' coals, from above 
downwards, according to the order already described. 

The most important development of the coal measures 
in Belgium is in the basin of Mons, which extends from 
Mons to Thulin, a length of about 14 miles, with a breadth 
of about 7 or 8 miles, a large portion of the area being 
covered by newer strata. The number of known coal 
seams is 157, out of which number from 1 17 to 122 are con- 
sidered to be workable, their thidiness varying generally 
between 10 and 28 inches, only a very few exceeding 3 
feet. These are classified, according to position, into the 
following groups, which are taken as a standard for the 
whole of the north of France and Belgium : — \ 

1. Upper series (charbon flenu), 47 seams. These, 
which occur chiefly in the neighbourhood of Mons, are very 
rich bituminous coals, especially adapted for gasmaking. 

2. Hard coal series (charhon, dvr), 21 seams. These 
are, in spite of their name, soft caking coals, less rich in 
volatile matter than the Sena, but ercellent for coking 




3. Forge coal series, 29 seam"!^ Tbcse arc cliiefly used 
for smithy purposes ajid iron works, but tlie lower mem- 
bers approximate lo dry stoam coals. 

4. Dry or lean coals, 20 lo 25 seams, forming the bot- 
tom series. They are of small value, being chieHy used for 
brick or lime burning. 

The amount of compression to which the strata have 
been subjected in these coal-fields, has caused them to be 
sharply contorted into zig-zag folds. In the neighbour- 
hood of Mous a single scam may be passed through six a pit of 350 yard.s vertical depth, and the strata, 
which if flat would be 9 miles broad, are squeezed into a 
space- 7 miles across and about 8'200 feet deep to the 
bottom of the basin. At Charleroi the compression is still 
greater, a breadth of 8J miles of flat strata being nar- 
rowed to rather jess than half that quantity by contortion 
iuto 22 zig-zag folds. 

The thickness of the overlying Tertiary and Cretaceous 
strata in the neighbourhood of Mons is from 500 to 900 
foet; towards the French frontier the thickness is between 
200 and 400 feet, and at Valenciennes' about 250 feet. 
At Aniche these overlying measures, or terraiiis morts, are 
400 feet thick, below which the coal measures are found 
to contain 23 feet of coal iii 12 seams. At Anzin, near 
Denain, there are 18 seams, together 39 feet, which is 
about the maximum development in the north of France. 
This coal-field, which was unknown before 1734, has 
reached a very high state of production in spite of great 
dilficulties interposed by the water bearing strata covering 
tlio coal measures. It extends for about 45 miles, dimi- 
nishing in extent and value to the westward. The struc- 
ture 13 very similar to that of the Belgian, one of the 
most remarkable features being the inclined fault called 
the craii lie retour, which brings the lower or dry coal 
series of the north side against the higher coking coals of 
the south side, as shown m the section, Plate II. fig. 4. 

At Hardinghen, near Boulogne, ^<sniaU patch of disturbed 
coal strata was formerly worked. These are now supposed 
to be of the age of the Carboniferous limestone. 

The coal-fields of central and southern France are mostly 
small in area and irregular in structure, w-ith at times 
remarkable single accumulations of coal of enormous thick- 
ness, which do not, however, extend for any distance. The 
most important basin is that of Saint Etienne and Rive 
de Gier, south of Lyons, on the right bank of the Rhone. 
It is of triangular fnrm, about 28 miles long, with a base 
of 8 miles. The thickness of the three pri.icipal seams at 
the latter place is about 33 feet, but at Saint Etienne 
there are from 15 to- 18 seams, making together about 
112 feet in a total depth of measures of about 2500 feet. 

The basin of the Sadno et Loire, near Chalons and 
Autun, is about 25 miles long in a S W. and N.E. line. At 
Creusot, on the north crop, the coals, which are in places 
extremely thick (the main scam averaging 40 feet, but occa- 
sionally swelling out to 1 30 feet), dip at a high angle below a 
covering of New Red .Sandstone strata, and appear in a modi- 
fied form, both as regards thickness and position, on the south 
side at Blanzy. An attempt has been made to prove the 
continuity of the series in the bottom of the basin by a deep 
borins, which was, however, abandoned at a depth of over 
3000 feet without passing through the overlying strata. At 
Montchanin a remarkable seam or mass of coal was found 
extending for about 650 yards, with a thickness varying 
from 60 to 200 feet at the surface, which, however, di- 
minished to one half 60 yards down, and wedged out at 
140 yards deep. Another coal field of considerable im- 
portance is that of Alais and Grand Combe near Nlmes, 
which is jiartly covered by Liassic strata, and has a total 
caaximum thickness of 80 feet of coal. 
. Iq ftddition to these :uust be mentioned the anthracitic 

scries of the Alps, which extend along the flanks of'fBat 
chain from Savoy and the Tarentaise into Styria and 
Carinthia. They arc of small economic importance. 

The Secondary and Tertiary coals of France are of com- 
paratively small importance. Lignite is worked, among 
other places, near Dax in the Pyrenees, and at Trets 
and Fuvcau near Marseilles. 

The coal-fields of Prussia, situated on the extension ofccrmw* 
the Franco-Belgian axis, are the two small basins of the 
Inde and Worm, east of Adelnau, near Stolberg and Esch- 
weiler, which are included in single sharply sloped folds 
of the mountain limestone, and the great Westphahaii 
basin east of the Rhine, in the valley of the Ruhr. The 
latter, which is one of the most important in Europe, 
extends for about 30 miles east and west from Essen to 
Dortmund. The breadth is unknown; the beds are exposed 
for about 15 miles at the broadest part, but the actual 
boundaries to the north and north-east are hidden by Creta- 
taceous rocks. The greatest depth from the surface to the 
bottom of the basin is probably about 5000 feet. It is 
divided lengthways by transverse axes of elevation into 
four principal basins, besides several smaller ones. The 
total thickness of measures already proved is from 6000 
to 8000 feet, with about 130 seams of coal, together 
about 300 feet thick. These are divided into three series 
by two bands of barren measures. The thickness of 
the individual coal seams varies from 8 inches to 7 feet. 
Seventy-six are considered to be workable, having a combined 
thickness of 205 feet, and 54 are unworkable, containing 42 
feet of coal. The proportion of workable coal to the whole 
thickness of strata is as 1 to 33. The order of succession 
as regards quality is similar to that observed in Belgium, 
the most highly valued gas and coking coals being at the 
top of the series, and the dry semi-anthracitic seams at the 
bottom. Oil the south side of the axis of the Rhenish De- 
vonian strata, which is the high ground known as the Eifel 
and Hunsruck, carbouiferous strata reappear in what is 
known as the Pfalz-Saarbrucken basin, occupying a rect- 
angular area between Bingen, Donnersberg, Saarbnicken, 
and Mettlach, about 60 miles long and 20 niiles broad, 
the productive coal measures being restricted to a triangular 
space of about 175 square miles in the S.W. corner. The 
Carboniferous limestone is absent, but the thickness of the 
coal measures is very great, the upper or Ottweiler series 
measuring from 6500 to 11, 700 feet, with about 20 feet of 
coal in different parts of the district, and the lower or 
Saarbriicken series from 9000 to 5200 feet, with 82 
workable and 142 unworkable coal seams, making a total 
of about 350 to 400 feet of coal. The greatest thickness 
of the upper strata is found in those locahties where the 
lower are thinnest, but the total thickness is computed to be 
about 20,000 feet in the thickest known section. The coals 
of the lower divisioaare divided into groups by certain well- 
marked horizons, usually prominent seams, which have this 
peculiarity that the best coking and gas coals are found in. 
the bottom of the series, and the drier ones at the top, thus 
reversing the order observed in the basins on the northern 
slope. The amount of hygroscopic water in the coal 
is also found to diminish downwards. 

In the district between the Ems and the Weser, are 
situated the small coalfields of Ibbenbiiren, on the easterly 
extension of the Wostphalian basin, and the Piesberg, near 
Osnabruck, which are of true Carboniferous age. Besides 
these, there is a curious development of coal in the Weal- 
den strata which extend in a narrow discontinuous band 
E. andW. for about 150 miles. The coals are or have been 
worked at Tecklenburg and Borgloh in the Teutoburgei 
Wald, at Biickeburg in Schaumburg, and in the Osterwald 
south of Banovor. The coal seams are small and of infe- 
rior quality, but are interesting as showing bow nearly the 


C A L 



cuiiJitiona prevailing at the time of the older coal measures 
were repeated over a part of tlie same area in Cretaeeoua 
limes. There are traces of thin discontinuous coal-beds in 
the WealJen strata of Sussex, but nowhere approaching 
til the extent of those in the Wealden strata of N. Germany. 
In the low ground north of Halle, small and irregular 
patches of coal measures are found at Wettiu, Lobejun, 
and Plijtz. The.'ie are probably the remains of a single 
coal-Keld which has been disturbed and broken up at the 
lime of the eruption of a great mass of igneous rooks 
which IS found in a nearly central position between them. 
The coal measures arc also found in the Thiiringer Wald, 
the Schwarzwald, on the south si Je of the Harz, and in the 
Bavarian Obcrpfalz, but none of these localities are im- 
portant as centres of production. In Saxony there are two 
principal coal-fields, the first being that of the Plaueiia'che 
Grand, near Dresden, which is chiefty interesting for the 
very disturbed condition of tl'' measures, and the conse- 
quent tlifljculty in working ; anl the other that of Zwickau, 
whii'h 13 one of the most luipoi in Europe. It forms an 
elliptical basin, about CO miles long, between Zwickau and 
Cliemuita, and from 6 to 7 miles in maximum breadth, tlie 
gi eater portion being covered by New Red Sandstone strata. 
The coal measures, which rest upon old argillaceous schists, 
ar? about 1700 feet thick at a maximum, containing 12 
principal seams of coal, besides several smaller ones. The 
most important is the so-called soot coal (Russkohle), which 
at tunes attains to a thickness of 25 feet. 'The series is 
divided byGeinitz into groups, according to the prevailing 
character of the associated fossil plants, as follows : — 

1. Zone of Ferns, corresponding to the upper group. 

2. Zone of Annularia and Calamites, or middle group. 

3. Zone of SigiUaria, or lower group. 

A fourth, or Sagenariazone, found in Silesia, corresponding 
to the culm measures of Devonshire, complete.; this classi- 

The most important coal-fields of Eastern Europe are 
those of Silesia. The Carboniferous limestone series and 
the lowest coal measures or culm strata reappear in these 
basins, and are associated with numerous valuable mineral 
deposits, mainly of zinc and lead ore. The coal-field of 
Lower Silesia and Bohemia forms a basin between Glatz, 
Waldenburg, Landshiit, and Schatzlar, about 38 miles 
long and 22 miles broad. The number of seams from 3i 
to 5 feet thick is very considerable (from 35 to riO); 
bi't it IS dithcult to trace any one continuously for any 
great distance, as they are liable to change suddenly in 
character. The lower seams usually lie at a higher angle 
than those above them. There does not appear to be any 
relation between the coking power of the coals and their 
geological position, and the same seam often vanes in 
quality in neighbouring mines. 

The upper Silesian coal district extends in dis- 
connected masses from Mahrisch-Ostrau in Moravia, in 
1 X.W. direction, by Rybnik and Gleiwitz in Prussia, 
and Myslowitz in Poland, being held partly by Austria, 
Prussia, and Russia, the Prussian portion between Zrabze 
and Myslowitz being the most important, extending over 
20 miles in length, by nearly 15 in breadtli. The greatest 
thickness of coal in workableseams (from 2i to GO feet thick) 
IS estimated at a total of 333 feet, the thickness of the 
measures being about 10,000 feet. A very large proportion of 
this coal-field is hidden by New Red and Cretaceous strata. 

The Tertiary coals or lignites of Germany are of consider- 
able importance, being distributed over large areas, ihe 
seams often attaining a great thickness, although rarely 
continuous for any great distance. The principal deposits 
are situated in the lower parts of the valleys of the Rhine 
and the Elbe, in Nassau, and in the high ground of the 
lilum in Ravaria. The lignite district of the Rhine ex.- 

tcmla from near Bonn down to Dentz and Eeusberg below 
Cologne. The pigment known as Cologne earth is asepia- 
coloured lignite, which can be ground to a fine powder 
when dried. In Nassau the so-called biluminuus wooil. j 
variety of lignite containing Haltened masses ol woud kI a 
light brown colour, is very coiiiiiiou. The produce cf 
these districts is mainly consumed for house fuel ami steam 
boilers, some small quantity having been used for the pfi"' 
duction of paraflin and photogen oil. 

The coal-fields of the empire of Austria-Uungaiy arc ofr 
very considerable interest, from the great divereity iii 
their geological pusitioa Coals of Caiboniferous age aio 
mainly confined to the northern provinces of Roliemij, 
Moravia, and Silesia, but in Hungary and the Alpmo 
lan'ls, especially in Styria, coals of Tertiary age are found, 
which approach very closely in (Composition and quality to 
those of the coal measures. 

First in importance among the former class, is the basin 
of Pilsen in Bohemia, which covers an area of about 300 
square miles. It rests upon Siluiian shale, and is 
covered uneouforinably by Penman conglomerate and sand- 
stone. The coals vary considerably in ditfereiit localities ; 
the total thickness of the workable seams, fioiii 3 to 5 iii 
number, does not exceed 20 feet. There i» a remarkable 
bed of slaty caiiuel in the upper part of the series, which 
contains animal remains of Permian types associated with 
the ordinary coal flora. Another important basin, that of 
Schlaii-Kladno, E. of Prague, appears along the north edge 
of the Silurian strata, extending for about 35, miles L. 
and W. At Kladno, where it is best developed, it contains 
two principal seams, of which the upper is from 10 to 20 
feet, and tlie lower or main seam from 19 to 40 feet thick. 

At Rossiti near Lirimii, in Moravia, a belt of coal 
measure, resting upon crystalline rocks, has been consider- 
ably worked. There are three seams, together from 27 to 30 
feet thick. These beds are 'said to be the equivalent of 
the upper seams of Pilsen and Kladno. 

In Moravia, Silesia, and Poland the coal measures arc 
associated with the mountain limestone, which in Central 
Germany, east of Westphalia, is generally absent. "The 
upper Silesian cnal-field is situated in Prussia, Austria, Sile- 
sia, and Ru.^sian Poland, the largest portion being in the first 
country. The area of this basin is about 1 700 square miles, 
a considerable portion of it being hidden by Secondary 
and Tertiary strata. In the Austrian portion at Ostrau m 
Moravia there are 370 scams, of which 1 1 7 are workable, 
with a thickness of about 350 feet of coal. The largest 
seams are situated in the upper series, the principal one 
being about 13 feet thick. The coals of the neighbour- 
hood of Ostrau are very full of gas, which occasionally finds 
its way into the cellars of the houses in the town, besides 
giving otr large quantities of fire damp in the workings. 
A bore hole put down 150 feet to a seam of coal in 1S52, 
gave ofl" a stream of gas which was ignited at the surface, 
and has continued to burn, with a flame many feet in 
length, to the present time. The same coal-field extends into 
the district of Cracow, where it contains numerous seams of 
great thickness, which, however, have been but partially 
explored. In the Austrian Alps anthracitic coals occur 
at various points along the northern slopes, in strata of the 
age of the culm measures, but nowhere in any great quan- 
tity. In the Carpathian countries true coal measures are 
not largely developed, the principal locality being near 
Reschitza in the Banat, where 4 scams, from 3 to 10 feet 
in thickness, are \v0rk-3d to a certain extent. 

At Steyerdorf, near Oravicza on the Danube, a remark- 
able coal-field is found in the Lias. There are 5 seams, 
from 3 to, 7 feet in thickness, which are bent into an 
anticlinal, besides being disturbed by numerous faults. The 
ccal IS of a very good quality, yielding a coke suitable for 




ii'oa-smclting. The (uinual production is about 250,000 
tons. Similar coals occur in the Lias at Brenkowa, and near 
Fiinfkirchen, where there are 25 workable seams, together 
about 80 feet thick, also of a good coking quality, but very 
tender in working, making a great deal of slack.' 
ffr Secondary coals occur iu the Trias and Oolitic strata at 
Various points iu the Alps, but are only of local interest. 
; In the Gosau strata belonging to tho chalk, coal is 
tt-Diked at various points in the Alpine lands, the average 
annual production being about 25,000 tons. Eocene coals 
occur in Dalmatia, and Miocene lignite in the Vienna basin 
iu Southern Moravia, one scam, about 10 feet thick, cover- 
ing an area of about 120 square miles. In the Styria-Hun- 
garian Tertiary basin. Tertiary coals are developed on a 
very great scale, especially in Styria, at Salgo Tarjan in 
N. Hungary, and in tlie Repression between thcMatraand 
the crystalline rocks of Upper Hungary. These localities 
represent only those best known by workings, many more 
being undeveloped. The lignite beds are often of great 
tliickness, e.g., 70 feet at Hrastnigg, and 130 feet at Tnfail, 
The production of Tertiary coal in Styria is about 500,000 
tons annually. At Leobcn and Fohnsdorf, lignites are 
.worked of a quality closely approaching to that of Carboni- 
ferous coal, and are largely consumed in the production of 
iron and steel, having almost entirely replaced charcoal in 
.the local forges. In Bohemia, Miocene brown coal strata 
cover a very large area, the principal basins being those 
£>f Eger, Carlsbad, and Teplitz, together about 600 square 
ruiles, the main seam occasionally attaining a thickness of 
over 100 feet. The trade in this coal is very considerable 
olong the entire valley of the Elbe. 

' The coal-fields of Russia have been but imperfectly 
known until a comparatively recent period, when the de- 
mand for fuel caused by the extension of railways and the 
increase in manufacturing industries has stimulated ex- 
plorations, which have resulted in the discovery of coal- 
bearing strata of considerable magnitude and extent. 
These belong to the period of the Carboniferous limestone, 
Jike the lower coals of Scotland. 

( Iq Central Russia the coal-bearing area belonging to 
I the Carboniferous limestone is said to cover about 13,000 
1 square miles, the centre of the basin being at Tula, S. of 
I Moscow. There are two principal seams, 3 ft. 6 in. and 7 
feet tl'.ick, in the bottom of the series near the top of the 
Old Red Sandstone. The coal is of inferior quality, con- 
taining about 12 to 16 per cent, of ash, and from 2 to 5 
per ceut. of sulphur. 

I In Southern Russia, between the river Donetz and the 
'head of the sea of Azoff, a more important coal-field occurs, 
also in the Carboniferous limestone, covering an area of 
1 1 ,000 square miles. There are sixty seams of coal, forty- 
four being workable, with a total thickness of 114 feet. 
The best is a dry or semi-anthracitic coal, resembling that 
of South Wales. At Lugan and Lissitchia Balka, a thick- 
ness of 30 feet of coal is found in 900 feet of strata. 

In the Ural, coal is found in sandstones, interstratified in 
the Carboniferous limestone in the district north of Perm, 
between the parallels of 57° and 60° N. latitude. The strata 
dip at a high angle to the west," under the Permian 
strata. The thickest coals are at Lithwinsk at the northern 
end, where there are three seams worked, measuring from 
30 to 40 feet each ; further south they become thinner. 
The CDals appear to be similar in quality to those of the 
central coal-field. 

In Poland, about Bendzin and Lagorze, N. of Myslo- 
witz, an extension of the Upper Silesian coal-field covers 
an area of about 80 square miles, being partly covered by 
Peririan strata. Nine seams of coal are known, varying 
from 3 to 20 feet in thickness ; but they do not occur to- 
gether, except in a small part of the ceatrc of the basio. 

Tho aggregate thickness of coal is about 60 feet. This ia 
tGe only distiict in which true coal measure strata are 
found in European Prussia. _ - 

Among the southern countries of Europe, the first place Spain 
must be given to the coal-fields of Spain, but even these 
are of comparatively small importance, when measured by 
a northern standard, consisting of a few small and scatte^ed^ 
basins, in which both Carboniferous and Secondary coals are 
represented. Tho Carboniferous limestone acquires a con-| 
siderable development in the Cantabrian chain along the 
north coast, and is associated with overlying coal measures 
near Oviedo and Leon. In the former area the coals are 
often considerably disturbed, becoming anthracitic at the 
same time. The best seams are from 5 to 8 feet thick. In; 
the Satero valley near Sotillo, N.E. of Leon, a seam called 
El Carmen, averaging 60 feet, is sometimes 100 feet thick, 
and is said to be in places associated with another which is 
occasionally 180 feet thick. Another basin of importance 
is that of Beliuez and Espiel, occupying a narrow valley in 
older Palaeozoic strata, about 20 miles north of Cordova, 
which has recently been traversed by a railway connecting 
it with the main lines from Lisbon and Cadiz. This pro- 
duces coking and gas coab of good quality, which are in 
considerable demand for smelting, in the lead and other 
mineral districts in the neighbourhood. Theother principiJ 
localities are at Villaneuva del Rio near Seville, and San 
Juan de la Abaderas in Catalonia. Coals of Neocomian, 
age are found at Montalban, in the province of Teruel, and 
lignites of Miocene age, among other places, at Alcoy lu 
Valencia, and Galas in Catalonia. 

In Portugal a small tract of lower Carboniferous strata, Portugal 
containing anthracite, occurs at San Pedro de Cova, near 
Coimbra, but the produce is very small 

In Italy there is very little Carboniferous coal, what does It»ly- 
occur being mainly of an anthracitic character in very dis 
turbed strata in the Piedraontese Alps. Tertiary lignites 
are worked at several places in Tuscany and in Naples, but 
the total output is inconsiderable when measured by the 
standards of more northern countries. 

Extra-European Coal-fields. .. _ 

In Turkey, Carboniferous coal is found at Heraclea in Turkey. 
Asia Minor, and has been worked from time to time, but 
hitherto without much influence upon the coal produce of 
Europe. Lignites are known to occur near Smyrna, and in 
the Lebanon and various other points in Syria. 

It is doubtful whether any Carboniferous coal exists in AWca. 
Africa. Coal-beanng strata, probably of the age of the 
New Red Sandstone, the so-called Karoo beds, cover a con- 
siderable area, both m the Cape Colony and Natal, but 
little is known of the details of the coal-beds beyond state- 
ments of the excellence of the quality of the coals. Lig- 
nite occurs in the high lands of Abyssinia, and probably at 
numerous other points in the interior. 

The coal-bearing strata of India occur in numerous de- Indit 
tached basins, which are widely distributed over the whole 
peninsula, their aggregate area, however, being but small. 
The principal development is in the valley of the Damodar 
river, one of the southern tributaries of the Hugh, the 
largest coal field being that of Raniganj, on the line of 
the East Indian Railway, about 140 miles W. of Calcutta, 
which covers-an area of about .'JOO square miles. It is a 
basin resting upon crystalline schists, and partly covered 
by Triassic sandstones in the centre, and by jungle and 
alluvium to the eastward, so that the real area is not yet 
known. The strata are divisible into three scries as 
follows : — 

Upper or Raniganj, series — coal-bearing. 

Middle or Ironstone series — no coals. 

Lower or Barrakur series — coal-bearing. 




The total thickness may be from 3000 to 4000 feet ; the 
iroDstone series is a group of shales containing nodular 
' ironstone about 1500 feet thick, but diminishing westward. 
Numerous coal scams are worked at different points, but 
they cannot be traced continuously for more than a short 
distance without change. In the upper senes an average 
of II seams, together about 120 feet thick, are known in 
the eastein or Kaniganj district; and 13 seams, together 
100 feet, on the western side. Occasionally smgle seams 
acquire a great thickness (from 20 to 80 feet), but the 
average of those worked locally is from 12 to 18 feet. In 
the lower series, 4 seams, together G9 feet, are known. The 
coals are generally of inferior quality, containing a con- 
siderable amount of ash, and are non-coking in character. 
The coals of the lower series are better, yielding fairly good 
coking and gas coal at Sanktoria, near the Barrakur River. 

A small coal field at Kurhurbali, near Luckeeserai, on 
the East Indian Railway, has recently been developed to a 
considerable extent for locomotive purposes. It covers 
about 1 1 square miles, with an aggregate of 3 seams, vary- 
ing from 9 to 33 feet in thickness. They are of better 
quality than those of any other Indian copl-field at present 
known, and are of great value to the railway, which is now 
supplied ^-ith fuel at a lower rate tha'n probably sny other 
railway company in the world. 

There are several other coal-fields in Bengal, especially 
that at Jherria, near the sacred mountain of Parisnath, 
those south of Hazaribagh, and those on the Sone River, 
but none are as yet developed to any extent^ being away 
from the great lines of communication. On the western 
side of India the principal workings are at ilopani, on the 
Nerbuddi, on the line of the Great Indian Peninsular Rail- 
way, the coal being used by the railway. It is of inferior 
quality, and the strata are inclined at a considerable angle, 
rendering the working difficult. 

In the Central Provinces a new coal-field of considerable 
extent has been recently discovered, almost entirely by 
bonng, on the Wardha and Chanda districts, on the upper 
tributaries of the Godaveri, a considerable portion being 
within the Nizam's province of Berar. It is probable that 
this may become one of the most important sources of coal 
supply for Central and Western India, but no gr^at amount 
of work has as yet been done tipon it. 

Besides the above, there are several other known coal- 
fields, for details of which the reader is referred to the 
Reports of the Geological Society of India. 

The age of the Indian coals is generally supposed to 
be Permian, the only fossils that have been found in them 
being plants which are referred to Permian types in 
Europe. If, however, the overlying sandstones, containing 
reptilian fos.sils, generally reputed to be of Triassic age, 
ebould, as seems likely, prove to be Permian, it is not 
improbable that the coal-beariug strata may actually belong 
to the period of the upper coal measures, and the Indian 
coal-fields would then be strictly analogous to the deep 
'irregular basins of Southern France and Central Europe, 
with which they have many structural points in common. 
Ko marine strata, or anything approximating to the char- 
acter of the Carboniferous limestone, are known anywhere 
on the plains of India, although they are found in the salt 
range of the Punjab and in the Himalayas. 
' The coal-fields of China are known, from the researches of 
Baron von Richthofen, Prof. Pur.ipelly, and other travellers, 
to cover a very large area, comparable only with those of 
Korth America; but, as may be imagined, no very detailed 
information has as yet been obtained concerning them. 
According to the first-named authority, there are no 
newer formations than the Trias in China other than alluvial 
deposits of enormous thickness, but Palajozoic strata, from 
tlje Silurian upwards, are developed on a very large 

scale. Coal of Carboniferous age exists in ^lancktma, 
mostly in inaccessible mountain valleys, and further nest 
all along the Great WaU, Near Peking there are beds 95 
feet thick, which supply the city with fuel The most 
extensive development is to the west and north-west, on i 
the south of the great mountain range which stretches 
across Western China, where there is an area of Carboni- 
ferous strata of 100,000 square miles. The great plain 
of China is bounded by a limestone escarpment from 
2000 to 3000 feet high, which is capped by a plateau 
covered by 30,000 square miles of coal measures, in 
which the coal seams, 30 feet thick, lie perfectly hori- 
zontal for 200 miles, and are reported to extend beyond 
the frontier into Mongolia. Most of the localities are, how- 
ever, far in the interior. The coal of Shantung, though 
not near good harbours, is the most accessible of aU Chinese 
coal from the sea. It also occurs in the other maritime 
provinces, but in districts offering fewer facilities for export. 
It is obvious, from the enormous dimensions given to these 
coal-fields, that it will be a long time before anything like 
a moderately accurate estimate of their value can be 

In Japan coal is worked at several points, but no detailed JajiM 
account of the mode of its occurrence has been published. 
At the island of Takasima, near Nagasaki,, a colliery i-s 
worked by the Japanese Government for the supply of their 
steamers on a tolerably large scale. 

In the great islands of the Indian and South Pacific 
Oceans, coal-bearing strata are known at many different 
points ; but in the absence of systematic investigation, no 
general estimate can be formed of their position, extent, or 
value. In the Dutch settlements, coal has been found in 
Sumatra and Borneo, the best known deposit being that of Bona^ 
Pengaron,on the south-east of the latter island, where amine 
has been worked by the Dutch authorities for several years. 
The section of the strata, as proved by a level, shows a 
series of 15 seams above 1 foot in thickness, together about 
36 feet, in about 520 feet of measures, 6 of these having 
been worked. The best appear t<5 be somewhat similar to 
the steam coal of the North of England. In the British 
settlement of Labuan, off the north coast of Borneo, 5 LabiM' 
workable seams, together about 27 feet thick, are estimated 
to cover the whole island. This is probably of Tertiary 
age, but approximates in composition to many of the non- 
coking coals of the coal measures. The Labuan coal ii 
also remarkable for containing large masses of fossil resin. 

Tlie most important southern coal deposits, however, ara 
those of Australia, which extend, with short intervals, from 
the Gulf of Carpentaria to Bass's Straits. In the northern 
districts, the distribution appears to be somewhat similar to 
that seen in South America, Secondary and Tertiary basins 
occupying the ground near the sea, while true Carboniferous 
coal is found further inland ; but in New South Wales, 
where their development is greatest, older coal-bearing 
strata extend along the eastern slope of the continent, be- 
tween the parallels of 29 and 35 degrees S. latitude, covering 
a very large area in several detached portions, the largest 
probably exceeding 1 2,000 miles, and come down to the sea. 
The principal workings are situated near Newcastle, at 
the mouth of the Hunter River, at Wollongong. CO miles 
south of Sydney, and at Hartley, about 90 miles inland. 
The coal seams vary from 3 to 30 feet in thickness iii the 
Newcastle district, 16 seams above three feet thick being 
known. The coals are mainly of a free-burning class, but 
some are bituminous, giving a good coke. In the uppo 
most part of the series oil shales and cannel are found. The 
age of the Australian coal measures has been the subject of 
considerable controversy. Formerly it was supposed that 
they were Oolitic, from the supposed affinities of the fossil 
plants ; but it has since been shown that the coal bearins 




^.jrtioDS of the ecries aro interslratiCed with marine strata, 
cuntainiog fossils of Carboniferous and Devonian types. The 
tame associatioa ia observed in the coal series of Bowen 
River in Queensland, and on those of the Mersey River in 
• Tasmania, showing the extension of the Carboniferous strata 
in a chain of detached basins from the 20th to the 40th 
parallel of S. lat., or about 1400 miles. In Queensland the 
strata are estimated to cover an area of 24,000 square miles, 
without taking into account possible extension under the 
Cretaceous strata of the interior. Up to the present time, 
however, very little has been done towards their develop- 
ment, the districts in which they occur being too far from 
the settled portions of the country. The principal mines 
now open are on newer strata of Cretaceous age nearer the 
sea, at Ipswich, in the neighbourhood of Brisbane. Some 
of these coals are remarkably like those of South Durham, 
and yield a good hard, coke, suitable for blast-furnace 

True coal measures are not known to exist in New Zca- 
' land, but coal-bearing strata of two different periods have 
been described by Dr Hector, Dr Haast, Captain Button, 
ond other geologists. The newer series yield a lignite, 
which is described in the reports as hydrous coal ; while 
the older, which is probably of Cretaceous or Jurassic age, 
yields a superior class of combustible, known as anhydrous 
coal. These minerals occur at many different points in 
the two larger islands, and although no systematic detailed 
.account of them is as yet available, a considerable amount of 
information on this subject is contained in the various geolo- 
gical reports published by the New Zealand surveyors. 

In North America, the Carboniferous strata are divided 
Ly geologists into two principal groups, — the lower or 
jub-Carboniferous, which correspond to the Carboniferous 
limestone of Europe, and the Carboniferous, which includes 
the millstone grit and coal measures. 

The first of these is about 5000 feet thick in Penn- 
sylvania, consisting mainly of shales and sandstones ; but 
in the Mississippi valley, in Illinois, Iowa, and Missouri, a 
considerable thickness of limestone is developed in this 
part of the series. In the former region some thin coal 
Beams are found, the relation between the two areas being 
in this respect similar to that of the Carboniferous lime- 
eton« in England to the coal-bearing formations of similar 
age in Scotland. 

The millstone grit forms a mass of sandstones and 
conglomerates from 1200 to 1400 feet thick in Eastern 
Pe^insylyania, but thins rapidly to the westward, being only 
fron 100 to 250 feet thick in Ohio and Tennessee. In 
Arl:an9as, the compact siliceous rock known as novaculite, 
cr Vrkansas hone stone, occurs in this member of the Car- 
boaiferous series. 

The coal measures proper cover a very large area, both 
in the United States and in Canada. First in importance is 
the Appalachian coal-field, covering about 60,000 square 
wiles, extending through parts of Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
Virginia, eastern Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alabama. The 
maximum thickness of strata is from 2500 to 3000 feet; 
that of included coal is 120 feet near Pottsville, 62 feet at 
Wilkesbarre, and about 25 feet at Pittsburg, showing a 
gradual diminution to the westward. The most persistent 
coal is the Pittsburg seam, which is known over an area 
measuring 225 miles by 100 miles, but with a thickness 
varying from 2 to 1 4 feet. 

The antbraci[e district of central Pennsylvania occupies 
an area of about 650 miles on the left bank of the Susque- 
hanna River. The strata between Pottsville and Wyo- 
ming, which belong to the lowest portion of the coal 
measures, are probably about 3000 feet thick, but it 
is difficult to arrive at an exact estimate, owing to the 
■ttinerous folds aud conturtions. There are from ten to 

twelve seams above 3 feet in thickness; the principal one, 
known as the Mammoth or Baltimore vein, is 29J feet 
thick at Wilkesbarre, and in places even exceeds 60 feet. 

The Ilhnois and Missouri basin covers a considerable 
part of these States, as well as of Indiana and Kentucky, 
Iowa, Kansas, and Arkansas. Its area is estimated at 
60,000 square miles, the thickness varying from 600 feet 
in Missouri to 3000 feet in western Kentucky. Tho 
aggregate thickness of coal is about 70 feet. A good 
furnace coal is obtained in Indiana, the so-called block 
coal of Brazil near Indianopolis, which, like the splint 
coals of Scotland and those of Staffordshire, can be used 
in the blast furnace without coking. 

In Michigan a nearly circular area of coal measures, of 
about 5000 square miles, occurs in the lower peninsula 
between lakes Huron and Erie. The thickness is only 
120 feet, and the coals unimportant 

Other coal-bearing areas of less value are known, id 
Texas and Rhode Island. 

The Carboniferous strata are largely developed in tha 
eastern provinces of the Dominion of Canada, notably in 
New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The lower Carbonifer- 
ous group here consists of about 6000 feet of red sand- 
stones and green marls, with thick beds of fossiliferous 
limestones, accompanied by gypsum. The limestones in- 
crease in thickness southward. In this series occurs the 
peculiar pitch-like or asphaltic coal of the Albert mine in 
New Brunswick, of which an analysis is given in Table I., 
svpra. The overlying coal measures, including the mill- 
stone grit, occupy an area estimated at 18,000 square 
miles. The whole thickness of this group at South 
Joggins is about 14,750 feet, with 76 included coal scams, 
together 45 feet in thickness, which are contained in the 
middle division of the series. At Pictou there are six 
seams, together measuring 80 feet in thickness. The coal 
measures in this area approach more near to the great coal- 
fields of Europe in thickness than those of the other 
American Carboniferous districts. Rocks of Carboniferous 
age occur in various 'places on both flanks of the Rocky 
Mountains, and in the Arctic Archipelago, but have not yet 
been explored. 

Lignite-bearing strata of Cretaceous and Tertiary ago 
occupy a very considerable area in the central and western 
portions of North America, especially in the upper 
Missouri and Saskatchewan valleys, in Utah and Texas, 
and in California, Oregon, and Vancouver Island. In 
the last locality coal has been extensively mined near 
Nanaimo, on the east coast, for several years past, in strata 
of Cretaceous age. Tertiary lignites are worked in Belling- 
ham Bay, at Coose Bay in Oregon, and at Monte Diabolo, 
near San Francisco. The lignitic formations of the eastern 
flank of the Rocky Mountains, which are considered by 
Hayden to occupy a position between the Cretaceous and 
Eocene Tertiary strata, occupy an area estimated at about 
50,000 square miles within the United States, and exieiirl 
both northward into Canada and southward into Mexico. ' 

In South America coal, probably of Carboniferous age," 
is found in the Brazilian provinces of Sao Pedro,' 
Grande do Sul, and Santa Catharina.and in theneighbourii.^ 
state of Uraguay. The largest area is that known as the 
Candiota coal-field, which is exposed for about 50 miles in 
the valley of the river of the same name. The sections ex- 
posed show 5 seams from 9 to 25 feet each, or together 
about 65 feet of coal. Other basins are known at S. 
Sep& and S. Jeronimo, on the Jacahahay River. The 
latter is the only point at which mines are worked, as 
the coals, though thinner than those of the other localities 
mentioned, are situated within the reach of navigabla 
waters, having only to bear a land carriage of 8 miles t9 
the river. 


On the west coast of South America, Cretaceous coals 
■are worked at Lota, in Chili, and at Sandy Point, in the 
Straits of Magellan. In Peru both Secondary and Carboni- 
ferous-coals are known at various points in the interior, tho 
former occupying a position on the first rise of the table 
land of the Andes, while the latter occur in higher ground, 
at a greater distance from the coast. Good coal is also 
found at many points in the Santa valley. 

Much of the PeruWan coal has undergone considerable 
disturbance and mctamorphism subsequent to its deposi- 
tion. At Porton, 45 miles east of Truxillo, a ridge of 
coal-bearing sandstones has been changed into a hard 
quartzite, with an interstratified seam of anthracite in a 
nearly vertical position. The coal is remarkable as con 
tainiug a large amount of sulphur (see analysis Table I.). 
The hitherto inaccessible position of these places, which 
are usually more than 10,000 feet above the sea-level, 
his prevented the development of coal-mining in Peru , 
but the extension of railways into the mountains will 
probably bring them into importance, by stimulating a 
local demand for fuel. 

Extent of fxisting Workable Coal. 

Tho following summary of the amount of coal estimated 
as workable remaining in the different districts, which- is 
taken from the report of the Royal Commission on coal, and 
founded upon investigations made in the years 1866-71, 
furnishes an approximate measure of the comparative value, 
present and prospective, of the different coal-fields of the 
Uliited Kingdom. The quantities represent the probaH* 
ag^Tegate yield of all seams above 1 foot thick. 

Coal rtmaining in exposed Coal-fitlds. 

Cojl-Ficldi Within 4000 feet. Below -1000 (cet. 

Tons. Tons 

Suu'h Wale 32,456,208,913 4,109,987,004 

Forest of Dean, - . 265,000.000 

Roiticrsetshire. . . '— 4,218,970,762 1,885,340,220 

South Statforilshire, . i 

Sofe- :.••■;. 1.906.119.-63' 

OleeHiUs... . - ) 

Leicestershire.. .' 836,795, 734 

vVanvickshire, • ■> 458,652,714 

Vorth Wales, . '^ 2.005,000,000 

Miglesea, 5,000,000 

N'orth SlafTordshire 3,825,488,103 1,000,785,488 

Yorkshire and Derbyshire, 18,172,071,433 234,728,010 

"Yorkshire (Oolitic, ic.) ,. 70,000,000 

Lancashire .and Cheshire. 5,546,000,000 90,000,000 

^ Dlf'rham"'''"'^ *"'' | ".036,660,236 

Cumberland, 405.203,792 

Scotland 9,839,965,930 

do (Oolitic), - 3,500,000 

Ireland, 155,600,000 

90,206,240,387 7,320,840,722 

The quantity estimated as lying above the workable limit 
of 4000 feet under the Permian and other formations, in the 
central andnorthern counties of England, is 56,248,000,000 
tons, covering an area of 2044 square miles, in addition 
to which, in the flat ground between the Mersey, Denbigh- 
shire, the North Staffordshire hills, Cannock Chase, and 
Colebrookdale, a further area of 843 square miles at inac- 
cessible depths is computed to contain — 

Between 4000 and 6000 feet, 29,341,649,067 tons. 

„ 6000 „ 10000 „ 15,302,741,333 „ 

• ,,. 41,144,300,400 , 

Adding to this the amount 
' below 4000 feet from the previous table, 7,320,840.722 „ 

Total unavailable coal,.T 48,465,141,122 „ 

As •ompared with 148,454,240,387 „ 

the quantity of oiorkable coa], as made up of the two 

A L 


amounts, 90,200,240,337 and 56,248.000,000 tons/giTer 
above. From this it follows that, out ol the probable total 
quantity of coal in the Hritish coal measures, rather mure 
than three-fourths may become available for consumption, 
or about 1 170 times the amount of the present annual out 
put of 125 million tons. 

Similar estimates have been formed for the coal-fi«lds 
of other countries, especially iu France and Germany, but 
it is doubtful whether the necessary structural details are 
sufficiently well known to admit of more than a tolerably 
rough guess being made. 


The opening and laying out, or, 'as it is geneiraDy called, PrelimiD- 
" wnnning," of new collieries is rarely undertaken without a ai7 ir:»i *• 
preliminary examination of the character of the strata by po^'-^of''* 
means of borings, either for the purpose of determining "'^'' 
the number and nature of the coal-seams in new ground, 
or the position of the particular searn or seams wbidl it 
is proposed to work in extensions of known coal-fields. ^ 

Fig. 3. 

, The principle of proving a mineral field by boring 18 
illustrated by figure 3, which represents a line direct from 
the dip to the rise of the field, the inclination of the 
strata being one in eight. Ko. 1 bore is commenced at 
the dip, and reaches a seam of coal A, at 40 fathoms ; at 
this depth it is considered proper to remove nearer to 
the outcrop, so that lower strata may be bored into at a less 
depth, and a second bore is commenced. To find the 
position of No. 2, so as to form a continuous section, it is 
necessary to reckon the inclination of the strata, which is 
1 in 8 ; and as bore No. 1 was 40 fathoms in depth, we 
multiply the depth by the rate of inclination, 40x8 = 320 
fathoms, which gives the point at which the coal seam A 
should reach the surface. But there is generally a certain 
depth of alluvial cover which requires to be deducted, 
and which we call 3 fathoms, then (40 - 3 = 37) x 8 = 296 
fathoms ; or say 286 fathoms is the distance that the 
second bore should be placed to the rise of the first, so as 
to have for certain the seam of coal A in clear connection 
with the seam of coal B. In bore No. 3, where the seam 
B, according to the same system of arrangement, should 
have been found at or near the surface, another scam ,C is 
proved at a considerable depth, diflering in character and 
thickness from either of the preceding. This derangement 
being carefully noted, another bore to the outcrop on the 
same principle is put down for the purpose of proving the 
seam C ; the nature of the strata at first is found to agree 
with the latter part of that bored through in No. 3, but 
immediately on crossing the dislocation seen in the figure 
it )s changed, and the deeper seam D is found. 

The evidence therefore of these bores (3 and 4) indicates 
some material derangement, which is then proved by otbe/ 
bores, either towards the dip or the outcrop, according 
to the judgment of the borer, so as to ascertain the best 
position for sinking pits. 

The methods of boring are similar to those adopted for Msth-^U-^ 
deep wells, or in other departments of miniug, For sbol- bortj^ 




low bores, the boring 13 generally witb wrought iron rods 
■crewed together in lengths, armed with a cutting chisel, 
and working by percussion, the tool being lifted by hand 
and allowed to fall with i(3 full weight upon the rock. 
The pounded material is removed at intervals, by substi- 
tuting a shell pump or tube with valves at the bottom, 
whose actfon is similar to that of the foot valve.s of an 
ordinary lifting pump. The sludge brought to the sur- 
face indicates the nature of the ground passed through. 
In very deep borings, however, the use of rigid rods and 
filed tools 13 found to present two serious evils, namely, 
the excessive weight on the tool caused by the increased 
length of the rods,, and the great length of time required 
to withdraw the tool and remove the detritus. The first 
of these difficulties has been overcome by the use of the 
free falling cutters, where the tool, instead of being attached 
rigidly to the rod, moves in a guide-block in'^uch a 
manner as to be lifted with the rods, falling freely when 
the top of the stroke is reached. The rods, when lowered, 
pick up the tool at the bottom of the hole in readiness 
for the next lift. By this means the momentum of the 
tool is kept constant whatever may be the weight of rods 

The use of a wire rope winding on a drum, instead of 
rods for suspending the boring tool, allows the latter to be 
withdrawn and replaced with much greater rapidity than can 
be done with rods. This method has been very successfully 
adopted by Messrs Mather & Piatt of Salford. But perhaps 
the best methods of expeditious bonng are those (FauveUe's) 
whereby the detritus is removed as it forms by con- 
tinuously flushing out the hole with water, hollow rods 
being used down which the water flows while it rises through 
the annular space between the rod and the lining tube of 
the bore hole. This has the advantage of giving a clear 
surface for the tool to cut on, instead of its having to work 
through its own sludge, as is the case when the shell pump 
is only used at intervals. Of late years the value of bonng 
for exploratory purposes has been much increased by th& 
adoption of tubular or crown borers, which cut out an annu- 
lar groove, leaving a core of unbroken rock in the centre, 
which is then brought out by a grapnel in a solid piece. 
One of the m-ist successful of these methods is that due to 
Leschot of Geneva, where a rotating ciitter, arm'ed with 
amorphous black diamond, the hardest known substance, 
is used, the detritus being continuously removed by water 
on FauveUe's plan. The machinery adopted for this pur- 
pose, as modified by Messrs Beaumont & Appleby, has been 
employed with great success to bore holes exceeding 2000 
feet in depth. 

The working of coal may be conducted either by means 
of levels or gaUenes driven from the outcrop in a valley, or 
by shafts or pits sunk from the surface. In the early days 
of coal minmg. open working, or quarrymg from the out- 
crop of the seams, was practised to a considerable extent ; 
but ther» are now few if any places m England where 
this can be done. In 1873 there could be seen, in thejhick 
coal seams of Bengal, near Raniganj, a seam about 50 
feet thick laid bare, over an area of several acres, by 
stripping off a superficial covering varying from 10 to 30 
feet, in order to remove the whole of the coal without loss 
by pillars. .Such a case, however, is quite exceptional. 
The operations by which the coal is reached and laid out 
for removal are known as " winning," the actual working 
or extraction of the coal being termed "getting." In 
the accompanying figure. No. 4, A B is a cross cut-level, by 
which the jeams of coal 1 and 2 are won, and C D a ver- 
tical shaft by which the seams 1, 2, and 3 are won. When 
the field is won by the former method, the coal lying above 
the level is said to be " level-free." The mode of winning 
by level is of less general application than that by shafts, 

as the capacity for production is less, owing to the smaller 
size of roadways by which the coal must be brought to the 

Fig i 

surface, levels of large section being expensive and difficult 
to keep open when the mine has been for some time at 
work. Shafts, on the other hand, may be made of almost 
any capacity, owing to the high speed 111 drawing which 
IS attainable with proper mechanism, and allow of the 
use of more perfect arrangements at the surface than can' 
usually bo adopted at the mouth of a level on a hill side. 
A more cogent reason, however, is to be found in the fact 
that the principal coal-fields are in flat countries, and where 
the coal can only be reached by vertical sinking. 

The methods adopted in driving levels for collieries are 
generally similar to those adopted in other mines. The 
ground is secured by timbering, or more usually by arching 
m masonry or brick-work.» Levels like that in fig. .4, which 
are driven across the stratification, or generally anywhere not 
m coal, are known as " stone drifts." The sinking of colliery .Sinkioj o< 
shafts, however, differs considerablyfrom that of other mines, "ii-iff- 
owing to their generally large sue, and the difficulties that 
are often encountered from water during the sinking. The 
actilal coal measure strata, consisting mainly of shales 
and clays, are generally impervious to water, 'but when 
strata of a permeable character are sunk through, such as 
the magnesian limestone of the north of England, the 
Permian sandstones of the central countnes, or the chalk 
and greensand in the north of France and Westphalia, 
special methods are required in order to pass the water- 
bearing beds, and to protect the shaft and workings from 
the influx of water subsequently. Of these methods one 
of the chief is the plan of tubbings jr lining the excava- TubblBj. 
tion with an impermeable casing of wood or iron, gene- 
rally the latter, which is built up in segments forming 
rings, that are piled upon each other throughout the 
whole depth of the water-bearing strata. This method 
necessitates the use of very considerable pumping power 
during the sinking, as the water han to be kept down in 
order to allow the sinkers to reach a water-tight stratum 
upon which the foundation of the tubbing can be placed. 
This consists 'n a heavy cast-iron ring, known as a 
wedging crib, or curb, also fitted together in segments, 
which is lodged in a square-edged groove cut for its recep- 
tion, tightly caulked with moss, and wedged into posi- 
tion. Upon this the tubbmg is buUt up m segments, 
usually from 10 to 12 being required for the entire cir 
cumference, the edges being made perfectly true. The 
thickness vanes according to the, pressure expected, but 
may be taken at from j to 1^ inches. The inner face is 
smooth, but the back is strengthened with angle brackets 
at the corners. A small hole is left in the centre of each 
segment, which is kept open during the fitting to. prevent 
undue pressure upon any one, but 13 stopped as soon as the 
circle is completed. In the nor.h of France and Belgium 
wooden tubbings, built of polygonal rings, were at cue time 
in general use. The polygons adopted were of 20 or mire 
sides approximating to a circulai form. 

The second principal method of sinking thjongh wat<r- Pncumati* 
bearing ground is that which was first adopted by M. uukiDi; 




Triger, in Fraucc, and has also been used by civil 
cui^meers iu putting down deep foundations for bndge 
piers, namely, by compressed air. The shaft is lined with 
a cylinder of wrought iron, within which a tubular cham- 
"ber, provided with doors above and below, known as an 
air-lock, is fitted by a telescopic joint, which is tightly 
packed so as to close the top of the shaft airtight. Air is 
then forced into the inclosed space by means of a compressing 
engine, until the pressure is sufficient to oppose the flow 
of water into the excavation, and to drive out any that 
may collect iu the bottom of the shaft through a pipe 
which w carried through the air-sluice to the surface. The 
miners work in the bottom in the same manner as divers 
in an ordinary diving-beU. Access to the surface is 
obtamed through the double doors of the air sluice, the pres- 
sure being reduced to that of the external atmosphere 
"^■hen it is desired to open the upper door, and increased to 
that of the working space below when it is intended to 
communicate with the sinkers, or to raise the stuff broken 
in the bottom. This method has been adopted in various 
sinkings on the Continent. At Bracquenie, near Mons, 
the miners worked in an atmosphere up to 45 lb pressure 
on the square inch, without experiencing any great difficulty, 
but they were found to be more susceptible to pulmonary 
■ disorder upon changes of ■weather than those who worked 
under the ordinary conditions of pressure. 

The third method of sinking through water-bearing 
strata i3 that of boring, adopted by Messrs Kijd & Chau- 
dron in Belgium aud Germany. For this purpose a horizon- 
tal bar armed with vertical cutting chisels is used, which 
- cuts out the whole section of the shaft simultaneously. In 
the first instance, a smaller cutting frame is used, boring 
a hole from 3 to 5 feet in diameter, which is kept some 50 or 
60 feet in advance, so as to receive the detritus, which is 
removed by a shell pump of large size. The large trepan 
or cutter weighs about 16 tons, and cuts a hole of from 
9 to 15 feet in diameter. The water-tight lining may be 
either a wrought iron tube, which is pressed down by jack 
screws as tlie bore hole advances, or cast-iron tubbing put 
together in short complete rings, in contradistinction to 
the old plan of building them up of segments. The 
tubbing, which is considerably less in diameter than the 
bore hole, is suspended by rods from the surface until a bed 
suitable for a foundation is reached, upon which a sliding 
length oif tube, known as the moss box, bearing a shoulder, 
which is filled with dried moss, is placed. The whole 
weight of the tubbing is made to bear on the moss, which 
squeezes outwards, forming a completely water-tight joint, 
liie interval between the back of the tubbing and the sides 
of the bore hole is then fiU^d up with concrete, which on 
setting fixes the tubbing firiiily in position. 

The introduction of these special methods has consider- 
ably simplified the problem of sinking through water-bear- 
ing strata. Some of the earlier sinkings of this kind, when 
pumps had to be depended on for keeping down the water, 
were conducted at great cost, as, for instance, at South 
Helton, and more recently Ryhope, near Sunderland, 
through the magnesian limestone of Durham. 

The size and form of colliery shafts varies in different dis- 
tricts, but the tendency is now generally to make them 
round, and from 12 to 15 feet in diameter. In the Midland 
counties, from 7 to 9 feet is a very common size, but larger 
dimensions arc .adopted where a large production is re- 
quired. At Bagillt, on the Dee, a shaft of 22 feet in 
diameter was commenced a few years ago, but was reduced 
in diameter a short distance down. Since the accident at 
Hartley colliery, caused by the breaking of the pumping 
engine beam, which fell into the shaft and blocked it up, 
whereby the whole company of men in the mire were 
•tarved to death — it has been oiada compulsory upon 

mine owners to have two pits for each working, in place 
of the single one divided by walls or brattices which r.aa 
formeriy thought sufllcieiit. The use of two indepen- 
dent connections — whether separate pits or sections of the 
same pit, between the surface and the workings — is neces- 
sary for the service of the ventilation, — fresh air from tho 
surface being earned down one, known as the "downcast," 
while the foul or return air of the mine rises through tha 
other or " upcast" pit back to the surface. Where the mine is 
heavily watered, it is often necessary to establish a specbl 
engine pit, with pumps permanently fixed, or a division of 
one of the pits may be devoted to this purpose. The' use 
of direct-acting high-pressure pumping engines placed at 
the bottom of the shaft has become common during the last 
ten years. They have the advantage of doing away with the 
heavy reciprocating rod from the engine at the surface, and 
may be worked either by steam pipes carried down the pit, 
or, what is now more common, by boders underground, 
which supply also steam for the underground hauling 
engines. Where the water does not accumulate very 
rapidly it is a very common practice to allow it to collect 
in a pit or sump below the working bottom of the shaft, 
and to draw it off in a water tub or bucket by the main 
engine, when the latter is not employed-in raising coal. 

The laying out of a colliery, after the coal has been woe Liying out 
by sinkings or levels, may be accomplished in various ways workingt 
according to the nature of the coal, its thickness and dip. am 
the extent of ground to be worked. In the South Staffonl-, 
shire and other Midland coal-fields, where only shallow pits 
are required, and the coals are thick, a pair of pits may be 
sunk for a very few acres, while in the North of England, 
on the other hand, where sinking is expensive, an area of 
some thousands of acres may be commanded from the 
same number of pits. In the latter case, which represents 
the mo5t approved practice, the sinking is usually placed 
about the centre of the ground, so that the workings may 
radiate in every direction from the pit bottom, with the 
view of employing the greatest number of hands to ad- 
vantage. Where a large area cannot be commanded, it is 
best to sink to the lowest point of the field for 
the convenience of drawing the coal and water which 
become level-free in regard to the pit. Where properties 
are much divided, it is always necessary to maintain a 
thick barrier of unwrought coal between the boundary of 
the mine and the neighbouring workings, especially if tho 
latter are to the dip. If a prominent line of fault crosses 
the area, it may usually be a convenient division of the 
field into sections or districts. The first -process in laying 
out the workings consists in driving a gallery on the level 
along the course of the coal seam, which is known as a " dip 
head level," and a lower parallel one, in which the water 
ctfllects, known as a " lodgment lervel." Galleries driven at 
right angles to these are known as " dip " or " rise headings," 
according to their position above or below the pit bottom.' 
In Staffordshire the main levels are also known as " gate 
roads." To secure the perpendicularity of tho shaft, it is 
necessary to leave a largo mass or pillar of the seam un- 
touched around the pit bottom. This pillar is known in 
Scotland as the " pit bottom stoop." The junction of the 
levels with the pit is known as the " pit eye ; " it is usually, 
of an enlarged section, and lined with masonry or brick- 
work, 80 as to afford room for handling the waggons or 
trams of coal brought from the working faces. In thi» 
portion of the pit are generally placed the furnaces for 
ventilation, and the boilers required for working steam* 
engines underground, as well as the stables and lamp cabin. 

Figs. 5 and 6 represent tho pit bottonj. arrangement* 
at Cambois colliery in Northumberland, which are of an ex- 
tremely commodious character. There are four large < 
Cornish boilers, supplying steam to tb" engines drawiO); 




wab from tho workings, as well as to a direct-acting pump- 
ing, engine, the flame and smoko being discharged by drifts 
into tho upcast pit. For the purpose of handling large 
pieces of machinery and boilers, the level at the bottom is 
increased to a chamber 18 feet high, and roofed with 
rolled iron girders of a double T section. To protect the 
tUers working at the bottom, strong diagonal guard timbers 
are placed at S in order to deflect any materiab falling 
down the shaft, and prevent them falling into the work- 
ings This is an unusually large example, but is taken 
from a pit in the highest state of development, and making 
a very large daily outturn. 

" Fio. 6. — Pit eye, Cambois Colliery — Vertical Section. 

The removal of the coal after the roads have been driven 
lay be effected in many different ways, according to the 

FlQ. 6. — Pit bottom arrangements, Cambois Colliery 

custom of the district. These may. however, all be con- 
sidered as modifications of two systems viz., pillar work 
TCIar and long-wall work. In the former, which is also known 
mocking, as "port and stall" or "bord and pillar" in the north of 
England, "pillar and stall" in South Wales, and "stoop 
and room " in Sc(>'j;and, the field is divided into strips by 
Qumerous opep'.igs driven parallel to the main rise head- 
ings, called ' bords" or "bord gates," which are again 
divided iT/ cutting through them at intervals, so as to 
leave a aeries of pillars arranged chequer-wise over the 
entire area. These pillars are left for the support of the 
roof as the workings advance, so as to keep the mine open 
and free from waste. Fig. 1, Plate III. represents the oldest 
form of this class of working as practised in Scotland, from 
wh-'ch it will be seen that if the size of the pillar is equal 
to the width of the stall or excavation, about | of the 

whi.le scam will be removed, the remainder being left in 
the pillars. A portion of this may be got by the process 
known as robbing the pillars, but the coal so obtained is 
liable to be very much crushed from the pressure of the 
superincumbent strata. This crushing may take place 
either from above or below, producing what are known as 
" creeps " or " sits." 

A coal seam with a soft pavement and a hard roof is 
the most subject to a " creep." The first indication is a 
dull hollow sound heard when treading on the pavement or 
floor, probably occasioned by some of the individual 
layers parting from each other as shown at a fig. 7 ; 

7. — " Creeps" in Coal-Mines. 

the succeeding stages of creep are shown at b, c,. d, f, and 
g, in the same figure ; the last being the final stage, v, hen 
the coal begins to sustain the pressure from the overlying 
strata, in common with the disturbed pavement. 

"Sits" are the reverse of creeps; in the one case the 
pavement is forced up, and in the other the roof is forced 
or falls down, for want of proper support or tenacity lu 
itseK. This accident generally .'arises from an improper 
sue of pdlars ; some roofs, however; are so difficult to 
support that sits take place where the half of the coal is 
left in pillars 

Fig. 8 will convey a general idea of the appearance of 
sits, — k, m, n showing different stages. 

Fic. 8. — " Sits " in Mines. 

The modern method of pillar working is shown in Plato 
IV. In the Northumberland steam-coal district, where it 
is carried out in the most perfect manner, the boards are 
5 to 6 yards in width, while the pillars are 22 yards broad 
and 30 yards long, which are subsequently got out on 
coming back In the same figure is also shown the method 
of working whole coal and pillars at the same time, a barrier 
of two or three ranges of pillars or a' rib of solid coal being 
left between the working in the solid and those in the 
pillars. The space from which the entire quantity of 
coal has been removed is known in different districts as the 
"goaf," "gob," or " waste." 

Fig. 9 represents the Lancashire system of pillar- 
working. The area is laid ont by two pairs of level drifts, 
parallel to each other, about 150 yards apart, which 
are carried to the boundary. About 100 yards back from 
the boundary a communication is made between these 
levels, from which other levels are driven forward, dividing 
the coal into ribs of about 25 or 30 yards wid6, which are 
then cut back by taking off the coal in slices from the level 
towards the rise in breadths of about six yards. By this 
method the whole of jthe coal is got backwards, the main 
roads being kept in solid coal ; the intermediate levels not 
being driven till they are wanted, a greater amount of sup- 

BODBS 0? WORJilXa.] 



port 1.1 given, ulJ the j-irlirs are.les3 crusheJ than is 
u«aul in pilUr workini: 


.14; O L- \ tx^,h\i^L\ 

•■v.; B J N A « Y'-^ 

I'lO 9. — Laccnsliire method of working Coal 

111 the Siinih Wales .-vsteiu of worjiiug, cross headings are 
<irivca from the mam roads obliquely across the rise to get 
4 sulEciently easy gradient (or horse roads, and from 
ill' ju the stalls a"o opened out with a narrow entrance, in 
oi'ior to leave support on cither side uf the road, but aftjr- 
■ iids wijeiiing to as great a breadth a," the seam will 
ail'iw, leaving pillars of a minimuui thickness. The cha- 
rai'lcr otsuch workings is very irregular lu plan, and as the 
veiiiilalioQ li attended with considerable difficulty, it is now 
lieriiiuing generally superseded by more improved methods 

Ttie secoi.d great principle of working is that known as 
long-wall or long-work, lu which the coal is takeu away 
either ia broad faces from roads about 40 or 50 y.irds 
apart and parallel to each other, or along curved faces 
bcin-ecii roadj radiating from the pit bottom — the essential 
feature iu both cases being the removal of the whole of 
the coal at once, without first sub-dividing it into pillars, 
lu be takeu away at a second working. The roof 13 tem- 
piiranly siipjiorted by wooden props or pack walling of stone, 
for a iulEcient breadth along the face to protect the work- 
mes. .lid allow them to work together behind. The gener-l 
char.ufer of a long-vall working is shown lu fig. Ki, which 







Fio. 10. — LoDg Will lueihod of working Coal in Derbyshire. 

represents an area of about 500 acres of the bottom hard 
steam coal at Shipley iu Derbyshire. The princiiial road 
extends from the shafts southward ; and ou both sides of 
it the coal has been removed from the light-shaded area by 
cutting It back perpendicularly towards the boundaries, 
alou|5 faces about 50 yards in length, those nearest to the 
shaft being kept lu advance of those farther away, pro- 
ducing a step-shaped outline to the face of the whole coal. 
It will be seen that by this method the whole of the seam, 
with (lie eiccjition of the pillars left to protect the main 
roadways, is leinoved The roads for drawing the coal from 

tbe working faces to tlie shaft are kept open oy walling 
through the waste or goaf pnxiuced by the fall of the un- 
supported roof. The straight roads are the air-ways fur 
currying pure air from the down cast shaft to the working 
faces, while tlie return air passes along the facts and back 
to the up'cist by the curved road 1 he above is the luethuj 
uf working long-wall forward, i.r., taking the coal in 
advance from the pit towards the buuudary, uith luadi 
kept open through the gob. Another method consists in 
driving towards the boundary, a:id taking the cual back- 
ward towards the shafts, or woiking hoiueHarJ, allowing 
the waste to close up without roads having to be kept 
open through it This is of course preferable, but is only 
applicable where the owner of the inine can atford lo 
expend the capita! required to reach the limit of the tieU 
m excess of that uece^isary when the raising of coal pro- 
eeeils pan passu with the extension of the Inaiii roads. 
Fig. 9 IS substantially a modification of this kind of lung-wall 
work. Plate III. tig 2, represents a method of working prac- 
tised in the South Yorkshire district, known as bords and 
banks The field is divided by levels and headings into 
rectangular banks, while from the main levels burds or 
wickets about 30 yards wide, separated from each other by 
banks of about the same width, are earned forward id lung 
wall work, as shown on the left side of the figure, the waste 
being carefully packed behind so as iti secure the ventila 
tion. When these have been wurkeJ up to the cxtitniity, 
as shown on the right side, the intermediate bank li 
removed by working backward towards the level. This 
system, therefore, combines both methods of lung wall 
working, but IS not generally applicable, ownne to the ditli- 
cuJty of ventilation, due to the great length of an -way that 
has to be kept open around the waste on each bank. 

The relative advantages of the different methods may bo 
generally stated as follows. Long-wall wurk is best sailvJ 
for thin coals, and those having a good roof, • e , one 
givea way gradually and fills up the excavation made by 
removing the coal without scaling oil suddenly and lalliiig 
into the working faces, when practically the whole ol the 
coal may be removed. Against these advantages must be 
placed the difficulties attending the maintenance of roads 
through the goaves, and in some cases the large proportion 
of slack to round or large coal obtained. Pillar working, in 
the whole coal, is generally reputed to give a mure advan- 
tageous proportion of round coal to slack, the latur biing 
more abundantly produced on the removal of tbe [•illars, but 
as these form only a small portion uf the whole scam, the 
general yield is more advantageous tiiaii in the fornier 
method The ventdation of pillar working is often attended 
with difficulty, and the coal is longer exposed to the intJu- 
euce of the air, a point of importance in some coals, nhieb 
deteriorate in quality when ei'iiosed to a hot damp atmo- 
sphere The great increase in the size of the pillars in 
the best modern collieries worked upon this principle lias, 
however, done much to approximate the iwosystenia ;^aii 
equality in other respects. 

The working of very thick scams presents certain special Worktnj 
peculiarities, owing to the difficulties of supportuig the roof """'' 
in the excavated portions, and supi.lying fresh air to the ^*°"- 
Workings. The most typical example of this kind uf work- 
ing in England is afforded by the thick coal of South 
Staffordshire, which consists of a scries of closely associated 
coal seams, varying from 8 lo 12 k-t 13, divided from each 
other by their partings, but making together one gieat bed 
of from 25 to 40 feet or mure in thickneiis The partings 
together do not amount to more than 2 or 3 feet. The 
method of working winch has been lung in use is repre- 
sented in fie. 11. The main level or gate road is driven 
in the benches coal, or lower pait of the seam, while a 
smaller drift fur ventilation, called an nir beadiuir u 




furied obovo it in one of the uppir beds caDed Che slipper 
. >aL From the gate road a heading called a bolt-hole 13 
. peaed, and extended into a large rectangular chamber, 
I jiown as a" side of work," large pillars being left at regular 

Fia n. — South StolTonlsbire method of working Thick Coal. 

intervals, besides smaller ones or cogs The order in which 
tbe coal 13 cut is shown in the dotted and numbered squares 
in the figure. The coal is first cut to the top of the slipper 
coal from below, -«fter which the upper portion is either 
broken down by wedging or falls of itself The working of 
'.hese upper portions is exceedingly dangerous, owing to the 
.■jreat huight of the excavations, and fatal accidents from 
alls c'J roof are in consequejice more common in South 
.Staffordshire than in any other coal-field in this country. 
'.'he air from the down-cast shaft enters from the gate road, 
and passes to the up-cast through the air heading above. 
.\bout one-half of the total coal (or less) is obtained in the 
t-.rst working ; the roof is then allowed to fall, and when 
i-he gob 13 sufficiently consolidated, fresh roads are driven 
through it to obtain the ribs and pillars left behind by a 
second or even, in some cases, a third working. The loss 
of coal by this method is very considerable, besides great 
risk to life and danger from fire. It has, therefore, been 
to some extent superseded by the long-wall. method, the 
upper h^lf being taken at the first working, and removed as 
completely as possible, working backwards from the-bound- 
aries to the shaft. The lower half is then taken in the 
same manner, after' the fallen roof has become sufficiently 
consolidated to allow the mine to be re-opened. 

In the working of thick seams inchned at a high angle,- 
guch as those m the south of France, and in the lignite 
mines of Styria and Bohemia, the method of working in 
horizontal slices, about 12 or 15 feet thick, and filling up 
tbe excavation with broken rock and earth from the sur- 
face, IS now generally adopted in preference to the systems 
formerly used. At Monceaux les iMines, in France, a seam 
40 feet thick, and dipping at an angle of 20 degrees, is 
worked in the following manner. A level is driven in a 
gandatone forming the floor, along the course of tbe coal, 
into which communications are made by cross cuts at 
ioterrals of 16 yards, which are dnven across to the roof, 
dividing up the area to be worked into panels- These are 
worked backwards, the coal being taken to a height of 
20 feet, the opening being packed up with stone sent down 
from the surface. As each stage is worked out, the floor 
level is connected with that next below it'by means of an 
incline, which facilitates the introduction of the packing 
material. Stuff containing a considerable amount of clay 
is found to be the best suited for the purpose of filhng, as 
it G^iniolidataa readily under pressure. 

The actual cuitiug of the coal is cQierty pc.'^.iiied by Meihcti 
manual labour, the tool employed being a sharp-pointej ofcuiunu 
double-armed pick, which is nearly straight, except when ^""'^ 
required for use in hard rock, when the arms are made 
with an inclination or "anchored." The terms pike, pick, 
mandril, and slitter are apphed to the collier's pick lu 
different districts, the men being known as pikemen or 
hewers. In driving levels it is necessary to cut grooves 
vertically parallel to the walls, a process known as shearing; 
but the most important operation is that known as hohng 
or kirving, which consists m cutting a notch or groove lu 
the floor of the seam to a depth of about 3 feet, measured 
back from the face, so as to leave the overhanging part 
unsupported, which then either falls of its own a lord 
within a few hours, or is brought down eithsr by driving 
wedges along the top. or by blasting with gunpowder. The 
process of holing in coal is one of ttie severest kinds of 
human labour. It has to be performed in a constrained posi- 
tion, and the miner lying on his side has to cut to a much 
greater height, in order to get room tn carry the groove in 
to a sufficient depth, than is required to bring the coal 
down, giving rise to a great waste in slack as compared 
with machine work. This is sometimes obviated by hoUna 
m the beds below the coal, or in any ponion of a seam of 
inferior quality that may not be worth working This loss 13 
proportionately greater in thin than in thick seams, tbe same 
quantity being cut to waste in either case The method of 
cutting coal on the lung wall system is seen in fig 12 repre- 

Fio. 12. —Long-wall workiug-face— Plan and Section. 

seutiug the working at the Shipley colliery. The coal is 40 
inches thick, with a seam of fire-clay and a_ roof of black 
shale , about 6 inches of the upper part, known as the roof 
coal, not being worth worldng, is left behind. A groove of 
triangular section of 30 inches base and 9 inches high 13 cut 
along the face, inclined Umber props being placed at inter- 
vals to support the overhanging portion until the required 
length IS cut. These ijre then removed, and the coal is 
allowed to fall, wedges or blasting being employed when 
necessary.' The roof of the excavation is supported as th« 
coal 13 removed, by packing up the «aste material, and by 
a double row of props, two feet from cvh other, placed ;en»" 




porarily along the face; These are placed 5 feet apart, the 
props of the back row alternating with those lo front. The 
props used are preferably of small oak or English larch, 
but large quantities of fir props, cut to the right length, 
are also imported from the north of Europe. As the work 
proceeds onwards, the props are withdrawn and replaced m 
advance, excent those that may be crushed by the pressure 
or buried by sudden falls of the roof. ,"■,- • 
I In Yorkshire hollow square pillars, formed by piling up 
ghort blocks of wood or chocks, are often used instead of 
props formed of a single stem. Iron pit props have been 
proposed at different times, but their use has not become 
general. When the coal has been under-cut for a sufficient 
length, the struts are withdrawn, and the overhanging mass 
IS allowed to fall during the time that the workmen are out 
of the pit, or it may be brought down by driving wedges, 
or if It be of a compact character a blast of gunpowder in 
a bore hole near the roof may be required. Sometimes, but 
rarely, it happens that it is necessary to cut vertical grooves 
in the face to determine the liuiu of the fall, such limits 


being usually dependent upon the cleet or diviuonal planrs 
in the coal, especially when the work is carried perpen- 
dicular to them or on the end. 

The substitution of machinery for hand labour in cut- ^^^' 
ting coal has long been a favourite problem with inven- ^•""* 
tors, the earliest plan being that of Menzies, in 17C1, who 
proposed to work a heavy pick underground by power 
transmitted from an engine at the surface, through the 
agencies of spear-rods and chains passing over pulleys ; 
but none of the methods suggested proved to bo prac- 
tically successful until the general introduction of com- 
pressed air into mines furnished a convenient motive 
power, susceptible of being carried to considerable distances 
Without any great loss of pressure. This agent has of late 
years been apphed in various ways, in machines which 
either imitate the action of the collier by cutting with a pick 
or make a groove by rotating cutters attached to an endless 
chain or a revolving disc or wheel The most successful 
of the first class, or pick machines, is that cf Mr William 
Firth of Sheffield, represented in fig 1 3. It consists esaeii- 

Fio. 13.— Firth's Coal-cutt.O' Machine. 

lially of a Horizontal piston and cylinder engine fi.Ted upon 
a, platform carried upon four wheels, which are coupled to- 
gether by side ro'is, so that ou motion being communi- 
cated by means of a mitre wheel in the hind axle, it can 
be moved forward by hand. On the forward end of the 
frame arc two bosses forming the ceiitixs for a pair of bell 
cranks or bent levers placed close to the erotind, and facing 
in opposite directions, either one of which can be con 
nected with the piston rod. The outer arm of each lever 
carries a square socket, into which is fixed the pick, which 
lias two cutting heads, one placed a little in front of the 
other 30 as to cut to the whole depth at one operation 
In the older forms picks of different length were used, and 
it was necessary to go over the work a second or tnird 
time, in order to hole to the full depth. Th3 cutting 
points are loose, being eecuied by cotters to the pick head, 
so that broken or blunted ones can be readily replaced 
without removing the pick arm. The power u.sed is air, 
at about 40 to 60 lb above atmospheric pressure. It is con. 
ducted from the reservoir connected with a compressi«g 
engine at the surface, through iron pipes fi.ted in ttie pit, 
and along the main /oads to the working face, where thick 
vulcanized india-rubber pipes are used, sufilcient length of 
pipe lying loose on the ground to allow the engine to 
move freely, the connection being made by a screwed joint 
at the back of tlio slide-valve chest. The valve is worked 
by tappets on the piston. rod, so as to be perfectly self- 
acting when properly adjusted ; it can ilso bo moved by 
band. The pick holders face in directions, in order 

that the, machine rbay be worked from either side. The 
size of the machine as oidinarily made is about 4 feet in 
length. 2 feet 2 inches high, and from 18 to 24 inches gauge 
of rad.=;. The weight is about 15 cwt. The working speed is 
from GO to OO strokes per minute, corresponding to a length 
of from 10 to 20 yards, cut to a depth of 3 feet per hour. 
At the former rate, or 60 yards per shift of 6 hours, riie 
work done corresponds to that of twelve average men. The 
width of the groove is from 2 to 3 inches at the face, 
diminishing to U inches at the back, the proportion of waste 
being very considerably diminished as -compared with the 
system of holing by hand. The use of this machine has 
allowed a thin seam of cannel, from 10 to 14 inches in 
thickness, to be worked to profit, which had formerly been 
abandoned as too hard to be worked by hand-labour. 

An earlier form of the' second class of machine, in which 
the cutters have a continuous motion like those of a 
slotting machine, is that invented by Mr William Peace 
in the Wigau district, which is reproduced from the last 
edition as illustrating the pnnciple which has since been 
carried nut by other inventors in a more convenient and 
simplified form. It is represented in Plate V., figs. 1, 
2. and 3. AAA is the frame, upon which are fi.ved one or 
more cylinders B, arranged so as to turn a crank shaft 
C, fixed to the frame, as is also another shaft V. This 
latter is capable of being turned by the former, by 
means of mitre or bevel wheels EEE ; upon the lower 
end of the latter shaft D is placed a wheel termed the 
dnnng wheel, hanog tipon its periphery a groove vilb 




laitable projections for working into and propelling a chain 
or band. Beneath or to the side of the frame (or both) 
is fixed temporarily or otherwise a lever, the extremity 
of which is constructed to carry a wheel called the ter- 
minal wheel, marked HH ; a chain or band is made to pass 
round the driving and terminal wheels, and by means of 
the driving wheel FF it is made to revolve. Into the 
chain are fixed cutters of different forms (see the parts 
marked, figs. 4, 5, 6, ami 7), which, when the machine is in 
action, revolve with it, and upon being pressed or drawn 
against the coal, erode and excavate the same. The dis- 
tance of the excavation from the face of the coal is 
governed by the dimensions of the machine, and by the 
length of the lever and the distance between the driving 
and terminal wheels. The arrangements of the lever allow 
it to revolve, and to excavate any given Tange ; see dotted 
lines Cg. 1. 

If found necessary, two or even thiee levers may be in 
operation at the same time, and arranged to cut in any 
direction. Other parts of the machine not parlioularly de- 
scribed are capable uf elevating and depressing the front 
part of the machine, marked V, T, U, W ; and tliose 
marked X, Y, Z, and K are captible of propelling the 
machine whilst at work, by acting against the prop. 

The Gartsherrie machine of .Messrs Baird is of the same 
character, but the chain of cutters works round a fixed 
frame or jib projecting at right angles from the engine car- 
nage, instead of traversing upon a centre, an arrangement 
which makes it necessary to cut from the end of the block 
of coal to the full depth, instead of holing into it frorn the 
face. The forward feed is given by a chain winding upon 
a drum, which hauls upon a pulley fixed to a prop about 30 
yards in advance. This is one of the most compact form 
of machines, the smaller size being only 20 inches high. 
With an air pressure of from 33 to 40 Ih per square inch, 
a length of frnm 300 to 350 feet of coal is holed, 2 ft. 9 in. 
deep, in the sluft of from 8 to 10 hours. 

One of the simplest forms of coal-cutting machines is 
that of Messrs Winstanly i Barker (fig. 1 4), which is driven 

Fio. 14.— Wiustanly i Baikcr's C3f iVcutling Machine— rian. 

by a pair of oscillating engines placed on a frame run- 
ning on rails in the usual way. The crank shaft carries a 
pinion which gaars into a tuolhcd wheel of a coarse pitch, 
carrying cutters at the ends of the teeth. This wheel is 
mounted on a carrier which, being movable about its centre 
by a screw gearing worked by hand, gives a radial sweep 
tn the cutting edges, as in the macliine figured in Plate V. 
^'lien at work it is slowly turned until the carrier is at right 
Bngles to the frame, when the cut has attained the full 
depth. Tlio forw.ird motion is given by a chain-winding 
upon a crab placed in front, whitli is worked by a boy who 
Liuls it sinwiy forward. With 2.5 lb picsrure it will holi 
i (ret dcpp, at thu rate of 30 yards per hour, ibc cut being 

only "J J in. high, but it will only work on one side of tho 


Another kind of application of machinery to coalmining coa. 
is that of Messrs Bidder it Jones, which is intended to »e'leing 
replace the use of blasting with gunpowder for bringing '"■"•'-»»^- 
down the coal, a practice which m fiery collieries is often 
attended with considerable danger from the llivsli of the ex- 
plosion firing the gas grven otT the coal. It cousists of 
a small hydraulic press, which forces a set of expanding 
bits or wedges into a bore-hole previously bored by a long 
screw augur or drill, worked by hand, the action of 
the press being continued until a sufficient strain is 
obtained to bring down the coal. The arrangement is, 
in fact, a modification of the plug and feather system 
used in stone quarrying for obtaining large blocks, but 
with the substitution of the powerful rending force of 
the hydraulic press for hatid-power in driving up the 
wedges. This apparatus has been used at Hareeastle in 
North Staffordshire, and found to work well, but with the 
disadvantage of bringing down the coal in unmanageably 
large masses. The use of gunpowder in very fiery mines is 
always attended with danger, and a method of wedging 
down coal sufllcienlly perfected to be of general application 
would add greatly to the security of tho colliers in woik- 
ing such mines. 

The removal of the coal when brokei' from the work- 
ing faces to the pit bottom or to the main levels is effected 
mainly by hand labour when the mine is small, and the 
distances to be traversed inconsiderable, and in mines of 
greater extent by horse or steam traction. The simplpiit 
method is that of loading the broken ci>al on to a sledge, 
which is dragged along the floor to the level, but now 
the [iractice of carrying railways to the face is almost 
universal. The old form of flat rail or tram is still largely 
used, the waggons having sharp-edged disc wheels, but 
probably edge rails and flanged wheels are now more 
general. The class of rail used is generally a Hat-bottomed 
or bridge secticn, weighing from 15 to 25 lb per yard, 
laid upon cross sleepers, which, in roads that are intended 
to be kept open for some time, are fixed down firmly, 
but are laid in a temporary manner along the working 
faces, and in similar positions where it is necessary to be 
continually shitting them, a.s, for instance, wheie cual-cut- 
ting machines are used. The arrangement of the drawing 
roaus at the face of a long-wall colliery is seen in the plan 
fig. 12, where the rails are brought to the face upon a 
smooth iron plate, upon which the trams can be easily 
handled by turning on the flanges of the wheels. Tho 
names applied to the vehicles in which the coal is carried 
vary considerably, as do also their size and capacity. The 
word " corf " or " corve," representing the old basket sledge, 
is one of the most generally used, as are " tram," signifying 
a tram waggon, and " tub," of the same signification as the 
last, but a representative of the old method of drawing in 
wooden buckets. In South Stafl'ordshire and other Midland 
districts, a contrivance called a "skip" is the representative 
metbod of conveyance; this consists of a platform with 
tram wheels, upon which the coal is built up to a consider- 
able height, the large pieces round the sides being kept to- 
gether by loose ringr of sheet iron, and the intermedialo 
spaces packed full with small coal, — the whole arrange- 
ment representing a kind of cask. This, however, like 
most of the similar primitive method?, is giving way to the 
more improved system of tubs or trams. These are small 
railway trucks, generally with flanged wheels and squaro- 
sided bodies, either of wood or wrought iron, varying in 
capacity from 4 cwt. in thin seams to 10 or 12 cwtv^in 
thicker scams. 

In the icmnv.-il of tho coal from the workings the Bisf 
portion of the journey is generally performed by ha"\- 




power, boys being employed to push the trams before 
them to the main roads. In the thin soams of South York- 
shire and other places, considerable jourueys are often 
performed in this way, the boys knowa aa " hurriers" or 
" putters" being obliged to crawl at fall len^'th, owing to the 
lowness of the excavation. As a general rule boys are not 
ollowed to work in collieries when below 12 years of age, 
but in these thin mines special exemptions are granted, 
permitting the use of younger boys as putters when re- 
quired. Where tlio levels are large, horse traction is in 
common use ; thetrams are formed up into trains, and from 
6 to 15 vehicles are drawn by one horso. A considerable 
number of ponies are imported into the northern ports of 
this country from Norway and Iceland for this purpose 
every year. The supply of horses is, however, becoming 
scarcer, and the price higher, so that the use of under- 
ground engines is generally adopted where the output i3 
sufficiently large to justify the expenditure. This is done 
by hauling or, as it is called in the North of England, lead- 
ing the trains of tubs by rope traction. In a large coDiery 
where the shafts are situated near the centre of the field, 
and the workings extend on all sides, both to the dip and 
rise, the drawing roads for the coal may be of three differ- 
ent kinds, — (1) levels driven at right angles to the dip, 
suitable for horse roads, (2) rise waj's, known aa jinny roads, 
jig-brows, or up-brows, which, when of sufficient slope, may 
be used as self-acting planes, i.e., the loaded waggons may 
]be made to pull back the empty ones to the working faces, 
and (3) dip or down-brows, requiring engine power. A 
road may be used as a self-acting or gravitating incline when 
the gradient is 1 in 30 or steeper, in which case the train 
is lowered by a rope passing over a pulley or brake drum 
at the upper end, the return empty train being attached to 
the opposite end of the rope and hauled up by the descend- 
ing load. The arrangements for this purpose vary, of course, 
with the amount of work to bo done with one fixing of the 
machinery; where it is likely to be used for a considerable 
time, the drum and brake are solidly constructed, and 
the ropes of steel or iron wire carefully guided over fric- 
tion rollers, placed at intervals between the rails to pre- 
vent them from chafing and wearing out on the ground. 
^Vhere the load has to bo hauled up a rising gradient, 
underground engines, driven by steam or compressed air, are 
now generally used. lu some cases steam generated in 
boilers at the surface is carried in pipes to the engines 
below, but this can be done with less loss of power by send- 
ing down compressed .lir in the same way. The use of 
underground boilers placed near the upcast pit, as in 
6g. 6, 80 -that the smoke and gases help the ventilat- 
ing furnace, is most convenient in the majority of cases. 
Water-pressure engines, driven by a column of water equal 
to the depth of the pit, have also been employed for 
hauling. These can, however, only be used advantageously 
wher3 there are fixed pumps, the fall of water generating 
the power resulting in a load to be removed by the expen- 
diture of an equivalent amount of power in the pumping 
engine above that necessary for keeping down the mine 

There are four principal methoas in wnicfl steam power 
can be applied to underground traction. These, whicli have 
been discussed in the fullest manner in the Report of the 
North of England Institute of Mining Engi'neers for 1867- 
68, are as follows : — 

1. Tail rope system. 

2. Endless chain system. 

3. Endless rope system on the ground.. 

4. Endless rope system overhead. 

The three last may be considered as modifications of 
the sam3 principle. In the first, which is that generally 
tued in Northumbnland and Durham, a single line of rails 

is used, the loaded tubs being drawn "out bye," i.e , towards 
the shaft, and the empty ones returned " iu bye," or towards 
the working faces, by reversing the engine ; while in the 
other systems, double lines, with the rope travelling continu- 
ously in the same direction, are the rule. On the tail rope 
plan the engine has two drums worked by spur gearing, 
which can be connected with, or cast loose from, the driving 
shaft at pleasure. The main rope, which draws out the 
loaded tubs, coils upon one drvtm, and passes near the floor 
over guide sheaves placed about 20 feet apart. The tail 
rope, which is of lighter section than the main one, 
is coiled on the second drum, passes over similar guide 
sheaves placed near the roof or side of the gallery round a 
pulley at the bottom of the plane, and is fired to the end 
of the train or set of tubs. When the load is being drawn 
out, the engine pulls directly on the main rope, coiling it 
on to its own drum, while the tail drum runs loose pay- 
ing out its rope, a slight bj^ke pressure being used to pre- 
vent its running out too fast When the set arrives out bye, 
the main rope will be wound up, and the tail rope pass out 
from the drurrj to the end and back, i.e., twice the length 
of the-way; th^ set is returned in bye, by reversing the 
engine, casting loose the main, and coupling up the tail 
drum, so that the tail rope is wound up, and the main rope 
paid out. This method, which is the oldest, having been 
in use for twenty-five years or more in the North of Eng- 
land, is best adapted for ways that are nearly level, or 
when many branches are intended to be worked from one 
engine, and can be carried round curves of small radius 
without deranging the trains; but as it is intermittent in 
action, considerable engine-power is required in order to 
get up the required speed, which is from 8 to 10 miles per 
hour. From 8 to 10 tube are usually drawn in a set, the 
ways being often from 2000 to 3000 yards long. In dip 
workings the tail rope is often made to work a pump con- 
nected with the bottom pulley, which forces the water back 
to the cistern of the main pumping engine in the pit. 

For the endless chain system, which is much used in the 
Wigan district a double line of way isnecessary, one line for 
full and the other for empty tubs. The chain passes over a 
pulley driven by the engine, placed at such a height as to 
allow it to rest upon the tops of the tubs, and round a 
simOar pulley at the far end of the plane. The forward 
edge of the tub carries a projecting pin cr horn, with a 
notch into which the chain falls which drags the tub forward. 
The road at the outer end is made of a less slope than the 
chain, so that on arrival the tub is lowered, clears the pin, 
and so becomes detached from the chain. The tubs are 
placed on at intervals of about 20 yards, the chain moving 
continuou-Jy at a speed of from 2i to 4 miles per hour. 
This system presents the greatest advantages iij point of 
economy of driving power, especially where the gradients 
are variable, but is expensive in first cost, and is not wall 
suited for curves, and branch roads cannot be worked con 
tinuously, as a fresh set of pulleys worked by bevel gea*- 
ing is required for each branch. 

The endless rope system may be nsed with either a 
single or double line of way, but the latter is more gene- 
rally advantageous. The rope, which is guided upon 
sheaves between the rails, is taken twice round the 
head pulley; or a Fowler's clip pulley may be used. It is 
also customary to use a stretching pulley to keep the rope 
strained when the pull of the load diminishes. This ia 
done" by passing a loop at the upper end round a pulley 
mounted in a travelling frame, to which is attached a 
weight of about 15 cwt. hanging by a chain. This weight 
pulls directly against the rope; so if the latter slacks, ths 
weight pulls out the pulley frame and tightens it np again. 
The tubs are usually formed into eets of from 2 to 1 ?, 
the front one being coupled up by o short length of c'_iin 



[mi SI NO. 

to a damping cook formed of two jaws mouidBil to the 
curve of the rope which are attached by the " run rider," 
&a the driver accompanying the train is called. This 
system in many respects resembles the tail rope, but haj 
the advantage of working with one-third less length of 
rope for the same length of way. 

The endless ropo system overhead is substantially 
gimilar to the endless chain. The waggons are attached at 
inter\'als by short lengths of chain lapped twice round the 
rope and hooked into one of the links, or in some cases 
the chains are hooked into hempen loops on the main 

One of the most important branches of colliery work is 
the management of the ventilation, involving as it does 
the supply of fresh air to the men working in the pit, as 
well as the removal of inflammable gases that may be 
given ofT by the coal. This is effected by carrying through 
the workings a large volume of air which is kept continu- 
ally moving in the same direction, descending from the 
surface by one or more pits known as intake or downcast 
pits, and leaving the mine by a return or upcast pit. Such 
a circulation of air can only be effected by mechanical 
means when the workings are of any eitent, as will be 
apparent from the following considerations : — 

If the shafts A,and B, 
6g. T5, were of equal ^— — 
depth from the horizon- f ; ' ' 
tal plane, and connected , 
by the mine C, the air 
would fill the openings 
and remain quiescent. 
If the one were to the 
dip of the other, bnt 
communicating with the 
snrface atu higher level, 
aa by fig. 16, it would 
sometimes happen, in summer, that D would be the down- 
cast, and E the upcast, and in winter, E the downcast, and 
D the upcast. These conditions are induced by the tem- 

Fig. 16. ^ 

perature of the earth at f certain depth being nearly con- 
stant, whQe the atmpsphere is changeable, — the column of 
air in D (i being at a lower temperature in summer than 
the column of air E e, and the reverse in winter. 

The methods actually adopted are — (l)The rarefaction of 
the air in the upcast pit by a furnace placed at the bottom ; 
and (2) Exhaustion by machinery at the sxirface. The 
former plan, although hitherto most generally used, is in 
many places becoming replaced by some form of machine. 

The usual form of ventilating furnace is a plain fire- 
grate placed under an arch, and communicating with the 
upcast shaft by an inclined drift. It is separated from 
the coal by a narrow passage wnlled and arched in brick- 
work on both sides. The size of the grate varies with 
the requirements of the ventilation, but from 6 to 10 feet 
broad and from 6 to 8 feet long are usual dimenaiona. 

At kshireoaks Colliery, in N'ouiiignamslLire, a furnace con- 
suming 6 tons of slack per 24 hours upon a grate surface 
of 72 square feet maintains a circulation of about 120,000 
cubic feet per minute. At Hetton Colliery, Durham, 
the grate is a long, nai^ow rectangle, 20 feet by 5 feet, 
with numerous furnace-doors on the long side, so arranged 
that the surface fired varied according to the 
amount of draught required. There are two bunker- 
holes for coals, and a stoking passage, 7 feet uide, in 
front of the furnace. The fire should be kept as thin and 
bright aa possible, to reduce the amount of smoke in the 
upcast. When the mine is free from gas, the furnace may 
be worked by the return air, but it is better to take fresh 
air directly from the downcast by a scale, or split, from 
the main current. The return air from fiery workings is 
never allowed to approach the furnace, but is carried mtu 
the upcast by a special channel, called a dumb drift, some 
distance above the furnace drift, so as not to come in cou- 
tact with the products of combustion until they have been 
cooled below the igniting point of fire-damp. Where the 
upcast pit is used for drawing coal, it is usual to discharge 
the smoke and gases through a short lateral drift near the 
surface into a tall-^chimney, so as to keep the pit-top as 
clear as possible for working. Otherwise the chimney is 
built directly over the mouth of the pit. 

Various kinds of machines for ventilation, both by direct Mp'Vi^pici 
exhaustion and centrifugal displacement, have been tried *»"''!'''""' 
both in England and in Belgium. Of the former class 
are the great bell machines, resembling gasometers, 12 feet 
to 22 feet in diameter, and 9 feet high, moving in a water 
tank with balanced flap valves for alternately admitting 
and exhausting the air. These were used at Marihaye, 
near Li^ge, and at Cwm Avon in South Wales, by Mr 
Stniv^. Perhaps the largest of the class of piston machines 
is that at Nixon's Navigation Pit, near Aberdare, which 
has rectangular pistons, 30 feet by 22 feet, moving hori- 
zontally through a stroke of 7 feet, the lower edge being 
supported by rollers running on rails. The great weight 
of the moving parts in this class of machine makes thtni 
incapable of acting at any very high speed, and conse- 
quently expensive for the amount of work done. This is 
in some degree obviated in the rotary piston machines of 
Fabry and Lemielle, the former resembling in principle 
Root's blower, now so much used in blowing foundry and 
smiths' fires, but on a larger scale. Lemielle's ventilator 
is a vertical drum revolving eccentrically within a cylin- 
drical casing.. The drum carries three jointed blades, 
which are drawn in or out by radius bars as it revolves, so 
as to enclose and sweep out at each revolution the body of 
air included between the two cylinders. This is one of 
the best machines of its class, producing a comparatively 
high effect for the power expended. An American machine 
of this kind is described and figured in the article Bellows, 
vol. iii. p. 552, fig. 5. 

Of late years various kinds of centrifugal machines or 
fans, have come into use instead of ventilating furnaces. 
One of the most successful of these is that invented by Mr 
Guibal of Li(5ge, represented in fig. 17. The fan has eight 
arms, framed together of wrought-irou bars, with diagonal 
struts, so as to obtain rigidity with comparative lightness, 
carrying flat close-boarded blades at their extremities. It 
revolves with the smallest possible clearance in a chamber 
of masonry, one of the .side walls being perforated by a largo 
round hole, through which the air from the mine is admitted 
to the centre of tiie fan. The lower quadrant of the casing 
is enlarged spirally, so as to leave a narrow rectangular 
opening at the bottom, through which the air is discharged 
into a chimney of gradually increasing section carried to a 
height of about 25 feet. The size of the discharge aperture 
canbo varied by means of a flexible woode n shutt er sliding 




in a groove in a cast-iron pkte, eumd to the elope of 
tlie cosiug. By tlie use of tlie spiral guide casing and the 

Kio. 17.— CUiiljal's Fan. 

chimney, the Telocity of the effluent air is gradually reduced 
up to the point of final discharge into the atmosphere, 
whereby a greater useful effect is realized than is the case 
Vhen the air streatos freely from the circumference with a 
velocity equal to that of the rotating fan. The power is 
applied by steam acting directly on a crank at one end 
of the axle. In most of the newer examples, which are 
generally of large size, the power is divided, an engine 
being placed on each side. At Washington Colliery, 
Durham, a machine of 3G feet diameter, 12 feet breadth 
of face, and 13 feet diameter of intake passage, draws 
120,CC0 cubic feet of air per minute, when making 38 
revolutions. Another at Usworth, 48 feet diameter and 
12 feet breadth of face, driven by two high-pressure 
engines, with cylinders 3 feet in diameter and 3 feet 
stroke, equal to about 280 horse-power, exhausts 200,000 
cubic feet per minute. The useful effect realized under 
the most favourable conditions is as much as 50 per cent, 
of that of the steam power employed. 

Waddle's fan, represented in fig. 18, is an example of 

Flo. 18.— Waddle's Fan. 

another class of centrifugal ventilator, in which a/ close cas- 
ing is not used, the air exhausted being discharged from 
the circumference directly into the atmosphere. It con- 
sists of a hollow sheet-iron drum formed by two conoidal 
tubes, united together by numerous guide blades, dividing 
it up into a series of rectangular tubes of diminishing sec- 
tion, attached to a horizontal axle by cast-iron bosses and 
wrought-iron arms. The tubes at their smallest part are 
connected to a cast-iron ring, 10 feet in diameter, but 
at their outer circumference they are only 2 feet apart. 
The extreme diameter is 25 feet. A fan of these dimen- 
sions at Brownhills in Staffordshire, in making 50 revolutions 
per minute, circulates 47,000 cubic feet of air through the 
workings. It has also been in use for some years in South 
WTales, and is found to work well; it is loss expensive 
la first cost than Guibal's, akhuugh proportionally less 

economical from the smo'ler cfTect realized for the power 

Another method of colliery ycntilation is that by jets of 
steam blowing off at a high velocity into t^e upcast shaft, 
and producing a draught similar to that of the exhaust- 
blast in the chimney of a locomotive. This plan found 
several advocates some years since, and was the subject 
of numerous comparative trials against the ventilating fur- 
nace in the North of England, but the results were unfa- 
vourable, the amount of air circulation produced being 
exceedingly small for the fuel expended. It seems probable, 
however, that this want of success was in great part duQ 
to the defective character of the apparatus applied, and 
that, with properly-constructed aspirators and discharge 
passages, the steam jet may prove to be a very efficient 
means of ventilation. 

The comparative merits of fnrnace and macbiue ventila- 
tion have long been discussed without any definite result 
The former was at one time regarded in England as practi- 
cally superior in every respect, but this opinion has been 
modified since the introduction of the improved forms of 
fans vrhich have been worked to a considerable extent lo 
France and Belgium, on the contrary, machine ventilation 
has been more generally in favour. For a deep and ex- 
tensive mine where the coal is not fiery, the furnace ia 
undoubtedly the simplest and most efficacious method 
of producing a large circulation of air ; but for moderate 
depths, especially with fiery return air, a ventilating machine 
at the surface is in many cases to be preferred. There ia 
also an important advantage procured by the latter, 
namely, that of reserve power, so that a larger circulation 
may be oblained immediately iu case of need, e.g., Vvhen 
the barometer falls suddenly, by merely' increasing the 
speed of rotation, w^hich cannot so readily be done with 
the furnace, which has a tendency to slacken at the time 
when the increased work is wanted. 

The quantity of air required for a large colliery depends DUtriha. 
upon the number of men employed, as for actual respira- 1'"""' '"' 
tion from 100 to 200 cubic feet per minute should be """'*^, 
allowed. In fiery mines, however, a very much larger "" 

amount must be provided in order to dilute .the gas to the" 
point of safety. Even with the best arrangements a dan- 
gerous increase iu the amount of gas is not unfrcquent 
from the sudden release of stored up masses in the coal, 
which, overpowering the ventilation, produce magazines of 
explosive material ready for ignition when brought in con- 
tact with the flame of a lamp or the blast of a shot. The 
management of such places, therefore, requires the most 
constant vigilance on the part of the workmen, especially 
in the examination of the worki;ig places that have been 
standing empty during the night, in which gas may have 
accumulated, to see that they are properly cleared before 
the new shift commences. 

The actual conveyance or coursing of the air from the 
intake to the working faces is effected by splitting or 
dividing the current at different points in its course, so as to 
carry it as directly as possible to the places where it is 
required. In laying out the mine, it is customary to drive 
the levels or roads in pairs, communication being made 
between them at intervals by cutting through the inter- 
mediate pillar, the air then passes along one, and returns 
by the other. As the roads advance other pillars are 
driven through in the same manner, the passages first made 
being closed by stoppings of brt^ken rock, or built up 
with brick and mortar walls, or both. ^Vhen it ia desired 
to preserve a way from one road or similar class of w;ork- 
ing to another, double doors placed at sufficient intervab 
apart to take in one or more trams bstj^een them when 
closed are used, forming a kind of lock or sluice. These 
are made to shut air-tight against their frames, so as to 




prevent tho air from taking a short cut back to the up- 
cast, while preserving free access between the ditfertnt 
districts without fullowiiig tlie whole round of the air- 
ways. The ventilation of ends is effected by means of 
brattices or temporary partitions of thin boards placed 
midway in tho drift, and extending to within a few feet of 
the face. The air passes along one side of the brattice, 
courses round the free end, and returns on the other side." 
In many cases a light but air-proof cloth, specially made 
for the purpose, is used instead of wood for brattices, as 
being more handy and more easily removed. In large mines 
where the airways are numerous and compHcated, it often 
happens that currents travelling in opposite directions are 
brought together at one point. In these cases it is neces- 
Croaings, sary to cross them in the manner shown in fig, 2, Plate III. 
The return air is usually made to pass over the intake by 
a curved drift carried some distance above in the solid 
measures, both ways being arched in brickwork, or even 
in some cases line<l with sheetriron so as to ensure a 
separation not likely to be destroyed in case of an ex- 
plosion. The relation of the ventilation to the workings 
under the different systems is indicated on the several 
plates by arrows and other signs, from which the general 
character of the arrangements adopted can be made out 
without furtlier description. 
LiKbtiai;. Tl>" lighting of underground workings in collieries is 
closely connected with the subject of ventilation. In 
many of the smaller pits in the Midland districts, and 
generally in South Staffordshire, the coals are sufficiently 
free from gas, or rather the gases are not liable to become 
explosive wiien mixed with air, to allow the use of naked 
lights, candles being generally used. Oil lamps are em- 
ployed in many of the Scotch collieries, and are almost 
universally used in Belgium and other Continental coun- 
tries. The buildings near the pit l>ottom, such as the 
stables and lamp cabin, and even the main roads for some 
distance, are often in large collieries lighted ^'ith gas 
brought from the surface, or in some cases the gas given 
off by the coal is used for the same purpose. Where the 
gases are fiery, the use of protected lights or safety lamps 
becomes a necessity. 
Comport- The nature of the gases evolved by coal when freshly 
tion of gas exposed to the atmosphere has been investigated by several 
toil" ^ chemists, more particularly by Playfair and Meyer. The 
latter observer found the gases given off by coal from the 
district of Newcastle and Durham to contain carbonic acid 
(anhydride), marsh gas or light carburetted hydrogen (the 
fire-damp of the miner), oxygen, and nitrogen. A newer 
investigation, by Mr J. W. Thomas, of the gases dissolved 
or occluded in coals from South Wales basin shows them 
to vary considerably with the class of coal. The results 
given below, which are selected from a much larger series 
published in the Journal of the Chemical Society, were 
obtained by heating samples of the different coals in vacuo 
for several hours at the temperature of boiling water. 




pel' ton 

in cubic 


Conipositign in Volumes per cent 1 








DLta ruinous 


A^lthrflclic, j 

Cwm Clyaach. 
llonvillc'8 ^ 
Cutin \ 





03 10 


56 34 

4 ■-•3 

'. Ill one instance, about 1 per cent, of hydride of ethyl was 
found in the gas from a blower in a pit in the Rhondda dis- 
trict, which was collected in a tube and brought to the surface 
to be used in lighting the engine-room and pit-bank. The 
gases from the biciniiinous bouse coals of South Wali^aru 

comparatively free from marsh gas, as compared with those 
from the steam coal and auvhracite pits. The latter class 
of coal contains the largest proportion of this danger- 
ous gas, but holds it more tenaciously than do the steam 
coals, thus rendering the workings comparatively safer. 
.It was found that, of the entire volume of occluded eas in 
an anthracite, only one-third could be expelled at the tem- 
perature of boiling water, and that the whole quantity, 
amounting to G50 cubic feet per ton, was only to be 
driven out by a heat of 3U0" C. Steam coals being 
softer and more porous give off enormous volumes of gas 
from the working face in most of the deep pits, many of 
which have been the scene of disastrous explosions. 

The gases evolved from the sudden outbursts or blowers 
in coal, which are often given oft' at a considerable tension, 
are the most dangerous enemy that the collier has n con- 
tend with. They consist almost entirely of marsh gas, 
with only a small quantity of carbonic acid, usually under 
1 per cent., and from 1 to 4 per cent, of nitrogen. 

Fire-damp when mixed with from four to twelve times 
its volume of atmospheric air is explosive ; but when the 
proportion is above or below these limits, it is inflam- 
mable, burning quietly with a pale blue flame. When a 
lighted candle is exposed in a non-e.xplosive mixture of this 
gas, the flame gradually elongates, forming a conical cap, 
floating above the wick, which may be extinguished by 
cautious withdrawal without communicating the fire to the 
surrounding atmosphere. This method of testing for gas 
in the working places and wastes, which is obviously only 
to be trusted in skilled hands, used to be commonly 
practised, but since the introduction of safety lamps it has 
fallen into disuse. 

The principle involved in the construction of safety- ba/eii 
lamps consists in surrounding the flame of a lamp by l»n P-* 
a protecting metal case, perforated with numerous small 
holes, through which the air for feeding the flame may freely 
enter, and the products of oouibustion pass out, while the 
passage of flame, or gases sufficiently heated to cause the 
ignition of the external air when laden with explosive 
gases, is prevented. In 1S16 Sir Humphrey Davy made 
the great discovery that these conditions are fulfilled by 
the use of tubes reduced to a mere section, sucli as the 
apertures in wire gauze, when the substance of the wire is 
rightly proportioned to the size of the aperture. The 
standard adopted as the limit for safety at that time was 
a gauze of 28 iron wires to the linear inch, having 784 
apertures per square inch, which has been used ever since. 
The common safety or Davy lamp consists of a small 
cylindrical oil lamp, covered with a cylinder of wire gauze 
about 6 inches long and IJ inches in diameter, with a 
gauze top. The upper part of the gauze is doubled to 
prevent its being worn into holes by the products of 
combustion, and the air for feeding the flame enters round 
the wick. The gauze is mounted in a cage, consisting of 
three upright wires, screwed into a flat brass ring at each 
end. A handle is attached to the upper.riiig, while the lower 
one screws on to a collar on tlie oil-vessel of the lamp. 
When the two parts are screwed together the lamp is locked 
by a bolt passing through both parts, which is screwed 
down flush w-ith or below the surface of the outer ring, so 
that the gauze cannot be removed without the use of a key. 

In Stephenson's safety-lamp, generally known as the 
" Geordie," from the inventor George Stephenson, the light 
is covered hy a glass chimney, surrounded by an outer 
casing and top ol wire gauze. The feed air is admitted 
through numerous small holes in a copper ring a little 
below the level of the wick.,. This is one of the safest 
forms of lamp, but requires considerable cure in rse, espe- 
cially in kcL-ping the small feed holes clear from dust and 
f'i' ; the glass i.rotects the gauze from becoming overheated. 




ud nben the air is aangeruusiy cbargcd with gas the light 
(a extinguished. 

Various forma of safety-lamps have been introduced at 
different times, for the purpose of increasing the amount of 
light by substituting a glass cylinder for the lower portion 
of the wire gauze. The oldest of these is that of Dr 
Clanny, contemporriry with those of Davy and Stephenson. 
The air for supplying the flame, entering. at the bottom of 
the gau^e, and passing down the inner side of the glass, 
protects the latter to some extent from becoming over- 
heated, but a largo-amount of light is lost by absorption 
In the glass, so that there is no great advantage over the 
wdinary Davy lamp to "compensate for the extra weight 
ind cost, especially as the safety property of the .'imp 
iepends upon tho glass cylinder, which may be re,-.dily 
broken when subjected to the ordinary accidents of *. -ork- 
ing. A more perfect form of lamp of the same character 
b that of Museler, which is extensively u.sed in Belgium. 
It differs from Clanny's lamp by the addition of a conical 
chimney above the flame, which produces a rapid draught, 
and consequently a more perfect tooling of the glass 
cylinder by the down-draught of feed air fur the flame. 

Boty's lamp, which was recommended by a commission 
of the Belgian Government as being safe in use, is essen- 
tially that of Dr Clanny with Stephenson's perforated ring 
fer admitting air at tho level of the wick. Another 
Belgian variety is that of Eloin, in which the glass is 
shaped to tho surface produced by the revolution of a 
parabolic arc, so as to disperse he light in parallel lines. 
The air is admitted by a Stephenson ring, combined with 
an Argand cap, the glass being surrounded by a brass 
chimney with a gauze top. In another form of the same 
lamp Muaeler's chimney is added. 

The locking of safety-lamps, so as to render them in- 
capable of being opened by the miners when at work, is a 
point that has given play to a large amount of ingenuity. 
One of the most favourite^ devices is a combination of the 
wick-holder with the locking bait, so that the latter cannot 
be withdrawn without lowering the wick and extinguishing 
the flame. Another method consists in the use of a lead 
rivet, uniting the two parts of the lamp, impressed with a 
seal, which cannot be removed without defacing the device. 
A}1 thLi class of contrivances have the defect of only being 
efficacious when the miners are not provided with matches, 
or other means of obtaining a light. A more physically 
p?rfect method is that adopted by Bidder, where the 
locking bolt is magnetized and held in place by a force 
which can only be overcome by the application of a battery 
of heavy and powerful steel magnets. These ate kept in 
tho lamp cabin at the pit bottom, where the lamps are 
cleaned and served out lighted to the miners at the com- 
mencement of the shift, and are collected before they return 
to the surface. 

When a Davy lamp is exposed to an atmosphere "on- 
taining less than 8 percent, of marsh gas, the flame lengthens 
and becomes smoky ; when that amount is reached the 
flame returns to its usual size, but a column of blue name 
rises to the top of the gauze. With 10 per cent, the flame 
of the wick is extinguished, the whole of the space within 
the gauze being filled with a blue flame of burning gas. 
If the lamp ia allowed to remain- too long in a fiery atmo- 
sphere it becomes dangerous, as the gauze being heated to 
rednesa may fire the gas. The safety of the lamp is also 
endangered by an exposure to a current of gas moving at 
the 'rate of more than C or 8 feet per second, as the flame 
can then be readily driven through the gauze. It is there- 
fore usual to protect the flame by a sliding shield of tin 
plate, horn, or mica from the direct action of any sudden 
outburst of gas in the workings. Lamps with glass cylin- 
ders are generally vcrv safe, except from tbe risk of acci- 

dental breakage, whico, nowever, is less frequent than 
might be imagined, and those taking air through a feed 
ring, such as Stephenson's, are readily extinguished in a 
foul atmosphere. 

The danger arising from gas in the working? may be 
considerably increased by the presence of coal dust in the 
air. This point has been the subject of investigation by 
Galloway, who found that an explosion may be produced 
by ignited particles of coal dust through the agency of a 
safety-lamp which under ordinary circumstances would be 
perfectly trustworthy. At Blanzy, in France, several fatal 
explosions have been traced to the firing of coal dust from 
the flame of a shot, even in cases where no fire-damp was 
present in the workings. 

An electric lamp, where the light is obtained from the El»clrt« 
discharge in a Geissler vacuum tube, has been pioposef; Iwop*. 
by Benoit-Dumas, instead of the ordinary safety lamps, or 
for use in exploring after explosions or in bad air ways. 
This consists of a box containing a galvanic battery, con- 
sisting of two Bunsen cells, and a small induction coil, 
with connecting wires which convey the current to the 
lamp. The Bunsen cells may be conveniently replaced by 
a single bottle-shaped bichromate battery. The cost and 
complication of this apparatus must necessarily limit its use. 

Apparatus, originating in France, known as acrophorea. Aero- 
which erable the miner to carry sufficient fresh air for P'"'r«* 
his own trespiration, and to keep a lamp alight for a 
short tiniein a totally irrespirable atmosphere, have of late 
years come into use for the purposes of saving life after 
explosions, and repairing shafts and pit- work under 
water. There are two principal patterns, those of Galibert 
and Denayrouze. The former, which is the simplest, con- 
sists of an air-tight bag of abuut 1 2 cubic feet capacity, con- 
taining air at a little above atmospheric pressure, which is 
carried on the miner's back like a knapsack. The air, after 
being used, is returned with the products of respiration into 
the bag, and can be used over again until it becomes too 
impure for further use. It is obvious, therefore, that such 
an apparatus must be of very limited application, but its 
simplicity and cheapness are points in its favour for use in 
sudden emergencies. The Denayrouze apparatus consists 
of a series of sheet metal cylinders, containing air compressed 
to 300 or 350 lb to the square inch, which can be carried on 
the back, and served out at a pressure very slightly above 
that of the atmosphere by means of a reducing valve, whose 
construction is essentially the same in principle as that of 
the ordinary pressure regulator used in gas-works, i.e., a 
conical plug closed against its seat by the pressure of tho 
air in the reservoir, which is constantly opposed by an 
external force tending to open it. This force ia supplied 
by a disc of vulcanized india-rubber, which opens the valve 
at each inspiration, and allows a fresh supply of air Ic 
escape into the chamber of the regulator through the small 
aperture of the valve. Of course, all communication with 
the external air must be cut oS', so that respiration can 
only take -place through the mouth, the air-tube being 
attached by an india-rubber mask called a mouth-closer, 
and the nostrils closed by a spring clip. A similar regu- 
lator valve, so constructed as to keep the india-nibber spring 
under a slight excess pressure in order to maintain a flow 
of air, is in connection with the lamp. This is of the 
ordinary Museler construction, with the addition of a 
chamber outside the gauze to receive the products of com- 
bustion, which arc discharged through a conical valve at 
the top, a reflux of the exterior gases being prevented by 
the pressure of a counter spring. The air is carried to 
the lamp by an india-rubber tube, which is suflicicntiv 
flexible to allow a certain freedom of motion. The dis- 
tance that an explorer can penetrate with this apparatus 
is obviously limited by the capacity of the air-cylindert. 




These have beeo made large enough ro supply air to a man 
with a lamp for an hour, but this is an inconvenient size, 
being too large to be carried on the back. 
irw to Underground fires are not uncommon acc'dents in coal- 

Idos mines. In the thick coal workings in So"uth Staffordshire 
the slack left behind in the sides of work is especially 
liable to fire from so-called spontaneous corabustiun, duo 
to the rapid o.xidization that is set up, when finely-divided 
coal 13 brought in contact wTth air. The best remedy in 
euch cases is to prevent the air from gaining access to tlfe 
coal by building a wall'round the burning portion, which can 
in tins way be isolated from the remainder of the working, 
and the fire prevented from spreading, even if it cannot 
be extinguished. When tlie coal is fired by the blast of 
an explosion it is often necessary to completely isolate the 
mine by stopping up the mouths of the pits with earih, or 
m extreme cases it must ba flooded with water or carbonic 
acid before the fire can be brought under. There have 
been several instances of this being done in the fiery pits 
in the Barnslcy district, notably at the great explosion at 
the Oaks colliery in 18GG, wlien 3G0 lives were lost. 
'faliodi of The drawing or winding of the coal from the pit bottom 
finding to the surface is one of the most important operations in 
coal mining, and probably the department in which me- 
chanical appliances have been brought to the highest state 
of development. In the simplest case, where the mine is 
worked by levels, the trains of coal may be drawn from the 
working faces directly to the level mouth by horse power, 
or in some exceptional cases locomotives worked by com- 
pressed air are used. In South Wales the power for lifting 
the load in the shaft is still in some small workings -fur- 
nished by a water balance, that is, a box which is filled 
with water at a high level, and in descending raises 
the loaded trucks by a rope passing over a pulley at the 
surface. This method is only available when there is a 
free drainage level for the water to run off when the box 
reaches the lowest point. Other hydraulic motors, such 
as wheels, pressure engines, ic, are used in different locali- 
ties as well as animal power, where the amount of coal to 
be drawn is small, but as a general rule it is necessary to 
have recourse to steam pow?r to maintain an adequate 
output. The old custom of drawing the coals in tubs or 
hutches (cuffai of the French miner), swinging freely from 
the end of the drawing rope, is now almost entirely super- 
seded by the adoption of cages sliding between fixed guides, 
which allow the load to move freely up and down while 
checking lateral oscillation. This improvement, which is 
due to Jlr John Curr of Sheffield, was originally intro- 
duced in 1798, but made surprisingly little progress for 
nearly half a century. It was first brought into' general 
use in the North of England, but in many of the smaller 
pits of the Midkind counties the older custom prevailed 
until recently. 

The different elements making up the drawing arrange- 
ments of a colliery are — (1) the cage, (2) the shaft or pit 
fittings, (3) the drawing-rope, (4) the engine, and (5) the 
Sage. surface arrangements. The cage, as its name implies, 

consists of one or more platforms connected by an open 
framework of vertical bars of wrought iron or steel, with 
a top bar to which the drawing-rope is attached. It is 
customary to have a curved sheet-iron roof or bonnet when 
the cage is used for raising or lowering the miners, to pre- 
vent them from injury by falling materials. The number 
of platforms or decks varies considerably ; in small mines 
only a single one may be used, but in the larger modern 
pits two, three, or even four-decked cages are used. The 
use pf several decks is necessary in old pits of small sec- 
tion, where only a single tram can be carried on each. In 
the large shafts of the Northern and Wigan districts the 
ca^ea are made f>>iout 8 feet lon^ and 3J feet broad, being 

sufficient to carry two large trams on one deck. These 
are' received upon a railway made of two strips of angla 
iron of the proper gauge for the wheels, and are locked 
fast by a latch falling over their ends. 

The guidis or conductors in the pit may be constructed Guide* 
of wood, in which case rectangular fir beams, about 3 by 4 
inches, are used, attached at intervals of a few feet to 
buntons or cross-beams; built into the lining of the pit. 
Two guides are required for each cage; they may be 
placed opposite to each other, either on the long or short 
sides — the latter being preferable. The cage is guided by 
shoes of wrought iron, a few inches long and bell-mouthed 
at the ends, attached to the horizontal bars of the framing, 
which pass loosely over the guides on three sides. In 
some of the large collieries in Northumberland wrought 
iron guides have been adopted with advantage. They are 
applied on one side of the cage only, forming a complete 
vertical railway, — light flange rails such as are used for the 
roadways underground being used instead of wooden rods 
and iron cross sleepers, with proper seats for the rails 
instead of wooden buntons ; the cage is guided by curved 
shoes of a proper section to cover the heatls of the rails. 
Rigid guides connected with the walling of the pit are 
probably the best and safest, but they have the disadvan- 
tage of being liable to distortion, in case of the pit altering 
its form, owing to irregular movements of the ground, or 
other causes. Wooden guides being of considerable size, 
block up a certain portion -of the area of the pit, and thus 
offer an impediment to th£ ventilation, especially in up- 
cast shafts, where the high temperature, when furnace 
ventilation is used, is also against their use. In the 
Wigan district, wire-rope guides have been introduced to 
a very considerable extent, with a view of meeting the 
above objections. These are simply wire-ropes, from ^ to li 
inches in diameter, hanging from a cross-bar connected 
with the pit-head framing at the surface, and attached to 
a similar bar at the bottom, whjch are kept straight by 
a stretching weight of from 30 cwt. to 4 tuns attached to 
the lower bar. In some cases four guides are used — two to 
each of the long sides of the cage ; but a more general 
arrangement is to have three — two on one side, and the 
third in an intermediate position on the opposite side. 
Many colliery managers, however, prefer to have only two 
opposite guides, as being safer. The cage is connected 
by tubular clips, made in two pieces and bolted together, 
which slide over the ropes. In addition to this, it is ne- 
cessary to have an extra system of fixed guides at the 
surface and at the bottom, where it is necessary to keep 
the cage steady during the operations of loading and 
landing, there being a much greater amopnt 6f oscillation 
during the passage of the cage than with fixed guides. 
For the same reason it is necessary' to give a considerable 
clearance between the two lines of guides, which are kept 
from 15 to 18 inches apart, to prevent the possibility of 
the two cages striking each other in passing. With 
proper precautions, however, wire guides are perfectly 
safe for use at the highest travelling speed. 

The cage is connected with the drawing-rope by short Rojxs »n< 
lengths of chain from the coiners known as tackling '''^•''" 
chains, gathered into a central ring, to which the rope is 
attached. Round steel wire-ropes, about 2 inches in 
diameter, are now commonly used ; but in very deep pits 
they are sometimes tapered in section to reduce the dead 
weight lifted. Flat ropes of steel or iron wire were and arc 
still used to a great extent, but round ones are now gene- 
rally preferred. In Belgium flat ropes of aloe fibre are 
in high repute, being considered preferable by many 
colliery managers to wire, in spite of their great weight. 
In South StatTordshirc, flat link chains made with thres 
or more parallel links, with a stud of wood filling up tha 




hollow, are or were in general use in the numerous shallow 
[Ills working ihe thick coal in the neighbourhood ol 
Dudley, iic 

The best modern engines for drawing in collieries are 
. usually direct-acting, with either horizontal or vertical 
cyhndcrs. In the north of England a single engine with 
a heavy flywheel is often used, but the more general 
arrangement is to have two engines coupled to the opposite 
ends of the winding drum-shaft. In almost all cases steam 
is used at high pressure without condi^nsation. 

The drum, when round ropes arc nsed, is a plain broad 
cylinder, vith flanged rims, and cased with soft wood 
packing, upon which the rope is coiled; the breadth is 
made sufficient to take the whole length of the rope at two 
laps. One drum is usually fixed to the shaft, while the 
othtr is louse, with a screw link or other means of coup- 
ling, in order to be able to adjust the two ropes to exactly 
the same length, so that one cage may be at the surface 
when the other is at the bottom, without having to pay 
out or take up any slack rope by the engine. 

For flat ropes, the drum or bobbin consists of a solid 
disc, of the width of the rope fixed upon the shaft, with 
numerous parallel pairs of arms or horns, arranged radially 
on both sides, the space between being just sufficient to 
allow the rope to enter and coil regularly upon the preced 
iiig lap. This method has the advantage of equalizing 
the work of the engine throughout the journey, for when 
the load is greatest, with the full cage at the bottom and 
the whole length of rope out, the duty required in the first 
revolution of the engine is measured by the length of the 
smallest circumference ; while the assistance derived from 
gravitating action of the descending cage in the same 
period is equal to the weight of the falling mass through a 
'height corresponding to the length of the largest lap, and 
so on, the speed being increased as the weight diminishes, 
and I'l't'e versa. 

The same thing can be elTected in a more perfect manner 
by the use of Sfwrai or scroll drums, in which the rope is 
made to coil in a spiral groove upon the surface of the 
drum, which is formed by the frusta of two obtuse cones 
placed with their smaller diameters outwards. This plan, 
though mechanically a very good one, has certain defects, 
especially in the possibility of danger resulting from the 
rope slipping sideways, if the grooves in the bed are not 
perfectly true. The great size and weight of such drums 
are also disadvantages, as giving rather unmanageable 
dimensions in a very deep pit. 

The use of a counterbalance chain for the winding 
engines is common in the collieries of the Midland dis- 
tricts of England. In this method a third drum is used 
to receive a heavy flat link chain, shorter than the mam 
drawing-ropes, the end of which hangs down a special or 
balance pit. At starttiig, when the full load is to be 
lifted, the balance chain uncoils, and continues to do so 
until the desired equilibnum between the working loads is 
attained, when it is coiled up again in the reverse direc- 
tion, to be again given out on the return trip. 

The surface arrangements of a modern coUiery are often 
of considerable extent and complexity, the most important 
feature being the pit-frame carrying the guide-pulleys or 
rope-rolls which lead the drawing-ropes from the verti- 
cal line of the pit to the engine-drum. This consists 
essentially of an upright framework, carefully braced 
together, and strutted by diagonal beams against the wall 
of the engine-house, or other solid abutment. It is gene- 
rally necessary to have a clear head-room, 10 or 20 feet or 
more, for the working arrangements at th'> surface above 
the level of the ground, c.^iicciully in fiat countries ; thejiit- 
f'ames aro made of considerable height, from oO to 70 
feet beiug uot uncommon ; and when, as is geuerally 'b^ 

case, they urc maae oi wood, they aflord opportUDi'ties for 
the exercise of skilful carpentry. Of late years, however, 
wrought iron pit-frames have been adopted to some extent, 
which allows of a comparatively simpler construction 
being used, the main elements of the frame consiBtlng of 
hollow latticed pillars and beams, similar to the construc- 
tion now generally adopted for the pillars of railway 
signals, but of course of a more solid construction. They 
have one great advantage over wooden frames, in not 
being liable to destruction by tire, an accident which has 
occasionally hajipened with the latter The guidepulleya 
for iron or steel wire-ropes are made of very large dimen- 
sions, to avoid strain upon the wires by sudden change of 

Fig 19 

fig. 20. 

direction when moving at a high 
speed. The usual construction is 
a deep channeled rira or tire of 
cast-iron, from 7 to 20 feet in 
diameter, supported by numerous 
thin wrought iron arms, inclining 
inwards from a central cast iron 
boss, — a form combining rigidity 
with comparative hghtness. They 
are in fact very similar to the 
driving wheels of the large modern 
bicycles, supposing a channeled 
rim to be substituted for the india- 
rubber tire. 

To prevent -accidents from the Safety 
breakage of the rope on the shaft, catclie» 
or from overwinding when tho 
engine is not stopped at the right 
moment, whereby the cage may be 



Fig 21. 
Figs. 19-21.— White and's Safely Catch. 

dragged up to the head pulleys fboth which kinds of acci- 
dent are unhappily not uncommon), various forms of safety 
catch and disengaging hooks have been proposed. These 
consist of variously-constructed toothed levers, cams, or 
eccentrics, mounted upon transverse axes, attached to the 
top of the cage, whose function is to take hold of the 
guides, and support the cage in the event of its becoming 
detached from the rope. They are generally applied by 
means of springs acting against the pull of the rope. Figs. 
19-21 represent a form of safety catch, introduced soma 
years since by Messrs White and Grant of Glasgow. Tha 
catches BlJ consist of partially toothed eccentrics, which 
when released are forced inwards against the wooden gui-'e 
a by the coiled springs d d, as shown in fig. 21. 

When the rope is drawing, the catches are lifted bj tn». 




pull of the chains attached to the pulleys e e, which turn 
the broad toothed portions outwards, and away from the 
guides. The connection with the rope is made by the 
slide bar C and spring catch h having a projecting 
trigger, which, if the cago is lifted too high, strikes against 
the cross-bar of the framing k, and detaches the cage, 
which is then left hanging by the catches to the guides in 
the pit. The use of safety catches is more common in the 
collieries of France, Belgium, and Germany than in Eng- 
land, where they are not generally popular, owing to 
their uncertainty in action, as they are often found to fail 
when most wanted. The constant drag of the catches on 
the guides when the rope slacks is also objectionable, but 
this has been overcome to a great extent in a very in- 
genious contrivance invented by Mr Calow, where the 
catches are not brought into action unless the cage is 
actually falling clear of the rope, with a certain acquired 
momentum of its own. The only real safeguards against 
accidents in winding are to be found in constant vigilance, 
in maintaining the ropes in working eflSciency, and in the 
use of proper .signals and brake power in the engine house. 

The speed attained by the load in the shaft in the best- 
appointed English collieries is very considerable, and may 
be paralleled with that of a fast railway train. At Shire- 
oaks Colliery, Nottinghamshire, the cage with a load of 
34 cwts. of coal in five tubs, and weighing in all 60 cwts., 
or with the rope at the bottom 92i cwts., is raised from a 
depth of 516 yards in 45 seconds, corresponding to an 
average of 35 feet per second, or 24 miles per hour, the 
maximum speed when the load is mid- way being 50 feet 
per second, or nearly 35 miles an hour. The ropes used 
are round, of steel wire, weighing 13 lbs. to the yard, 
winding on to a spiral drum, increasing from 17 to 20 
feet in diameter. There are two engines with vertical 
cylinders, 32 inches diameter and 6 feet stroke, developing 
a useful effect of about 320 horse-power. The guide-pul- 
leys are 12 feet in diameter. 

The above may be taken as a good example o£ the mo- 
dern class of winding engines, such as are required to 
draw from 600 to 1200 tons in the shift of 10 hours. 
When the pits are of small depth it is better to increase 
the weight of the load than to draw at a very high speed, 
as the loss of time in filling and unloading or striking the 
caijes is the same for a short as for a long journey, so that 
it becomes advantageous to diminish the number of journeys 
for a given quantity of coal drawn. 

The great amount of dead weight required to be raised 
in the ordinary system of winding (e.g., in the instance 
. given above, the total weight moved is nearly four times 
that of the nett load drawn, that of the ropes being nearly 
1| times as much as the latter), has led to the proposal of 
various plans to obtain a more mechanically economical 
method, but none of these have at present been brought 
into successful use. One of the latest is that of M. 
Blanchet, who proposes to draw a number of tubs linked 
together into a long vertical train in a closed tube about 
5 1 feet in diameter, by exhausting the air above them in 
the manner adopted in the pneumatic tubes used for the 
transmission of parcels. An experimental apparatus of 
this class has been recently constructed at Creusot, in 
France, designed to lift a cage with 9 tubs, attached to a 
piston, weighing in all about 12i tons. 

When the cage arrives at the surface, or rather the plat- 
and form forming the working top above the mouth of the pit, 

« is received upon the keeps, a pair of hinged gratings 
which are kept in an incUned position over the pit-top by 
counteibalance weights, so that they are pushed aside to 
allow the cftge to pass upwards, but fall back and receive 
it when the engine is reversed. The tubs are then removed 
or struck by the landers, who pull them forward on to the 

platform, which is covered with cast-iron plates; at the 
same time empty ones are pushed in from the opposite 
side. The cage is then lifted by the engine clear of the 
keeps, which are opened by a lever worked by hand, and 
the empty tubs start on the return trip. When the cage 
has several decks, it is necessary to repeat this operation 
for each, unless there is a special provision made for load- 
ing and discharging the tubs at different levels. An 
arrangement of this kind for shifting the load from a large 
cage at one operation has recently been introduced by Mr 
Fowler at Hucknall, in Leicestershire, where the trains are 
received into a framework with a number of platforms cor- 
responding to those of the cage, carried on the head of a 
plunger movable by hydraulic pressure in a vertical 
cylinder. The empty tubs are carried by a corresponding 
arrangement on the opposite side. By this means the 
time -of stoppage is reduced to a minimum, 8 leconda for 
a three-decljed cage as against 28 seconds, as the operations 
of lowering the tubs to the level of the pit-top, discharging, 
and replacing them are performed during the tiine that 
the following load is being drawn up the pit. 

The tub when brought to the surface, after passing over 
a weigh-bridge, where it is weighed and taUied by a weigher 
specially appointed for the purpose by the men and the owner 
jointly, is run into a tipping cage, and the contents are dis- 
charged into an inclined screen with bars about 1 inch to 
1 1 inches apart. The large coal remaining passes through 
a spout into a railway waggon placed below, the discharge 
being regulated by a valve at the lower end. The small 
coal passing through is either sold as such, or may be lifted 
by an elevator to a second series of screens, either fixed or 
rotating, with half-inch apertures. These make a further 
separation of larger pieces, which are sold as " nuts," while 
the small, or slack, passing through is sent to the coke • 
ovens, if the quality of the coal is suitable. As a rule, non- 
caking coals are not very closely screened, as the small is 
of comparatively little value, and therefore must have a 
proportion of larger aizes mixed with it to form saleable 

Figs. 22-24, representing the surface arrangements liiosira- 
adopted at a pair of pits in the Wigan district, may be ''""» °' 
taken as fairly representative of the fittings of a large ^"raM^- 
modern colliery, where a considerable output of coal has to menu 
be screened and loaded in an ordinary working day of less 
than tT?elve hours. The details' of course, will vary, ac- 
cording to the nature of the outlet or vend, which may be 
by retailing into carts sent by purchasers, or by canals or 
railways, or by a combination of all three. In the example 
selected, the coal is loaded directly from the screens into 
full-sized trucks, each carrying from 6 to 8 tons, on a main 
line of railway. Of the two pits, one is an upcast, and 
is surmounted by a chimney at the surface, — the drawing 
being confined to the downcast, which is 310 yards deep 
and lOJ feet in diameter. 600 tons of coal are drawx: 
from this depth in 10 hours by a pair of direct-acting 
engines, with vertical cylinders working a spiral drum, in- 
creasing from 1 3A feet to 1 7 i feet in diameter. The pit-head 
frame is of wood, with guide pulleys 7 feet iu diameter, — 
a much smaller size thau is now usually adopted ; the iron 
wire drawing-ropes are round, weighing 5 tti to the yard. 
Double-decked cages of a light construction in wrought 
iron are used, carrying four tubs at a time. The landing 
platform is raised upon pillars 20 feet above the surface of 
the ground, and covered vrith iron plates. As soon as the 
cage arrives at the surface, the tubs are run into tumbling 
cages, which discharge their contents on to fixed screens, 
with bars of 1 to IJ inch aperture. The large coal passes 
by a shoot directly into the railway waggon, while the first 
screenings fall into a channel below, which ia traversed by 
a series of scrapers attached to an endless tbaia, and aro 




carried to an elevator or Jacob's ladder, and discharged 
into rotatory drum sieves of about Jinch aperture, pro- 
duciDg a second size of saleable coal, knowo as nuts, and 


En^uif iiifuf 



> toi » 


tic. 22.— Elevation. 


Flo, 53.— Pl«a. 

Flo 24.— Transverse Elevation. 
Fia3. 22-24. — Surface arrangements of CoUiery. 

slack, which is sent away to the coke ovens attached to 
the colliery. The whole of the labour required in the 
screening the output of 600 tons in the day of ten hours is 
performed by one engineman, who has charge of all the 
mechanical arrangements, and nii^e boys, who pick out any 
large lumps of stone from fhe coal as it passes the first 
screens. The engine driving the screens and elevators is 
in charge of a special engineman. 

Fig 25 lepresents one of a pair of pit> at Pemberton 
Colliery, near Wigan, having the pit frames constructed in 
wrought iron lattice truss-work instead of wood. The 
screens for lar^e coal (S) are arranged symmetrically on the 
landing platform, three on each side of the jiit top, and 
discharge directly into waggons on the railway below. The 
small coal froir. these screens is passed by a screw creeper 
C, like those used in flour mills, to a bucket elevator E, 
which delivers it at the top of the second set of screens R, 
where the nuts and slack are separated. Thj platform, as 
in most of the now collieries in this district, is roofed over 
to protect the workmen from the weather. The second 
pit, wliich occupies a corresponding position on the oppo- 
site bide of the engine-house, is in every respect similar. 

The large collieries in the steam-coal district of North- 
umberland are among the most productive ; thus, at Bed- 
liiigton, near Morpeth, 1200 tons are raised daily, and at 
North SeatoD from 1500 to laOO toas. _ 

When the coal is very much mixed with shale, the sLck Coal- 
often contains so much mineral matter as to be quite wor'h- "ishing 
less, until at least a partial separation has been effected, o^lii^** 
This IS now done by means of coal-washing machines, 
which were first adopted in France, but have now become 
general in other countries. There are many different 
form.s, but the most usual is a fixed sieve plate, upon which 
the slack is received and subjected to the action of a 
current of water forced through the holes by the action of 
a fast-moving short-stroke plunger pump, which put3 the 

oJ-lo Li 







1 o 





o i 


R ] 

d 1 

- fc-— -"^ 

Flo. 25. — Surface arrangement', Pemberton Pit, Wigan. 

whole of the materials into suspension, and allows them to 
fall through the water at each stroke. By this means the 
coal, being the lighter material, traveb to the surface, and 
the heavier shale and stone going to the bottom are dir- 
charged through a valve there. The apparatus is in fact a 
form of the hydraulic jigging Hutch used for the dressing 
of lead and other ores, except that m this case the lighter 
and not the heavier part is the valuable mineral. In 
another form of coal-dressing machine introduced by Mr 
Evrard, the jigging action is produced by a jet of stcara 
acting directly upon the water instead of a plunger piston. 
Washed slack when suitable is used for conversion intc 
coke, but in France and Belgium it is now generally 
employed in the production of agglomerated fuel, or bri- 
quettes, or what is usually known in England as patent 
fuel. . These consist of coal dust mixed with a sufficient 
amount of gns-pitch to bo moulded into coherent bricks 
or cylinders, which are afterwards dried at a high tem- 
perature, but below the point of carbonization. The con- 
solidation of the slack may also be effected by the use of 
starch or dextrine, or even by cement or clay. This cLss 
of fuel is much used upon the French railways, bcmg con- 
venient for stowage and economical in use; but as o rule 
it is disagreeable to the passengers from the large amount 
of coal dust carried ofT by fhe exhaust steam, and Ibe 
unpleasant vapours produced by the burning pitdi. The 




principal production of patent fuel in Britain is in South 

The anthracite coal of Pennsylvania is subjected to the 
*>xceptional treatment of breaking between toothed rollers, 
end an elaborate system of screening before it is fit for 
sale. The largest or lump coal is that which remains upon 

riddle having the bars four inches apart; the second, 
or steamboat coal, is above 3 inches ; broken coal includes 
sizes above 2i or 2 J inches; egg coal, pieces above 2{ 
inches sqiiare ;" large stove coal, 1 J inches ; small stove, 

1 to li or IJ inches; chestnut coal, § to f inch; pea 
coal, i inch ; and buckwheat coal, J inch. The most valu- 
able of these are the egg and stove sizes, which are 
broken to the proper dimensions for household use, the 

,. larger lumps being unfit for burning in open fire-places. 

Prcportion The proportion of coal utilized in the working, as com- 

«f coalob- pared with the total contents of the seam, varies very 

*^'"fr '° considerably in diSerent districts, being greatesi in seams 

of moderate thickness, from 3 to 5 feet, which on the 

long-wall system can be entirely removed. In thick coals, 

Buch as the ten-yard seam of South Staffordshire, the waste 

is very considerable. In Cheshire and Lancashire about 

1330 tons of saleable coal are obtained from an acre for 

each foot of thickness in the seam, only 8 per cent, of the 

total being left behind in the workings. 

At Dowlais, on the north of the South Wales coal-field, 
the yield is 1190 tons to the foot by long-wall, but only 
860 tons when the same seam was worked by the pillar and 
BtaU system ; but on the south side of the basin, where the 
seams lie at a steep slope, the loss is often much greater, 
being from 20 to 50 per cent, on pillar and staU workings. 
In the Barnsley district, the yield is from 1150 to 1280 
tons in thick seams, and a maximum of 1417 tons has been 
obtained in a thin seam, the solid contents of the whole 
co4l being estimated at 1556 tons per foot per acre. In 
NoTthuinberland about 1200 tons are got out of a total 
of 1300! In the thick coal of South Staffordshire, from 
12,000 to 16,000 tons per acre are got at the first working 
on an average thickness of 25J feet, or about 640 tons to 
thi foot, or from 50 to 60 per cent, of the whole, which 
is increased by the second and third working to 70 or 75 
per cent., making a loss of from 25 to 30 per cent. This 
amount is reduced, however, by the long-wall method of 

Probably from 10 to 15 per cent, may be taken as the 
unavoidable loss in .working under the most favourable 
conditions, but in many cases the proportion is consider- 
ably higher. 
O-mership In the United Kingdom the ownership of coal, like that 
of coal of other minerals, is in the proprietor of the soil, and 
passes with it, except when specially reserved in the sale. 
The greater number of collieries are worked upon leases, 
the rentsor royalties being variously charged in different 
localities. A minimum reserved rent to cover a certain 
output, with a rate per ton on any quantity in excess, is 
the most general practice ; but uj Lancashire and York- 
shire the royalties are charged at a fixed rate per acre per 
annum upon each seam worked, and in Soutii Staflfordshire 
at a proportion (from J to -515) of the coal at the pit's 

mouth;' <i 

Coal lying under the sea below low-water mark belongs 
to the Crown, and can only be worked upon payment of 
royalties, even when it is approached from shafts sunk 
upon land in private ownership. 

In the Forest of Dean, which vis the ;p'roperty of the 
Crown as a royal forest, there are certaxh, Curious rights 
held by a portion of the inhabitants knowi as the Free 
Miners of the Forest, who are entitled to mine for coal and 
iron ore, under leases, known as gales, granted by the 
lirindpal agent or gaveller representing the Crown, in 

tracts not otherwise occupied This Is the only instance 
in Great Britain of the custom of free mining under a 
Government grant or concession, which la the rule m almost 
every country on the Continent. 

The working of collieries in the United Kingdom is Coal Mma. 
subject to the provisions of the Coal Mines Regulation Kegulauon 
Act of 1872, 35 and 36 Vict. cap. 76, which is administered ^''" 
by inspectors appointed by the Home Ofiice, and forms a 
complete disciplinary code in all matters connected with 
coal-mining. Among the chief provisions of the Act are 
the' following : — 

1. Females and boys under 10 aro not allowed to woik under, 

2. Boys between 10 and 12 are not allowed to wo.k except in 
thin mines. 

3. No boy under 12 to drive a gin horse, or ondcr 18 a steam- 
engine. .. , 

4. Wages not to be paid at public-bouses. 

5. Working of minea by a single shaft prohibited 

6. Managers to be certificated aa competent by a board of 

7. Annual return of coal wrought to be made to Inspectors. 

8. Notice of accidents to be sent to Inspector. 

9. Openings of abandoned workings to be fenced. 

10. Plans to be kept up to within six months of date. 

11. Plans of abandoned mines to be deposited with Home 
Office. ■ .,. - 

12. General rules for the safety of miners in 6ery mines, man. 
agement of ventilation, safety lamps, and gunpowder, protection 
against accidents in shafts and levels, &c. 

13. Power to frame special rules subject to approval of the 
Secretary of State. 

Breaches of the provisions of the Act are punishable by 
fine and imprisonment by a court of summary jurisdiction, 
subject to appeal to the Quarter Sessions, or to the Circuit 
Court in Scotland. 

The relation between the number of hands employed Vroponiou 
and the output of collieries varies considerably in different <>' bands t> 
districts, being highest in those where the coal is moder- <"''?'"• 
ately thick, soft, easUy cut, regularly shaped, and wilh a 
good roof, and least in faulted and disturbed seams, and 
those with a bad roof, where the accessory operations of 
timbering and driving stone drifts require the employ- 
ment of a large proportion of the working staff on non- 
productive work, i.e., other than cutting coal. The follow- 
ing figures give the relative force employed above and 
below ground in two large steam-coal collieries in South 
Wales, each producing about 500 tons per day : — 

Colliers cutting coal 225 200 

Other underground hands 229 174 

Surface hands iZ 38 

497 410 

showing in the one case an average of about 1 ton, in the 
other aiout Ij ton per hand per day, but if the handa 
cutting coal be alone considered, the amount is about tha 
same in both cases, or a little over two tons per day. 

The annual output per man on the total force employed 
in several of the principal European coal-fields has beea 
computed as follows ; — 

Newcastle 315 tons per man p;r anaom. , 

Westphalia 215 ,, ,, 

Saarbrticken .. 170 ,, „ 

France — Loire .... 200 ,, , 

„ Nord , .. 149 ,, „t 

Belgium — Charleroi. 147 ,, „ 

,, lions 124 ,, „ ^^ 

These figures refer to some years back, and are probably 
not quite accurate at the present date, as the amount of 
work done by the individual collier has sensibly decreased 
in most countries. It will be seen that the output is 
smallest in the thin disturbed measures of the Franco- 
Belgian coal-field. 

In Prussia in 1874, with an 'output of 33,000,000 tons 
of coal and 8,000,000 tons of lignite, the average in.w ; 




underground hand was about 243 tons for the former and 

about 600 tons for the latter. The larger comparative 

yield in lignite mines is due to thei fact that a very large 

proportion are worked as quarries. 

Totil pro-" The annual production of coal throughout the world 

taction of jjj^y jj^ roughly estimated at about 2C0 millions of tons 

poiL-^ for 1874, which quantity includes about 17 million tons of 

lignite and coal from formations newer than the coal 

measures in Europe. Nearly one-half of the total is raised 

in the United Kingdom, the approximate quantities of the 

different countries being a', follows : — - 


ITnitea Kingdom 125,000,000 

United States of America 4^,000,000 

Germany 35,000,000 Lignite, 9,000,000 

Belgium 17,000,000. - 

France 17,500,000 „ 320,000 

Austria 4,700,000 „ 6,700,000 

New South Walea 1,300,009 

Kussia . 



Smaller European States. 
British North America... 

Chiir ....... 

Other Australian Colonies 


700,000 ' 
200,000 \ 
1 60,000 

- 80,000 


There is no trustworthy information as to the produce of 
China and Japan, but these probably do not exceed 
100,000 tons. In the larger coal-producing European 
countries the output was very high in 1873, the following 
year having shown a slight falling off, but in America the 
annual increase was maintained. 

According to the official mineral statistics, the produce 
of coal in the United Kingdom for the years 1873, 1874, 
1 875, classified according to districts, was as shown in 
the following table, from which it will be seen that the 
check in 187^ was followed by great increase of production 
in 1S75:— 

N. Durham 

Northumberland . . 



S. Durham 



Nottinghamshire .. 



S. Stafibrdshire .... 



N. Statfordshire.... 


N. and E. Lrfinca-shirc 

W. Lancashire 

N. Wales 



Monmouthshire .... 

S. Wales 

Scotland E 

Do. W 


' Total -. 

Amount exported, 1 
including coke ami > 
patent fuel ) 

Leaving for home ) 
consumption .. .. \ 

Valne at pit s mouth. 









I 9,463,539 





* 103,435 























I 1,147,272 










: 12,640,789 



















; The quantities'of coal consumed by the different branches 
.of manufacturing industry as weJl as for lighting, heating, 

and other purposes, wa.s investigated by the Royal Com- 
mission on Coal, from vuL iii. of whose Report, published 
Hn 1870, the following summary is taken. The figures refer 
to the year 1869. 


Total quantity of coal raised 107,427,537 

Do. exported 9,775,470 

Leaving /or home consumption 97,652,037 



Coal used for iron manufacture 





producing power and general 

manufacturing purposes... 25,327,213 

domestic purposes 18,481,527 

gas and water supply 7,811,980 

mines and collieries 7,225,423 

steam navigation 3,277,562 

railways 2,027,500 

smelting metals other than 

iron 859,231 

miscellancoos purposes 195,045 


The above quantities may be proportionally classified as 
follows : — 

Mineral and metallurgical industries (1,5, 8) 44 per cent. 

Domestic consumption, including gas and water (3, 4) 26 „ 

General manufactuiipg purposes (2) 25 „ 

Locon-4>tion by SPi and land (S, 7) _ 5 ,, 


Coal-mining Ls unfortunately a dangerous occupation, Accidrati 
more than a thousand deaths from accident being reported 
annually by the inspectors of mines as occurring in the 
collieries of the United Kingdom. The following table 
shows the number of lives lost during the last five years, 
classified according to the inspectors' returns : — 


sions of - 
fl re-dam p. 

FaDs of 
groan d. 

Other under- 
gronnd acci- 

In shafts. 

at sur- 












. 109 


The principal sources of danger to the collier, as dis- 
tinguished from other miners, are explosion of fire-damp 
and falls of roof in getting coal, — these together make up 
about 70 per cent, of the whole number of deaths. It will 
be seen that the former class of accidents, though attended 
with great loss of life at one time, are less fatal than the 
latter. The great increase in the deaths from e.xplosiou 
in 1875, over the preceding year, is to be attributed to tha 
Swaithe Main explosion at Bamsley on December 6th,' 
when 143 lives were lost. 4 

The following return expresses the relation between tho 
fatal accidents and the total number of miners employed,' 
and the amount of coal raised for each deatL The latter 
quantities are in some degree conjectural, being dependent 
upon estimated returns of produce, and are probably some- 
what too large. 


1 death for 






345 mioers employed 
394 „ 
479 „ 
610 „ 
430 ,. 

109,246 tons coal raised 
116,409 „ 
133.667 ,. 
133.251 „ 
118,730 ,, 

In Prussia, in the year 1874, there were 484 deaths 
from accidents, which corresponds to about three deaths 
per thousand hands employed, or, according to the above 




classification, 1 in 334, ■with .i produce of nbout 63,000 
tons of coal for each death. It would appear, therEfore, 
that the proportional loss of life, in the collieries of the 
United Kingdom, is less than that in foreign countries. 
AnHjKMol Assay and Analysis. — The chemical examination of a 
toiL coal may be cither complete or partial. When it is desired 

to obtain information as to the exact composition, the 
analysis is conducted in the same manner as the analysis 
of organic compounds by combustion with oxide of copper 
or chromate of lead in a hard glass tube, the carbonic 
acid and water formed being absorbed by solution of 
hydrate of potassium and dry chloride of calcium respec- 
tively, and the proportion of carbon and hydrogen being 
calculated from the increase of weight in the tubes con- 
taining the absorbing media. It is usual' to operate 
upon a small sample (about 5 grains), which is very 
finely powdered and placed in a small trough or boat 
of platinum in the tube, the combustion being aided by 
a stream of oxygen from a gasholder. By this means the 
incombustible residue or ash is left in a condition for 
weighing, being free from admixture of foreign substances. 
Sulphur is determined by the fusion of a weighed 
quantity with a mixture of salt and nitrate of potassium 
in a platinum vessel, producing sulphate of potassium, 
which, on the addition of a salt of barium, is precipitated 
as sulphate of barium. Care must be taken to perform the 
operation over a flame free from the vapour of sulphur com- 
pounds, which may vitiate the result by apparently increas 
ing the amount of sulphur present. For this reason, the 
flame of a spirit lamp is to be preferred in making the fusion 
to that of coal gas, which is rarely free from sulphur com- 
pounds. Sulphur existing in the form of gypsum or sul- 
phate of calcium may be removed by washing a sample 
with boiling water, and determining the sulphuric acid in 
the solution. The washed sample is then fused with nitre 
in the usual way to determine the proportion of sulphur 
existing as iron pyrites. This distinction is of importance 
in the examination of coals intended for iron smelting, as 
the sulphates of the earthy metals are reduced by the 
^ses of the furnace to sulphides, which pass into the slag 
arithout affecting the quality of the iron produced, while 
the sulphur of the metallic sulphides in the ash acts pre- 
judicially upon the metal. 

The ilfference between the original weight of the sample 
and that of the carbon, hydrogen, sulphur, and ash, after 
making allowance for hygroscopic water, is attributed 
to oxygen and nitrogen, which are not directly deter- 

The character of the ash affords some guide to the 
quality of the coal from which it is derived. Thus, a red 
tint is generally indicative of the presence of iron pyrites, 
and a light or white colour of its absence. Phosphorus if 
present will be found in the ash, and may be determined by 
the ordinary processes of analysis. A useful approximate 
method of determining the character of a coal is by ex- 
posing a coarsely powdered sample of known weight, in 
a covered crucible, to a strong red heat as long as 
inflammable vapours are given off, when it is cooled and 
weighed. The loss of weight represents the volatile con- 
stituents— hydrogen,, oxygen, and hydrocarbon gases, pro- 
duced by destructive distillation, while the residual coke 
includes the ash, aud is called fixed carbon. The character 
of the button of coke obtained Ls a good indication as to 
the caking or non-caking quality of the coal from which it 
is derived, and the amount of ash may bo determined by 
burning it in a muffle or over the flame of a Bunsen 
burner. The fitness of a coal for gas-making is usually 
determined by operating upon a sample of a few pounds' 
weight in a special apparatus which reproduces the pro- 
fiessea of manufacture upon a smaU scale. 

One of the most important factors in the econorcio 
valuation of a coal, is the so-called calorific power or 
value, by which is usually understood the number cT 
pounds of water at boiling point that can be evapor.ited 
by the complete combustion of one pound of coal. This 
may be obtained theoretically, when the composition of 
the coal is known, by computing the heating efi'ect of the 
carbon and the disposable hydrogen ; but in the absence 
of an analysis, it may also be determined directly by 
several approximate methods. One of the most con- 
venient instruments for this purpose is Thompson's 
calorimeter. This consists of a copper cylinder in 
which a weighed quantity of coal intimately mixed with 
chlorate or nitrate of potassium is deflagrated under a 
copper case like a diving-bell, placed at the bottom of a 
deep glass jar filled with a known weight of water. The 
gases produced by the combustion rising through the water 
are cooled, with a corresponding increase of temperature in 
the latter, so that the difference between the temperature 
observed before and after the experiment furnishes a mea- 
sure of the evaporative power desired. The instrument is 
so constructed that 30 grains of coal are burnt in 29,010 
grains of water, or in the proportion of 1 to 937, these 
numbers being selected that the observed rise of tempera- 
ture in Fahrenheit degrees corresponds to the required 
evaporative value in pounds, subject only to a correction 
for the amount of heat absorbed hy the mass of the instru- 
ments, for which a special co-eflicient is required, and must 
be experimentally determined. Another approximate 
method, due to Berthier, is based upon the reduction of 
oxide of lead by the carbon and hydrogen of the coal, the 
amount of lead reduced affording a measure of the oxygen 
expended, whence the heating power may be calculated, 
1 part of pure carbon being capable of producing 34-J 
times its weight of lead. The operation is performed by 
mixing the weighed sample with a large excess 'of litharge 
in a crucible, and exposing it to a bright red heat for a 
short time. After cooling, the crucible is broken and the 
reduced button of lead is cleaned and weighed. The re- 
sults obtained by this method are less accurate with coals 
containing much disposable hydrogen and iron pyrites 
than with those approximating to anthracite, as the heat 
equivalent of the hydrogen in excess of that required to 
form water with the oxygen of the coal is calculated 
as carbon, while it is really about four times as great. 
Sulphur in iron pyrites also acts as a reducing agent upon 
litharge, and increases the apparent effect in a similar 

The theoretical evaporative power of a coal found by 
either of the above methods is always considerably above 
that obtained by actual combustion under a steam boiler, as 
in the latter case numerous sources of loss, such as imperfect 
combustion of gases, loss of unburnt coal in cinders, itc, 
come into play, which cannot be allowed for in theoreticca 
experiments. It is usual, therefore, to determine the value 
of a coal by the combustion of a weighed quantity in the 
furnace of a standard boiler, and measuring the amount of 
water evaporated by the heat developed. Various investi- 
gations of this kind have been made at different times, 
both in Europe and America, tlje most extensive being the 
following : — 

Johnson, Report on American Coals, Washington, 1844 ; De la 
Beche and Playfair, Three Reports on Coal suited to the Steam Ifartj, 
London, 1S48-49-B1 ; ?. W. Brix, On the Keating Power of Fuel 
wed in Prussia, Berlin. 1853 ; Hartig, Beating Power of Saxon 
Coal, Dresden, 1860. 

The following table of the average results obtained from 
these investigations shows the number of pounds of water 
evaporated for every pound of the different kinds of coal 

V0l VT 



F1G-. I 

tOOO-fJhA^ SmJ.i.«L 

FIG. 2 


Leegth 7S miles 

09 T O . W l ^ 9 T '*j* Ta CO* 

FIG. 3 


Len^tii 7S miles 



Leik^tli 'about 3H mile* 




j'j^Ti: ui 



pj ^- 




, ■ _ 

"^ " 






Of :^2 





t^^^;^-AT^ O t? 


1 • ^ 

i 1 3C 

.H- i 


11 i 








C A -C B 




17 . 

, 8 37 

28 , 

, 7.94 

8 , 

, 7-70 

8 , 

, 7 58 

7 , 

, 3-66 to 419 


, 3-43 to 3-66 

6 ! 

, 2-41 to 3 92 

61 , 

6-42 to81« 

8. Walo8— Average of 37 kiiida, 9 05 lb 

N. of England, " 



' Wood, 



Coal (Prussian), 
The literature relating to coal and coal mining, is very extensive, 
but. the following list includes tbe titles of the more importaBt 
works upon these subjects. 

England and Aar.RiCA. — Tht Report of the Royal Coal Com- 
mimon <3 vols., fol., with Atl«i, London, 1870). This is the 
most comprehensive work upon the subject. Hull, Coal Fields 
»f Orcat Britain (3d cd. London, 1873). KeporU and ilapa of Iht 
Geological Surveys of the United Kingdom. Descriptive memoirs 
of each coal field publislied as completed. Percy, Metallurgy, 
Tol. i., on Fuel (2a .ed. London, 1875), containing full details of 
the chemistry of coal. Greenwell, Practical Treeitise on Mine 
Engineering (2d ed. Loudon, 1869) Andre, Pradicai Treatise 

on Coal Mining (lyondon, 1876). Smyth, Coal and Coal Uininj 
i2d ed. London 1872). Jerons, The Coal Question (2d ed. Lou- 
don, 1666). Rogers, Oeology of Pennsylvania (2 vols., Edinburgh, 
1850). Proceedings of the South Urates Institute of Engineering (8 
vols.. MerthjT, 1858-73). Transeutions of the i^orth of England 
InsliiuU nf Mining Engineers {2Z vols., Newcastle, 1852-74). Various 
Geolo,^ical Reports of the State and General (joveruments of tho 
United States ; including Kewberry'a Ohio Reports, Cox'slndiana Re- 
ports, and Haydcn's Reports of Geological Survey of the Territories. 

Fkance a^'D Beloivu. — Burat, Oeologie de la France (Sro. 
Paris, 1864). Cours d: Exploitation de Mines (1871). Materiel 
des Houilliercs m France, &e. (1861-68). Bulletin de la SociM ds 
Vlnduslrie Min&ale, S. Etienne (20 vols, since J855). Ponson, 
Traits de t Exploitation des Mines de Souille (2d ed. Liege, 1868-7hV 
Supplement to the above (1867-72). De Kuyper, Recue UniterulU 
des Mines, etc. (Liege, since 1854). 

Germany.— Geinitz, Die Steinkohlen Devtsehlatuls, <te. (3 vols. 
4to, Munich, 1866). This is the most complete book on the sub- 
ject. Zincken, J>ie Braunkohle (2 vols., Hanover, 1865-71) 
Zeitschrift fur Berg HuUen und Salinenaeten, d:c. (4to. Berlin, 
22 ToU. since 1851). (H. B.) 

COANZA, or Quanza, an imponant river of Western 
Africa, in the counlry of Angola. It takes its rise in the 
Mossamba Mountains, not far from the source of the Cunene, 
probably in 14° S. Int., and its total length is about 600 
miles It receives a large number of tributaries, the most 
important of which are the Loando and the Cutato in the 
upper part of its course, tlie Gango and the Quigt in the 
middle portion, and the Lucalla in the lower. Its progress 
is broken by several falls, and in the last 200 miles of its 
journey it descends no less than 4800 feet. This diminishes 
its value as a means of transit ; but it is navigable for 
large boats about 140 miles from its mouth, ^hich is 
situated 50 miles south of Loando, in 9' 15' S. lat. It 
there forms a number of islands, and pours into the sea a 
turbid current, which is tisible for some distance outwards 
by its contrast of colour. 

COATBraDGE. a town of Scotland, in the county of 
Lanark, and parish of Old Monkland, ten miles east of 
Glasgow by rail, and about two miles west of Airdrie. It 
owes it rise to the importance of the surrounding district 
as a mining field. The town itself is of a stragglmg descrip- 
tion, and is intersected by a branch of the North Calder 
Water, the Monkland Canal, and the Caledonian Railway. 
It contains eight places of worship, a literary association, 
and five branch banks. In the immediate neighbourhood 
are tbe Gartsherrie iron woVks, and there are engineering 
establishments in the town itself. The population of town 
in 1871, including Gartsherrie, HighSunnyside, and Lang- 
loan, numbered 15,802, of whom 8599 were males and 
7203 females. 

COBALT, a metal of the iron group. The name ia 
derived from the German Kobold. a miner's term for gnome, 
or evil spirit, akm to the English goblin, which was applied 
to a mineral found associated with silver ores, and often 
replacing them in the mines of Schneeberg in Saxony. The 
use of the oxide of cobalt in colouring glass was only dis- 
covered in 1540 by Scheurer, and till then the metal had 
been supposed to be worthless. It was first produced, but 
in an imperfectly purified condition, in 1733. by Brandt. 

Cobalt is found alloyed in small quantity together with 
nickel in many meteoric irons. The principal mode of 
.occurrence, however, is in various complex mi;ierals coii- 
taioing arsenic and sulphur and the allied metal nickel. 
The following are the most important : — 

I. Smaltine or epeiss cobalt, an arsenide of the 
isomorphous bases, cobalt, nickel, and iron, of the formula 
(CpNiFf)Asj, is a mineral of the cubipal system, forming 
Btcel or lead-grey crystals of a metallic lustre, tarnishing in 
damp air to a pink or green tint according to the pre- 
ponderance of cobalt or nickel that is present In the 
— 6 

purest condition it may contain 28'2 per cent, of cobalt to 
7 18 per cent, of arsenic, but nickel and iron are almost 
invariably present to some extent. The principal locality 
is at Schneeberg in Saxony, where it is associated with 
silver, bismuth, and nickel ores. 

2. Cobalt glance, or cobaltine, is a compound of 
sulphide and arsenide of cobalt, CoS., -t- CoAsj, the typical 
composition being cobalt 35 '5, arisenic 45 2, and stUphur 
193'per cent. It occurs iu very brilliant complex crystals 
belonging to the cubical system, the principal locality 
being at Tunaberg in Sweden. A part of the metal is 
sometimes replaced by iron, but as a rule. it is free from 
nickel. , 

3. Linnseite, or cobalt pyrites, is analogous in composi- 
tion to copper pyrites, being represented by the formula 
CojS + CojS^, with 58 per cent, of cobalt and 42 of sulphtir. 
As a general rule a portion of the base is replaced by copper, 
nickel, or iron. It is a rare mineral, being found only in 
the Siegen district in Prussia and in Sweden. Cobalt 
bloom is a hydrated arseniate produced by the action of 
air and water upon the above minerals ; the composition is 
Co^AsjOj + SHjO, i.e., 37 J per cent, of oxide of cobalt. 
Farthy cobalt ore is a variety of bog manganese, or wad, a 
mineral of indefinite composition, but containing at times 
as much as 8 or 10 per cenL of oxide of cobalt with oxides 
of manganese, iron, and copper. Cobaltic bismuth ore ia 
a mixture of finely crystalline speiss cobalt with native 
bismuth, found occasionally in the Schneeberg mines, j n 

The materials from which cobalt is produced by the 
smelter consist generally of iron or arsenical pyrites, con- 
taining a minute quantity of the two metals cobalt and 
nickel, or various products derived from the smelting of the 
ores of silver and copper in which these metals are concen- 
trated as sulphur or arsenic compiunds. ~ Jj^ 

When in a compact form cobalt is a_steelgrey metal 
with a slightly reddish tint, taking a very high lustre when 
polished, and breaking with a finely granular fracture. Tho 
specific gravity is variously stated at from 852 to 8-70. 
It b slightly malleable, and when quite pure of a -higher 
degree of tenacity than iron, according to Deville. The 
brittle character attributed to it by former observers is dne 
to impurities, such as arsenic and manganese. ' It melts at 
about the same temperature as iron, or a little lower, 
requiring the strongest heat of a wind furnace. The 
specific heat is 0'1069.6 (Regnaidt). It is susceptible of 
being magnetized by touch, and retains its magnetism at 
temperatures below a strong red heat when free from 
arsenic Chemically it belongs to the same gcoupos iron, 
zinc, nickel, manganese, and chromium, which cannot be 
separated as EulpEidc." by H^S from an acid solution. It ia 

VL — " 



diatomic; its atomic weight la u86, and its symbol Co. 
Like iron it may be roducod from its oxides by lioatmg with 
charcoal or in hydrogen gas ; in the former case a small 
quantity of carbon is retained, forming a substance ana- 
logous to cast-iron. When reduced by hydrogen at a low 
temperature it forms a black powder which is pyrophonc, 
or ignites spontaneously in the air, especially if mixed with 
finely-divided alumina. At a red heat it decomposes water 
vapoun, producing hydrogen and oxide of cobalt. 

There are two principal oxides. The protoxide, CoO, 
is obtained as a black powder by calcining the hydrate 
CoHjOj. The latter is a red substance obtained by pre- 
cipitation with alkalies from the solution of a cobalt salt. 
The higher, or sesquioxide, Co^Oj, is produced in a hy- 
drated form from the hydrated protoxide by the action 
of chlorine, bromine, chloride of lime, or similar oxidizing 
agents. It may be rendered anhydrous by careful heating, 
but at s red heat it desomposes, giving ofT part of its 
oxygen, and produces a compound analogous in composi- 
ifion to magnetic oxide of iron, FejO^. 

The protoxide forms numerous salts, which are usually 
of a fine rose-red colour. A weak solution of the nitrate 
or chloride forms the so-called sympathetic ink, which gives 
a colourless writing when cold, but appears of a bluish- 
green colour when heated, and fades again on cooling. 
This effect may be reproduced a great number of times if 
the writing is not too strongly heated, in which case the 
colour becomes permanent from the formation of a basic 
salt With ammonia the oxides of cobalt form a series of 
compound bases, which give rise to salts of great mtere.?t 
»nd complexity ; these may be regarded as ammonium 
salts, in which part of the hydrogen is replaced by 
ammonium and another part by cobalt in various conditions 
of atomicity corresponding to the oxides. 

The alloys of cobalt are not of much importance. It 
combines most readily with arsenic or antimony, forming 
the highly crystalline compounds known by the general 
name of speiss, which can scarcely be considered as alloys. 
With gold and silver it forms brittle compoimds, t\ith 
mercury a silver-white magnetic amalgam. With copper 
and zinc the aUoy is white, reseriibling the corresponding 
compounds of the same metals with nickel and manganese. 
With tin it forms a somewhat ductile alloy of a violet 
colour The presence -of cobalt in the alloy of copper, zinc, 
and nickel, known as German silver, is objectionable, as 
it renders it hard and difficult to roll. 

The chief use of cobalt in the arts is for the preparation 
of colours. The protoxide has an intense colouring power 
when vitrified, and forms the basis of all the blue colours 
used in glass and porcelain manufacture. The purity of 
the tint is much affected by traces even of other metallic 
oxides, especially those of iron, nickel, or copper. Another 
preparation, known as smalts, is a glass formed by melting 
cobalt oxide with pure c(uartz sand and carbonate of potas- 
sium. Sometimes the first two substances are subjected to 
a preliminary heating to produce fritted silicate of a reddish 
or purpl& colour, known as lafre, which when fused with 
the alkaline carbonate in an ordinary glass furnace produces 
a deep blue glass. This is rendered friable by running it 
into water, and is then ground between granite millstones, 
and finally levigated in water. The various products of 
the levigation are classified info different qualities according 
to the fineness of the grain and the strength of the colour, — 
the best being those occupying a medium position, the colour 
diminishing as the fineness of the grain increases. The 
coarsest variety, known as strewing blue, consisting of rough 
angular fragments up to about J inch diameter, is used for 
the ground-work of the old-fashioned blue and gold sign- 
boards, a very effective and durable kind of surface orna- 
cicutatjon. The highest coloured varieties contain from 

6 to 7 per cent, of oxide of cobalt. G\ass contaming only 
w-J-jth part of the oxide is of a distinct blue ; with more than 
is per cent, it is black. 

The principal use of smalts is for bluing paper ; it was 
formerly employed almost exclusively for this purpose, 
but has now been to a very considerable extent superseded 
by the use of artificial ultramarine, which is cheaper and 
more easily applied, but is less permanent, as the colour ia 
easily discharged by- acids, which is not the case when 
smalta is used. The pigment known as cobalt blue, used 
both iu oil and water-colour painting, is obtained by mixing 
the solutions of a cobalt salt and alum, precipitating with ac 
alkaline carbonate, and strongly heating the gelatinout 
precipitate of the hydrated oxides of the two metals. 
Thenard's blue, a phosphate of cobalt and alumina, is pro- 
duced in a similar manner, by precipitation with an alkaline 
phosphate. Cobalt green, or Rinman's green, is a mixture 
of the oxides of zinc and cobalt produced from the solu- 
tions of their sulphates by precipitation with carbonate of 
sodium and ignition. 

In analysis cobalt is always determined as protoxide, but 
the separation from the metals with which it is usually 
associated, especially nickel, is a dilficult and tediour 
operation. ^Iany different processes have been deviseo, 
but the most accurate arf those of lI.'Rose and Liebig. 
The former depends upon the power possessed by chlorine 
(or bromine) of converting protoxide of cobalt when in 
solution into sesquioxide, while the corresponding oxide 
of nickel is not changed. The solution when- completely 
saturated with chlorine is precipitated by carbonate of 
barium, which carries down the whole of the cobalt 
as sesquioxide ; the precipitate is redissolved in hydrochloric 
acid, the whole of the barium salt separated by sulphuric 
acid, and the cobalt finally precipitated by means of hydrate 
of potassium. In Liebig's method the oxides of the two 
metals are heated with cyanide of potassium and boiled, 
which produces cobalticyanide of potassium, K„Co.,Cy8. 
and cyanide of nickel and potassium, KNiCy;. By the 
addition of finely-divided red oxide of merpury the whole 
of the nickel is precipitated, partly as cyanide and partly 
as hydrate, while the cobalt compound remains in solution, 
and is afterwards separated by means of sulphate of copper 
as cobalticyanide of copper, which is redissolved ; the copper 
is separated by sulphuretted hydrogen, and the cobalt then 
obtained as oxide by boiling with caustic potash. The 
complexity of the composition of the ores, and the high 
value of the two metals, has led to the application of more 
refined methods of chemical analysis in their investigation 
than are required in the assay of the ores of the commoner 
metals. Plattuer's method of dry assay of cobalt and nickel 
ores is much more rapidly performed than an analysis, and 
in practised hands is susceptible of considerable accuracy. 
It depends upon the fact that when a speiss or arsenical 
compound, containing the four metals — iron, cobalt, nickel, 
and copper— is melted with a vitreous flux such as borax 
in an oxidizing atmosphere, the metals will be oxidized and 
pass into a slag with the borax in the order indicated above, 
no cobalt being taken up untd the iron has been entirely 
removed, and similarly the nickel remaining until the cobalt 
has been completely oxidized. The steps in the process 
may be easdy recognized owing to the difference in the 
characteristic-colour of the oxides, the dark green or black 
of the iron slag being rendered distinctly blue by the 
faintest trace of cobalt, and the blue of the latter being 
simUarly affected by nickel, which has a strong brown 
colouling power. The arsenides of cobalt and nickel, 
being of a constant composition, are .weighed at eac'a 
step of the process in the proportion of the metal re 
moved calculated from the difference. Cobalt may be 
readily detected by the blow-pipe even when in very smalj 





quantity, or by tlie characteristic blue Imparted to a bead 
of borax or salt of phosphorus. 

On tho large Eca'e cobalt is produced chiefly as an 
accessory in the troatraeiit of nickel ores. These consist 
chiefly of mixtures of small quantities of the purer minerals 
with pyrites, sulphuretted copper ores, or lead and silver ores, 
which require to be subjected to concentrating processes in 
order to get rid of the bulk of the iron, sulphur, and arsenic, 
and produce a sniali amount of enriched regulus or metal, 
in which the more valuable metals are in combination with 
sulphur and arsenic. This is done by calcination, which 
drives off the sulphur and arsenic combined with the iron, 
the latter bciiij; oxidized and subsequently converted into 
slag by fusion with fluxes containing silica. Small quanti- 
ties of cobalt, nickel, and copper ores, when associated 
with lead and' silver ores, are in like manner gradually 
accumulated in a regulus by passing the regulus of the 
first fusion several times through the smelting furnace, 
whereby the lead and silver ar^ in great part removed. 
The treatment of these purified and enriched products is 
conducted on the large scale in a somewhat similar manner 
to a chemical analysis, in order to obtain both cobalt and 
nickel. The speiss, or regulus, is calcined and treated 
with strong hydrochloric acid to dissolve the oxides formed. 
By the addition of caustic lime, iron and arsenic are pre- 
cipitated, and the clear liquid is treated with sulphuretted 
hydrogen so long as metallic sulphides are produced, the 
precipitate being allowed to settle. The solution then con- 
taining only cobalt and nickel compounds, the former is 
separated by the addition of bleaching powder and caustic 
lime as sesquioxide, Co^O,, and the latter as hydrated 
oxide by a subsequent precipitation with lime. 

In making smalts the purer arsenical ores are used. 
They are first calcined in a reverberatory or muffle furnace 
provided with chambers for condensing the areenical fumes 
as completely as possible. The roasted cn-e, if it does not 
contain quartz, is mixed with a proportion of fine glass- 
house sand and carbonate of potassium, but when it is 
sufficiently siliceous, as in ths mixtures of cobalt ore and 
silica known as zaffre, only the alkaline carbonate is 
required. The fusion takes place in pots like those used 
in plate-glass making, and requires about eight hours. The 
blue glass is led out into water till the pot is nearly empty, 
when a speiss containing the whole of the nickel of the ore 
is found at the bottom. The blue glass is then ground and 
levigated as already described. 

The chief localities producing cobalt ores are Modum in 
Norway, Tunaberg in Sweden, Schneeberg in Saxony, Musen 
in Rhenish Prussia, and Mine Lamotte in Jlissouri ; a con 
siderable amount has also been obtained from Bolivia. In 
the Transvaal in South Africa a very pure variety of speiss 
cobalt free from nickel has been recently discovered. 
Smaller quantities of speiss or regulus are obtained from 
the smelting of silver and lead ores at Freiberg, in the 
Harz, iu Bohemia, and elsewhere. (h. b.) 

COB.VN, or Santo Domingo CobAn, a city of Central 
America, in the republic of Guatemala, and the department 
of Vera Paz, situated about 90 miles north of the city of 
Guatemala, on the direct route to Flores, not far from tho 
source of the Rio de Cajabon, which flows into the Golfo 
Dolce. It occupies the slopes of a roxinded hill, on the top 
of which is tho central square or plaza, with the cathedral 
end the ruins of the once magnificent Dominican monastery 
on the one side, and on the others the shops and houses of 
the merchants and artizans. The houses of Cobin are low 
ind covered with tiles ; and, as each with its garden and 
croft attached is curtained by a dense and lofty hedge, tho 
streets have rather the appearance of woodland avenues. 
The cathedral is a large and imposing edifice, decorated in 
the interior with a barbaric profusion of ornament ; but 

like the rest of the public buildings of the town it shows 
signs of decay. Since the removal of the seat of tho Pro- 
vincial Government to Salama, the prosperity of Cobin has 
greatly declined, but it still contains about 12,000 
inhabitantSjWho carry on tho weaving of cotton cloth, the 
cultivation of coS'ee, sugar, and pimento, and a cor,siderable 
trade with the neighbouring provinces. The Spanish and 
Ladino part of the population does not exceed 2000 ; and 
the rest are Indians originally from the mountains of 
Chichen and Jucamel, who still speak the Kacchi or 
Quecchi language. Cobdn owes its origin to the missionary 
labours of the Dominicans of the 16th century, and more 
especially to Fray Pedro de Angulo, whose portrait is pre- 
served in the cathedral. It was made the political capital 
of the province of '^era Paz, and obtained the arms of a city 
of tho first rank. 

COBBETT, W.ILLIA.M (17GG-1835), one of the most 
vigorous of English political writers, was born near Farn- 
ham in Surrey, according to his own statement, on the 9th 
March 17GG. lie was the grandson of a farm-labourer, 
and the son of a sniall fanner ; and during his early life 
he worked on his father's farm. At the age of sixteen, 
inspired with patriotic feeling by the sight of the men-of- 
war in Portsmouth harbour, he ofi'ered himself as a sailor ; 
and at seventeen (May 1783) having, while on his way to 
Guildford fair, met the London coach, he suddenly resolved 
to accompany it to its destination. He arrived at Ludgata 
Hill witli exactly half-a-crown in his pocket, but an old 
gentleman who had travelled with him invited him to his 
house, and obtained for him the situation of copying clerk 
in an attorney's oflice. He greatly disliked his new occupa- 
tion ; and rejecting all his father's entreaties that he would 
return home, he 'vwnt down to Chatham early in 1784 
with the intention of joining the marines. By some mis- 
take, however, he was enlisted in a regiment of the line, 
which rather more than a year after proceeded to St 
John's, New Brunswick. All his leisure time during the 
months he remained at Chatham was devoted to reading the 
contents of the circulating library of the town, aud getting 
up by heart Lowth's English Graynmar. His uniform good 
conduct, and the power of writing correctly which ho had 
acquired, quickly raised him to the rank of corporal, from 
which, without passing through the intermediate grade of 
sergeant, he was promoted to that of sergeant-major. In 
November 1791 he was discharged at his own request, 
and received tho official thanks of the major and the 
general who signed h;3 discharge. But Cobbett's connection 
with the regiment did not end in this agreeable manner. 
He brought a serious charge against some of its officers, 
and instead of appearing at the trial Ced to France (March 
1 792). The inquiry which was held in his absence resulted 
in a complete acquittal of tho accused. 

In the previous February Cobbett had married the 
daughter of a sergeant-major of artillery ; he had met her 
some years before in New Brunswick, and had proved her 
to be endowed with energy and self-control equal to his 
own. In September of the same year (1792) he crossed 
to tho United States, and for a time suijported himself 
at Wilmington by teaching English to French emigrants. 
Among these was Talleyrand, who employed him, according 
to Cobbett's story, not because he was ignorant of English, 
but because he wished to purchase his pen. Cobbett made 
his first literary sensation by his Observations o« the Emi- 
gralion of a Martjir to the' Cause of Lileriy, a clever 
retort on Dr Priestley, who had just landed in, America 
complaining of the treatment he had received in England. 
This pamphlet was followed by a number of papers, signed 
" Peter Porcupine," and entitled Prospect from the Congrest 
Gallery, tho Political C.tisor, and the Porcupine's Gcneite. 
Iu the spring of 1796, having quarrelled with his publisher. 


C B B E T T 

be eet up in PhiladelpLia as booksellor and publisher of his 
own works. On the day of opening, his windows were 
filled with prints of the most extravagant of the French 
Revolutionists and of the founders of the American Republic 
placed side by side, along with portraits of George III., 
the British ministers, and any one else he could find likely to 
beobuorious to the peoph ; and he continued to pour forth 
praises of Great Britain and scorn of the institutions of the 
United States, with special abuse of the French party. 
Abuse and threats were of course in turn showered upon 
him, and in August, for one of his attacks on Spain, he 
was prosecuted, though unsuccessfully, by the Spanish 
ambassador. Immediately on this he was taken up for 
libels upon American statesmen, and bound in recognizances 
to the amount of $4000, and shortly after he was pro- 
secuted a third time for saying that a certain Dr Rush, 
who was much addicted to bleeding, killed nearly all the 
patients he attended. The trial was repeatedly deferred, 
and was not settled till the end of 1799, when he was fined 
J5000. After this last misfortune, for a few months 
Cobbett carried on a newspaper called the Unshlight , but 
in June 1800 he set sail for England. 

At home he found himself regarded as the champion of 
order and monarchy. Windham invited him to dinner, 
introduced him to Pitt, and begged him to accept a share 
in the True Bnton. He refused the offer and joined an 
old friend, John Morgan, in opening a book shop in Pall 
Mall. For some time he published the Porcupine's Gazette, 
which was followed in January 1802 by the Weekly 
Political Register'. In 1801 appeared his Letters to Lord 
Hawkesbury (afterwards earl of Liverpool) and Mr 
Addington, ia opposition to the peace of Amiens, the 
terms of which had been agreed to by the former on behalf 
of Great Britain in the October of that year, but which 
was not finally concluded till 1802. On the conclusion of 
the peace Cobbett made a still bolder protest ; he deter- 
mined to take no part in the general illumination, and — 
assisted by the sympathy of his wife, who, being in delicate 
health, removed to the house of a friend — he carried out 
his resolve, allowing his windows to be smashed and his 
door broken open by the angry mob. The Letters to the 
Rt. Hon. Henry Addington are among the most polished 
and dignified of Cobbett's writings; but by 1803 he was 
once more revelling in personalities. The government of 
Ireland was singled out for wholesale attack ; and a letter 
published in the Register remarked of Hardwicfce, the lord- 
lieutenant, that the appointment was like setting the sur- 
geon's apprentice to bleed the pauper patients. For this, 
though not a word had been uttered against Hardwicke's 
character, Cobbett was fined £-500 ; and two days after the 
conclusion of this trial a second commenced, at the suit of 
Plunkett, the sohcitor-general for Ireland, which resulted 
in a similar fine. Aboat this time he began to write in 
support of Radical views; and to cultivate the friendship of 
Sir Francis Burdett, from whom he received considerable 
sums of money, and other favours, for which he gave no 
very grateful return. In 1809 he was once more in the 
most serious trouble. He had bitterly commented on the 
flogging of some militia, because their mutiny had been 
repressed and their sentence carried out by the aid of a 
body of German troops, and in consequence he was fined 
£1000 and imprisoned for two years. His indomitable 
vigour- was never better displayed. He still continued to 
publish the Register, and to superintend the atfairs of his 
farm ; a hamper containing specimens of its produce and 
otl^er provisions came to him every week ; and he amused 
himself with the company of some of his children and vrith 
weekly letters from the rest On his release a public dinner, 
presided over by Sir F. Burdett, was held in honour of the 
e7ent. He returned to his -farm at Botley in Hampshire, 

and continued in his old course, extending his influence by 
the publication of the Twopenny Trash, which, not being 
periodical, escaped the newspaper stamp tax. Meanwhile, 
however, he had contracted debts to the amount of £34,000 
(for it is said, that, notwithstanding the aversion he publicly 
expressed to paper currency, he had carried on his business 
by the aid of accommodation bills to a very large amount) ; 
and in March 1817 he fled to the United States. 'But 
his pen was as active as ever, from Long Island the 
Register was regularly despatched to England ; and it 
was here that he wrote his clear and interesting Emjhsh 
Grammar, of which 10,000 copies were sold in a month. ^ 

His return to England was accompanied by his weakest 
exhibition — the exhuming and bringing over of the boiiwi 
of Tom Paine, whom he had once heartily abused, but on 
whom he now wrote a panegyrical ode. Nobody paid any 
attention to the affoar ; the relics he offered were not 
purchased ; and the bones were reinterred. 

Cobbett's great aim was now to obtain a seat in the 
House of Commons. He calmly suggested that his friends 
should assist him by raising the sum of £5000 ; it would 
be much better, he said, than a meeting of 50,000 persons. 
He first oS'ered himself for Coventry, but failed, in 1826 
he was by a large number of votes last of the candidates 
for Preston , and in 1828 he could find no one to propose 
him for the office of common councillor. In 1830, that 
year of revolutions, he was prosecuted for inciting to 
rebellion, but the jury disagreed, and soon after, through 
the influence of one of his admirers, Mr Fielden, who was 
himself a candidate for Oldham, he was returned for that 
town. In the House his speeches were listened to with 
amused attention. His position is sufficiently marked by 
the sneer of Peel that he would attend to Jlr Cobbett's 
observations exactly as if they had been those of a 
" respectable member ; " and the only striking part of his 
career was his absurd motion that the king should be 
prayed to remove Sir Robert Peel's name from the list of 
the privy council, because of the change he had proposed 
in the currency in 1819. In 1834 Cobbett was again 
member lor Oldham, but his health now began to give way, 
and in June 1835 he left London for his farm, where he 
died on the 16th of that month. ( 

Cobbett's account of his home-life makes him appear 
singularly happy ; his love and admiration .of his wife never 
failed ; and his education of his children seems to have 
been distinguished by great kindliness, and by a good deal 
of healthy wisdom, mmgled with the prejudices due to the 
peculiarities of his temper and circumstances. Cobbett's 
ruhng characteristic was a sturdy egotism, which had in it 
somethingof the nobler element of self-respect. A firm will, 
a strong brain, feelings not over-sensitive, an intense love of 
fighting, a resolve to get on, in the sense of making himself 
a power in the world — these are the principal qualities 
which account for the success of his career. His opinions 
were the fruits of his emotions. It was enough for him to 
get a thorough grasp of one side of a question, about the 
other side he did not trouble himself ; but be always firmly 
seizes the facts which make for his view, and expresses 
them with unfailing clearness. His argument, which is 
never subtle, has always the appearance of weight, however 
flimsy it may be in fact. His sarcasm is seldom polished 
or delicate, but usually rough, and often abusive, while 
coarse nicknames were his special delight. His style is 
always extremely forcible, and marked by unusual gramma- 
tical correctness. 

Cobbett's contributiona to periodical literature occnpy IOC 
volumes, twelve of which consist of- the paper? published at 
Philadelphia between 1794 and 1800, and the rest of the Wuklf 
Political' JietjistiT, which ended only with Cobbett's life (June 1835). 
An abridgment of these works, wixh notes, has been pabliahed by 
his sous, John M. Cobbett and James P. Cobbett. Besides this b« . 

C B — C B 


■puWishcd— //it Aaounl of the Horrors of the Fretuh RtioliUicm, 
and a work tracing all these horrors to " the liccntioui politics and 
infidclphiloaopby of the present age" (both 1798);^ Year's Resi<kna 
inthe Untied auua: Parliamentary Bislory of England front theNor- 
man Conquest to 1800 (1806); Collage Economy; Roman Vistory; 
French Grammar^ and English Grammar^ both in the form of letters ; 
Oeographtcal lh<iiananj of Enijland and H^ales ; JJialory of the 
Jiegency and Rctgn of George Jf , coDtainins a defence of Queen 
Caroline, whose causo ho warmly advocated (1830-4); Life of 
Andrew Jackson, President of the United Slates (183-1); Legacy to 
Labourers: Legacy to Peel; Legacy to Parsons, an attack on the 
secular claims of the Estiblished Church; D'Mm of Titlies ; Rural 
Rides; Adtncc to VoungMcn and IVonun; CohhetCs Com; and History 
•of the Protestant flefonnation in Enejland and Irclatid, in which he 
defends the monasteries, Queen Mary, and Bnnnor, and atlacks the 
Reformation. Henry VIM., Elizahetli, and all who helped to bring 
it about, with such vehemence that tbe work was translated 
into French and Italian, and extensively circulated among Koman 

In 17t'8Cobbett published In Americaan account of his early life, 
under the title of The Ltfe and Adventures of Ptlcr Porcupine ; oiid 
he left papers reluting to his subsequent career. These matermls 
were embodied in an anonymous Life of Cobbelt which ajipearod 
Boon after h'S death. See also Sir Henry Kulwer's Historical 
Characters, Biographies of John H^tlkes and lyitliam Cobbdtby Kev, 
John Watson; and the abridged and annotated edition of the 

I COBDEN, RiCH.*RD (1804-18C5), was born at a farm- 
house called Diinford, near Midhurst, in Sussc.v, on the 3d 
of June 1804. The family had been resident in that 
neighbourhood for many generations, occupied partly in 
tra<le and partly in agriculture. Formerly there had been 
in the town of Midhurst a small manufacture of hosiery 
with which the Cobdens were counected, though all trace 
.of it had disappeared before the birth of Richard. His 
grandfather was a maltster in that town, an energetic and 
prosperous man, almost always the bailiff or chief 
magistrate, and taking rather a notable part in county 
matters. But his father, forsaking that trade, took to 
farming at an unpropitious time. He was amiable and 
kind-hearted, and greatly liked by his neighbours, but not 
a roan of business habits, and he did not succeed in his 
farming enterprise. He died when his son Richard was 
a child, and the care of tlie family devolved upon the 
mother, who was a woman of strong sense and of great 
energy of character, and who, after her husband's death, 
left Dunford and returned to Midhurst. 
h-The educational a(l vantages of Richard Cobden were 
not very aniphe. There was a grammar school at Midhurst, 
which at one time had enjoyed considerable reputation, 
but which had fallen into decay. It was there that he 
had to pick up such rudiments of knowledge as formed 
his first equipment jn life, but from his earliest years he 
was indefatigable in the work of self-cultivation. When 
fifteen or sixteen year^ of age he went to London to the 
warehouse of Measrs Partridge and Price, in East Cheap, 
one of the partners beiii" his uncle. His relative noting 
the lad's passionate addiction to study, solemnly warned 
him against indulging such a taste, as likely to prove a 
fatal obstacle to his success in commercial life Happily 
the admonition was unheeded, for while unwearicdiy 
diligent in business, as his rapid after success abundantly 
proved, he was in his intervals of leisure a most assiduous 
student. During his residence in London he found access 
to the London Institution, and made ample use of its 
large and well-selected library. 

When he- was about twenty years of age he became a 
commercial traveller, and throwing into that, as he ever 
did into whatever his hand found to do, all the thorough- 
ness and vigour of his nature, he soon became eminently 
successful lu his calling. But never content to sink into 
the mere trader, he sought to introduce among those he 
met on the " road " a higher lone of conversation than 
usually marks the commercial room, and there were many 
of his associates who, when be had attained eminence. 

recalled the discussions on political economy and tinorwi 
topics with which he was wont to enliven and elevate the 
travellers' table. In 1830 Cobden learnt that Messrs 
Fort, calico printers at Sabden, near Clitheroo, were about 
to retire from business, and he, with two other young 
men, Messrs Sheriff and Gillet, who were engaged in the 
same commercial house as himself, determined to make an 
effort to acquire the succession. They bad, however, very 
little capital among them. But it may be taken as an 
illustration of the instinctive confidence which Cobden 
through life inspired in those with whom he came into 
contact, that Messrs Fort consented to leave to these 
imtried young men a large portion of their capital in the 
business. Nor was their confidence misplaced. The new 
firm had soon three establishments, — one at Sabden, where 
the printing works were, one in London, and one'iu 
Mnnchefter for the sale of their goods. This last was 
under the direct management of Cobden, who, in 1830 
or 1831, sattled in the city with which his name became 
afterwards so closely associated. The success of this enter- 
prize was decii;ive and rapid, and the " Cobden prints" soon 
became known through the country as of rare value both 
for excellence of material and beauty of design. There 
can be no doubt that if Cobden bad been satisfied to 
devote all his energies to commercial life he might soon' 
have attained to great opulence, for it is understood that 
his share in the profits of the business he had established 
.amounted to from £8000 to £10,000 a year. But he had 
other tastes, which impelled him irresistibly to pursue those 
st'.idies which, as Lord Bacon says, " serve for delight, for 
ornament, and for ability." Mr Prentice, the historian of 
the Anti-Corn-Law League, who was then editor of the ^fan- 
chesler Times, describes how, in the year 1 835, he received 
for publication in his paper a series of admirably written 
letters, under the signature of " Libra," discussing com- 
mercial and economical questions' with rare ability. After 
some time he discovered that the author of these letters 
was Cobden, whose name was until then quite unknown 
to him. 

In 1835 he published his first pamphlet, entitled .Fxp- 
land, Ireland, and America, by a Manchester Manvfacttirer. 
It attracted great attention, and ran rapidly through several 
editions. It was marked by a breadth and boldness of 
views on political and social questions which betokened 
an original mind. In this production Cobden -advo- 
cated the same principles of peace, nonintervention, re- 
trenchment, and free trade to which he continued faithful 
to the last day of his life. Immediately afler the publica- 
tion of this pamphlet, he paid a visit to the United States; 
landing in New York on the 7th June 1835: He devoted 
about three months to this tour, passing rapidly through 
tbe seaboard States and the adjacent portion of Canada, 
.and collecting as he went large stores of information 
respecting the condition, resources, and prospects of the 
great Western Republic. Soon after his return to England 
he began to prepare another work for the press, which 
appeared towards the end of 1836, under the title of 
Itu»sta. It was mainly designed to combat a wild out- 
break of Russophobia which, under the inspiration. of Mr 
David Urquhart, was at that time taking possession of tbe 
public mind. But it contained also a bold indictment of 
tbe whole system of foreign policy then in vogue, founded 
on ideas as to tbe balance of power and tbe necessity of 
large armaments for tbe protection of commerce. While 
this pamphlet was in the press, delicate health obliged binx 
to leave England, and for several months, at the end o(| 
1836 nnd the beginning of 1837, he travelled in SpaiD,'| 
Turkey, and Egypt. During his visit to Egypt he had aii' 
interview with the redoubtable ruler of that country, 
Mehemct Ali, of whose character as a reforming monarch 


C B D E N 

be did not bring away a very farrnir.iblc impression. IIo 
returned to Eugliind iu April 1837. Fruin that time 
Cobden became a conspicuous figure in Muuchcster, taking 
a leading part in the local politics of the town and district. 
Largely owing to bis exertions, the Manchester Athcnsum 
was established, at the opening of which he was chosen to 
deliver the inaugural address. He became a member of 
the Chamber of Ci)inmerct, and soon infused new life into 
that body. He threw himself with great energy into the 
agitation which led to the incorporation of the city, and 
was elected one of its first aldermen. He began also to 
take a warm interest in the cause of popular education. 
Some of his first attempts in pulilic speaking were at nifct- 
ings which he convened at Manchester, Salford, Bolton, 
Rochdale, and other adjacent towns, to advocate the estab- 
li.ihment of Briti-sh schools. It was while on a mission for 
this purpose to Rochdale that he first formed the acquaint- 
ance of Mr John Bright, who afterwards became his 
distinguished coadjutor iu llie free trade agitation. Nor 
was it long before his fitu'ubs for parliamtutary life was 
recognized by his friends. In 1837, the dsath of Wilbam 
IV. and the accession of Queen Victoria led to a general 
election. Cobden was candidate for Stockport, but was 
defeated, though not by a large majority. 

Id 1838 an Anti-Corn Law Association was formed at 
Manchester, which, on his suggestion, was afterwards 
changed into a national association, under the title of the 
Anti-Corn-Law League. This Ls not the place to recount 
the history of that famous association, of which from first 
to last Cobden was the presiding genius and the animating 
Boul. During the seven years between the formation of 
the league and its final triumph, he devoted hiniself wholly 
to the work of teaching his countrymen sound economical 
doctrines, for the agitation whicb he and his associates 
conducted with such signal ability and success was pre- 
eminently an educational agitation. His labours were as 
various as they were incessant, — now guiding the councils 
of the League, now addressing crowded and enthusiastic 
meetings of his supporters in London or the large towns 
of England and Scotland, now invading the agricultural 
districts, and challenging the landlords to meet him in the 
presence -f their own farmers, to discuss the question in 
dispute, and now encountering the Chartists led on by 
Feargus O'Connor, who had deluded a portion of the 
working classes into fanatical opposition to free frade. But 
whatever \vas the character of his audience he never failed, 
by the clearness of his statemenfi, the force of his reasoning, 
and the felicity of his dlustrations, to carry conviction to 
the minds of his hearers 

In 1841, Sir Robert Peel having defeated the Melbourne 
ministry in Parliament, there was a general election, when 
Cobden was returned for Stockport. His opponents had 
confidently predicted that he would fail utterly in the 
House of Commons. He did not wait long, after his 
admission into that assembly, in bringing their predic- 
tions to the test. Parliament met on the lUtb August. 
On the 24th, in course of the debate on the Address, 
C'ohden delivered his first speech. "It was remarked." 
cays Miss Martineau, in hf:T Hxstory of the Peace, "that 
he was nut treated in the House with the courtesy usually 
accorded to a new member, and it was perceived that he 
did not need such ob.servance " With perfect self-posses- 
eion, which was not disturbed by the jeers that greeted some 
of his statements, and with the utmost simplicity, direct- 
ness, and force, he presented the argument against the corn- 
laws in such a form as startled his audience, and also 
irritated some of them, for it was a style of eloquence 
very unlike Iho conventional slvlo which prevailed in 

From that day he became aa acknowledged power ir 'ho 

House, and though addressing a most unfriendly audience^ 
he compelled attention by his thorough mastery of his 
subject, and by the courageous boldness with which he 
charged the ranks of his adversaries. He soon came to 
be recognized as one of the foremost debaters on those 
economical and commercial questions which at that time so 
much occupied the attentjon of Parliament ; and the most 
prejudiced and bitter of his opponents were fain to acknow- 
ledge that they had to deal with a man whom the most 
practised and powerful orators of their parly found it 
hard to cope with, and to whoso eloquence, indeed, the 
great statesman in whom they put their trust was obligeii 
ultimately to surrender On the 17th of February 184'? 
an extraordinary scene took place in th6 House of 
Commons. Cobden had spoken with great fervour of the 
deplorable suffering and distress which at that time pre- 
vailed in the cuuntry, for which, he added, he held Sir 
Robert Peel, as the head of the Government, responsible. 
This remark, when it was spoken, passed unnoticed, being 
indeed nothing more than one of the commonplaces of party 
warfare. But a few weeks before, Mr Drummond, who 
was Sir Robert Peel's private secretary, had been shot dead 
in the street by a lunatic. In consequence of this, and 
the manifold anxieties of the time with which he was 
harassed, the mind of the great statesman was no doubt 
in a moody and morbid condition, and when he arose to 
speak later in the evening, he referred in excited and 
agitated tones to the remark, as an iiicilemenl to violence 
against his person. Sir Robert Peel's party, catching at 
this hint, threw themselves into a frantic state of excitement, 
and when Cubden attempted to e.\ plain that he meant 
official, not personal responsibility, they drowned his voice 
with clamorous and insulting shouts. But Peel lived to 
make ample and honourable amend for this unfortunate 
ebullition, for not only did he "fully and unequivocally 
withdraw the imputation which was thrown out in the 
heat of debate under an erroneous impression," but when 
the great free trade battle had been won, he took the wreath 
of victory from his awn brow, and placed it on that of his 
old opponent, in the following graceful words: — "The name 
which ought to be, and will be associated with the success 
of these measures, is not mine, or that of the noble Lord 
(Russell), but the name of one who, acting I believe from 
pure and disinterested motives, has, with uatiriug energy, 
made appeals to our reason, and has enforced those appeals 
with an eloquence the more to be admired because it was 
i;^naD"ectcd and unadorned; the name which ought to ba 
chiefly associated with the success of these measures is the 
name of Richard Cobden." Cobden had, indeed, with 
unexampled devotion, sacrificed his business, his domestic 
comforts, and fur a time bis health to the public interests. 
His friends therefore felt, at the close of that long campaign, 
that the nation owed him some substantial token of gratitude 
and admiration fur those sacrifices. No sooner was the 
idea of such j tribute started than bberal contributions 
came from all quarters, which enabled his friends to present 
him with a sum of £80,000. Had he been inspired with 
personal ambition, he might have entered upon the race of 
political advancement with the prospect of attaining the 
highest official prizes. Lord John Russell, who, soon after 
the repeal of the corn laws, succeeded Sir Robert Peel as 
first minister, invited Cobden to join his Government. 
Cut he preferred keeping himself at liberty to serve his 
cnuntrymen unshackled by official ties, and declined the 
invitation. He withdrew for a time from England. His 
first intention was to seek complete seclusion in Egj'pt or 
Italy, to recover health and strength after his long and 
exhausting labours. But his fame had gone forth throughout 
Europe, and intimations reached him from many quarter.^ 
that his voice vrould be listened to everywhere with favour, 

C B D E N 


in advocacy of the doctrines to the triumph of which he ■ 
had so much contributed at home. Writing to a friend in 
July Is 16, he says, — " I am going to tell you of a fresh 
project that has been brewing in my biain. I have given 
up all idea of burying myself in Eg>7't or Italy. I am 
going on an agitating tour through the contiueiil of Europe." 
Then, referring to messages he had received from influential 
persons in France, I'russia, Austria, Kussiu, and Spaiu to 
the effect mentioned above, he adds: — "Well, I will, with 
God's assistance, during the next twelve months, visit all the 
large states of Europe, see their potentates or statesmen, 
nnd endeavour to enforce those truths which have been 
irresistiblo at home. Why should I rust in inactivity? 
If the public^spirit of my countrymen atfoids ine the means 
of travelling as their missionary, I wiU be the first ambas- 
sador from the people of this country to the nations of the 
Continent. I am impelled to this by an inbtinctive emotion 
such as has never deceived me. 1 feci that I could succeed 
ill making out a stronger case for the prohibitive nations of 
_Europe to compel them to adopt a freer system'than 1 had 
here to overturn our protection policy." This programme 
he fulfilled. He visited in succession France, Spain, Italy, 
'jermany, and Russia. He was received everywhere with 
marks of distinction and honour. In many of the princi[)al 
capitals he was invited to publicbanquets, which afforded him 
nn opportunity of propagating those principles of which he 
Was regarded as the apostle. But beside these public demon- 
iitrations he sought and found access in private to many of 
the leading statesmen, in the various countries he visited, 
'.vith a view to indoctrinate them with the same principles. 
During his absence there was a general election, and he 
was returned for Stockport and for the West Riding of 
Yorkshire. He chose to sit for the latter. 
,_ When C'obden returned from the Continent he addressed 
himself to what seemed to him the logical cum])leinent of 
free trade, namely, the promotion of peace and the reduc- 
tion of naval and militaiy armaments. His abhorrence of 
'war amounted to a passion. Throughout his long labours 
tn behalf of unrestricted commerce he never lost sight of 
this, as being the most precious result of the work in which 
he was engaged,— its tendency to diminish the ha-;ards of 
war and to bring the nations of the world into closer and 
more lasting relations of peace and friendship with each 
other. He was not deterred by the fear of ridicule or the 
reproach of Utopianism from associating himself openly, 
nnd with all the arduur of his nature, with the peace party 
in England. In ISl'J he brought forward a proposal in 
Parliament in favour of international arbitration, and in 
1851 a motion for mutual reduction of armaments. He 
was not successful in either case, nor did he e.\pect to be. 
Ill pursuance of the same object, he iJentilicd himself with 
u series of remarkable peace congresses — international 
iissomblies designed to unite the intelligence and 
philanthropy of the nations of Christendom in a league 
agfdnst war — which frum IS48 to 1801 w ^re held succes- 
sively in Brussels, Paris, Frankfort, London, Manchester, 
emd Edinburgh. 

• On the establishment of the French empire in 1S51-2 a 
violent |«nic took possession of the public niind. Without 
the shadow of producible evidence the leaders of opinion 
in the press promulgated the wildest alarms as to the 
intentions of Louis Napoleon, who was represented as con- 
lem|Jatinga sudden and piratical descent njion the English 
cqast without pretext or provocation. Shocked by this 
pitiful display of national folly, Cobden did not hesitate to 
throw himself into the breach and withstand the madness 
(if the hour. By a series of powerful speeches in and out 
of Parliament, and by the imblication of his in.istcrly 
pamphlet, 1793 and 1SJ3, he sought to calm the passions 
^f his countrymen. By this course he sacrificed the great 

popularity he had won as the champion of free trade, and 
became for a time the best abused man in England. 
Immediately afterwards, owing to the quarrel about the 
Holy Places which arose in the east of Europe, public 
opinion suddenly veered round, and all the suspicion and 
hatred which had been directed against the emperor of the 
Frenclj were diverted from him to the emperor of Russia. 
Louis Napoleon was taken into favour as our faithful allyj' 
and in a whirlwind of popular excitement the nation was 
swept into the Crimean war. Cobden, who had travelled 
in Turkey, and had studied the condition of that country 
with great care for many years, atterly discredited the 
outcry about maintaining the independence and integrity 
of the Ottoman empire which was the battle-cry of th» 
day. He denied that it was possible to maintain them, 
and no less strenuously denied that it was desirable even if 
it were pussible. He believed that the jealousy of Russian 
aggrandizement and the dread of Russian power to which 
our countrymen delivered themselves at that time were 
absurd e.\aggeratioiis. * He maintained that the future of 
European Turkey was in the hands of the Christian 
population, and that it would have been our wisdom to 
ally ourselves with them rather than with the doomed and 
decaying Mahometan power. " You must address your- 
selves,'' ho said in the House of Commons, " as men of 
sense and men of energy, to the question — what are you to 
do with the Christian population ? for Jfahomctanism 
cannot be maintained, and I should be sorry to see this 
country fighting for the maintenance of Alabometanisni 

You may keep Turkey on the map of Europe, you 

may call the country by the name of Turkey if you like, 
but do not think you can keep up the Mahometan rule in 
the country.' The reader may be left to judge how far 
his sagacity and statesmanship have been vindicated by the 
event. But for the time the turrent of popular sentiment 
in favour of war was iricsistible, and Messrs Cobden and 
Bright, who with admirable courage and eloquence with- 
stood what they deemed "the delusion of the hour, were 
overwhelmed with obloquy. ■' < 

At the beginning of 1(^57 tidings from China reached 
England of a rupture between the British plenipotentiary 
ill that country and the governor of the Canton piovinces 
in reference to a small vessel or lorcha called the " Arrow," 
which had resulttd*in the English admiial destroying the 
river forts, burning 23 tliiiis belonging to the Chinese navy, 
and bombarding the city of Canton. After a careful 
investigation of the official documents, Cobden became con- 
vinced that those were utterly unrighteous proceedings. 
He brought forward a motion in Parliament to this effect, 
which led to a long and memorable debotc, lasting over 
four nights, in which he was supported by Mr Sydney 
Herbert, Sir James Graham, Mr Gladstone, Lord John 
Russell, and Mr Disraeli, and which ended in tLu defeat of 
Lord Palmerslon by a majority of sixteen. But this 
triumph cost him his seat in Parliament. On the dissolu- 
tion which followed Lord Palmcrston's defeat, Cubdcn 
became candidate for HuddersficlJ, but the voters of that 
town gave the preference to his oiiponcnt, who had 
su[iporled the Russian war and aj'pioved of the proceedings 
at Canton. Cobden was thus relegated to private life, and 
retiring to his country house at Dunfoid, he spent his time 
in perfect contentment in cultivating bis land and feeding 
his pigs. 

He look advantage of this season of. leisure to pay 
another visit to thcUnited States. .During his absence 
the general election of 1860 occuried, when he was returned 
unopposed for Rochdale. Lord Palmerston was again 
pri«ie miiustcr, and having discovered that the advanced 
liberal party was not so easily ''crushed" as he had 
apprehended, he made overtures of reconciliation, cad invited 


C B D E N 

Cobden aud Milner Gibson to become members of his 
government. In a frank, cordial letter which was delivered 
to Cobden on his landing in Liverpool, Lord Palmerston 
offered him the Presidency of the Hoard of Trade, with a 
Beat in the Cabinet, Many of his friends urgently pressed 
him to accept ; but without a moment's hesitation he 
determined to decline the proposed honour. On his arrival 
in London he called on Lord Palmerston, and with the 
utmost frankness told him that he had opposed and 
denounced him so frequently in public, and th;it he still 
differed so widely from his views, especially on questions 
of foreign policy, that he could not, without domg violence 
to his own sense of duty and consistency, serve under him 
Q8 minister. Lord Palmerston tried good-humouredly to 
combat his objections, but without success. 

But though he declined to share the responsibility of 
Lord Palmerston's administration, he was willing to act as 
its representative in promoting freer commercial intercourse 
between England and France. But the negotiations for 
this purpose originated with himself in conjunction with 
Mr Bright and Si. Michel Chevalier. Towards the close 
of 1859 he called upon Lord Palmerston, Lord John Rus.sell, 
and Mr Gladstone, and signified his intention to visit 
J"rance and get into communication with the emperor and 
his ministers, with a view to promote this object. These 
statesmen expressed in general terms their approval of his 
purpose, but he went entirely on his own account, clothed 
at first with no oflScial authority. His name, however, 
carried an authority of its own. On his arrival in Paris he 
had a long audience with Napoleon, in which he urged 
many arguments in favour of removing those obstacles 
which prevented the U\o countries from being brought into 
closer dependence or. one another, and he succeeded in 
making a considerable impression on his mind in favour of 
free trade. He. then addressed himself to the French 
ministers, and had much earnest conversation, especially 
with M. Fould, Ministre d'Etat, and M. Rouher, minister 
of commerce, both of whom, and especially the latter, he 
found- well inclined to the economical and commercial 
principles wliich he advocated. After a good deal of time 
(Epent in these preliminary and unofficial negotiations, the 
question of a treaty of commerce between the two countries 
..hiving entered into the arena of diplomacy, Cobden was 
jtequested by the British Government to act as their 
plenipotentiary in the matter in conjunction with Lord 
Cowley, their ambassador in France. But it proved a very 
long and laborious undertaking. Hg-had to contend with 
the bitter hostility of the French protectionists, which 
occasioned a good deal of vacillation on the part of the 
emperor and his ministers. There were also delays, 
hesitations, and cavils at home, which were more inexpli- 
cable. He- was, moreover, assailed with great violence by a 
powerful section of the English press, while the large 
•number of minute details with which he had to deal in 
connection with proposed changes in the French tariff, 
involved a tax on his patience and industry which would 
have daunted a less resolute man. But there was one 
source of embarrassment greater than all the rest. One 
stt'ong motive which had impelled him to engage in this 
enterprise was his anxious desire to establish more friendly 
relations between England and France, and to dispel those 
feelings of mutual jealousy and alarm which were so 
frequently breaking forth and jeopardizing peace. between 
the two countries. This was the most powerful argument 
with which he had plied the emperor and the members of 
the French Government, and which he, had found most 
efficacious with them. But unhappily, while he was in 
the very thick of the negotations. Lord Palmerston brought 
forward in the House of Commons a measure for fortifying 
the oaToI arsenals of England, which he introduced in a 

warlike speech pointedly directed against France, as ttie' 
source of danger of invasion and attack, against which it 
was necessary to guard. This produced irritation and 
resentment in Paris, and but for the influence which 
Cobden had acquired, and the perfect trust reposed in hia 
sincerity, the negotiations would probably have been alto- 
gether wrecked. At last, however, after nearly twelve 
months' incessant labour, the work was completed in 
November 1860. "Rare," said Mr Gladstone, "is- the 
privilege of any man who, having fourteen years ago 
rendered to his country one signal service, now again, 
within the same brief span of life, decorated neither hy 
land nor title, bearing no mark to distinguish him from 
the people he loves, has been permitted to perform another 
great and memorable service to his sovereign and his 

On the conclusion of this work honours were offered to 
Cobden by the Governments of both the countries which he 
had so greatly benefited. Lord Palmerston offered him a 
baronetcy and a seat in the Privy Council, and the emperor 
of the French would gladly have conferred upon him some 
distinguished mark'of his favour. But with characteristic 
disinlerestfedness and modesty he declined all such honours. 
It has already been remarked that Cobden's efforts in 
furtherance of free trade were always subordinated to th» 
highest moral purposes — the promotion of peace on eartb 
and good-will among men. This was his desire and hope 
as respects the Commercial Treaty with Franco. He was 
therefore deeply disappointed and distressed to find the old 
feeling of distrust towards our neighbours still actively 
fomented by the press and some of the leading politicians 
of the country. He therefore, in 18G2, published his 
pamphlet entitled The Three Panics, the object of which 
was to trace the history and expose the folly of thos4 
periodical visitations of alarm, as respects the designs of 
our neighbours with which this country had been afHicted 
for the preceding fifteen or sixteen years. 

There was one other conspicuous service which Cobden 
rendered, or tried to repder, to his country before his 
death. When the great civil war threatened to break out 
in the United States, it was matter to him of profound 
affliction. But after the conflict became inevitable his 
sympathies were wholly with the North, because the South 
was fighting for slavery. His great anxiety, however, was 
that tne British nation should not be committed to any 
unworthy course during the progress of that struggle. 
And when our relations with Anierica were becoming 
critical and menacing in consequence of the depredations 
committed on American commerce by vessels issuing from 
British ports, he brought the question before the House ol 
Commons in a series of speeches of rare clearness and force, 
in which he pointed out the perilous responsibilities we 
were incurring by connivance or neglect in regard to thosB 
vessels. He was first attacked with great animosity both 
in and out of ParliaTnent for taking this line, but after 
results amply vindicated his political sagacity and 

For several years Cobden had been suffering severely at 
intervals from bronchial irritation and a difliculty of 
breathing. Owing to this he had spent tlie winter oi 
18G0 in Algeria, and every subsequent winter he had to be 
very careful and confine himself to the house, especially in 
damp and foggy weather. In November 1864 he went 
down to Rochdale and delivered a speech to his consti- 
tuents — thelastheeverdelivered. That effort was followed 
by great physical prostration, and ho determined not to 
quit his retirement at Midhurst until Spring had fairly 
set in. But in the month of March there were discussions 
in the House of Commons on the alleged necessity of 
constructing large defensive works in Canada. He was 

C B — C B 


deeply imiirossed with the folly of such a project, and he 
was seized with a strong desire to go up to London and 
deliver his sentiments on the subject. But on the 21st of 
March, the day on which he left borne a bitter easterly 
wind blew, aud struck him in the throat and chest He 
recovered a little for a few days after his arrival in 
London ; but on the 29th there was a relapse, and on the 
2d of April 18C0, he expired peacefully at his apartments 
111 Suffolk Street. 

On the following day there was a remarkable scene in 
the House of Commons. When the clerk read the orders 
of the day Lord Palmerston rose, and in impressive and 
solemn tones declared " it was not possible for the House 
to proceed to business without every member recalling to 
his mind the great loss which the House and country had 
•uslained by the event which took place yesterday morn- 
ing," He then paid a generous tribute to the virtues, the 
abilities, and services of Cobden, and he was foilowed by 
Mr Disraeli, who with great for-;e and felicity of language 
delineated the character of the deceased statesman, who, 
he said, " was an ornament to the House of Commons and 
an honour to England. " Mc Bright also attempted to 
address the House, but after a sentence or two delivered in 
a, tremulous voice, he was overpowered with emotion, and 
declared he must leave to a calmer moment what he had to 
say on the life and character of the manliest and gentlest 
spirit that ever quitted or tenanted a human form. r 

In the French Corps L^gislatif, also, the vice-president, 
M. Forbade la Roquette, referred to his death, and warm 
expressions of esteem were repeated and applauded on 
every side. " The death of Richard Cobden, " said M. la 
Roquette, " is not alone a misfortune for England, but a 
causa of mourning for France and humanity." M. Drouyn 
de Lhuys, the French minister of foreign affairs, made h:s 
death the subject of a special despatch, desiring the French 
ambassador to e.^cpress to the Government " the mournful 
sympathy and truly national regret which the death, as 
lamented as premature, of Richard Cobden had excited on 
that side of the Channel. " He is above all, " he added, 
" in our eyes the representative of those sentiments and 
those cosmopolitan principles before which national frontiers 
and rivalries disappear ; whilst essentially of his country, 
ho was still more of his time ; he knew what mutual 
relations could accomplish in our day for the prosperity of 
'peoples. Cobden, if I may be permitted to say so, was an 
international man." 

i He was buried at West Lavington Church, on the 7th 
of April, by the side of his only son, whose death, eight or 
nine years before, had nearly broken his father's heart. 
His grave was surrounded by a large crowd of mourners, 
among whom were Mr Gladstone, Mr Bright, Mr Milner 
Gibson, Mr Villiers, and a host besides from all parts of 
the country. (h. ei.) 

COBIJA, or, as it is officially called in honour of the 
first president of the republic, Puerto La Mar, is the 
principal port of Bolivia, and the chief town of the province 
of Atacama or Cobija. It is situated on the coast of the 
Pacific, about 800 miles north of Valparaiso in Chili, in 
22° 32'- 50' S. lat. and 70° 21' 2" W. long. ; and it 
occupies a low-lying position on the beach, at the foot of a 
lofty range of hills. The surrounding district is desolate 
ill the extreme, and Cobija is totally dependent on impor- 
tation even foi- the common necessaries of life. Water is 
very scarce ; the wells only satisfy the wants of about 400 
or 500 persons, and the rest of the population has to be 
supplied by the distillation of the salt water from the sea. 
At one time fish formed a valuable article of consumption ; 
but since the rise of the mining industries the fishers have 
for the most part forsaken their nets. The town itself i,s 
poorly built, and consists of little more thau one broaJj' 

Ij — U-- 

long street. The harbour is comparatively safe ; but the' 
hvnding-place is bad, and the danger from tha surf con- 
siderable. As a free port and the principal means of com- 
munication with the interior, Cobija attracts a considerable 
amount of foreign trade. It owes its foundation in the 
course of last century to Charles III. of Spain; it ■wa.^ 
declared a free port in 1827 ; and it attained the r»ak bf 
capital of the department in 1837. In 1827 it coosiited 
of little more than a few huts inhabited by Changas, or sea- 
faring Indians ; and in 1 855 it only numbered 500 or 6C0 
of a population. In 1858, however, the permanent inhabi- 
tants were no fewer than 2000, and the floating population 
amounted to 4000 souls. (See Tschudi, £eiie «»» San 
Pedro de Atacama nach Cobija, 1860.) 

COBLENTZ (German, Cobleiu), the capital of Rhenish 
Prussia, is pleasantly situated at the confluence of the 
Rhine and Moselle. From this circumstance it derived its 
anaent name of ConflnetUts, of which Coblentz is a corrup 
tion. This city is still of consequence froni a military 
point of view, since it commands the junction of two great 
rivers. Its fortifications, which are very extensive, not 
only protect the town, but connect the works on the left 
bank of the Rhine with the fortress of Ehrenbreitstem oi 

Plan of Cobleat!. 

1. MllltAry rrl!on and IjuAiTtto. 

2. Florins Church (Evang.) 

3. Market Hall. 

4. School of An, 
b. Hospital. 

6. General Commando. 

7. Dentsches Hans 

8. Llebfrancnktrche. 
*. Casino (CiTil). 

10. Comaissarlat ilaeazlne. 

A. WelsserThor. 

B. LohrTlicr. 

11. Tlieatre. 
13. Post OfllM. 

13. Pi-iJon (OtII). 

14. GoT«ram<;it Buildlogc 

U. Bnlldl,ng.yard for tic TorH. 

16. CoTiTCraemeot. 

17. CotnmaadaDttfr. 

18. Castle. 

19. Capodiln Cburcli. 

•C Maimer TboT. 
D. Uosel Tlor. 

the Other side of the river. The city is alinost triangular ic 
shape ; two sides are bounded by the Rhine and Moselle, 
the third by strong fortifications. These are pierced by 
two massive g,ntes, the Lohr aud Mayence gates, with draw- 
bridges over the fosse. The military works, which were 
constructed on the combined systems of Camot and 
Montalembert, include no fewer than 26 forts, and form a 
fortified camp capable of containing 100,000 men. The 
Rhine is crossed here by a bridge of boats 485 yards long, 
and by the Iron Bridge, built for railway purposes ui 
1866 The Moselle is spanned by a Gothic freestone 
bridge of 14 arches, 1100 feet in length, wected in 1344, 
and also by a railway bridge. In the more ancient part of 
Coblentz are several buildings which poesoss an historica'.' 


C B — C B 

inieiest. Prominent among th.-se, at (lie point of conllu- 
euco ol the rivers, is tlie church ol" St Castor, built in the 
early Lombard ^lyle of architecture, and surmounted by 
four towers. The church was ongmally founded iu S30 
by Lewis the Pious, but the preotnt edifice is considerably 
lesa nucient. It was liere that the sous of Charlemagne 
met ill 843, when they divided the empire into Frauce, 
Gcruiany, and Italy. In front of the church of St Castor 
Dtands a fountain, erected by the French m Itil^, wuh an 
iniicnpliou to commemorate Napoleon's invasion of Russia. 
1^'ut long after, the Russian troops occupied Coblentz ; aud 
St Priest, their commander, added in irony these word?-^ 
'' Vu ct approuvi par noui, Commandant liasst de la i'llle 
de Cobtaicc: Janvier Icr, 1814." In this quarter of the 
tiwD there is also the Liebtrauenkuche, a fine specimen 
of the old style, built m I.'.'iy ; the ancuMit town- 
Lall ; the Castle of the Electors of Treves, erected in 12S0, 
iiuw converted into a manufactory of japan-ware ; and 
llis family-house of the Metternichs, where Prince 
Mctternich, the Austrian statesman, was born in 177 2. 
'I'he mure modern part of the town has open, regular 
streets, aud many of Us public buildings are handsome. 
The priucjjjal of these is the Palace or Koyal Castle, with 
one front looking towards the Rhine, the other into the 
Ncustadt, or Great .Sciuure. It was built in 177S-SC, and 
Contains among other curiosities some fine Gobelin tapestry 
work. Another large cdilice is the Palace of Justice, where 
the law courts sit, and pssizcs are \iM every three months. 
Coblentz has also a gymnasuim (furmerly a convent of 
Jesuits), a hospital, managed by the sisters of charity, an 
•irphau asylum, a valuable town Library, a theatre, a casino, 
R picture gallery, a musical institute, and a medical school. 
Above the Iron Bridge are Anlagen, or jileasure-grounds, 
lunch resorted to by the town's-people. The manufactures 
coasast chiefly of linens, cottons, japan-ware, furniture, and 
tubacoo. Coblentz is a free .port, and carries on an exten- 
sive commerce by means of the Rhine, Moselle, and Labn. 
Beiug in the centre of the hock wine district, a large trade 
III this class of produce is carried on. with Great Britain, 
Holland, and other countries. Large exports of mineral 
waters are also made, about one million jars of seltzer 
being shipped annually. Among the products of the neigh- 
bouring provinces which are exported from Coblentz are 
corn, iron, volcanic stones, potter's clav, stoneware, and 
barj-- The population is 28,000. 

■ Coblentz was one of tlie military posts established by Drusus 
«bout 9 B.C. It IS not uufrequently mentioned during tho early 
centuries of the Cliristian era as the residence of the Frankish kmgs, 
knJ in 860 and 93'2 it was tho seat of ecclesiastical councils, la 
1018 it obtained tho rights of a city from Henry II., but at the 
name time wa9 made subject to the Bishop of Treves, who entrusted 
the administration to the count nalalme of the Khme. In the 
following century the 6ef K,as held by the counts of Arnstem and 
the counts of Nassau ; but it returned to the bishops in 12.")3. 
Archbishop Arnold surrounded the city with new wails in 1249-04, 
uiid, in spite of an insuiiectiou on the part of the luliabitants, 
founded the ciudel which still overlooks the town. As a member 
of the League of the Rhenish cities which took its rise in the 13th 
century, Coblentz nttaioed to great prosperity; .iiid it continued to 
ndvaneo till the disasters of the Thirty Years' War occasioned a 
r»pid decline. When in 1632 the Elector Philip Christopher of 
Sotern siirrendcred Ehrenbreitsteiu to the French'tlie town received 
in imperial garrison, which was soon, however, e.^pellcd by tho 
Swedes. They in their turn handed the city over to the French, 
but the imperial forces succeeded in retaking it by storm. In 16S8 
it Was besieged by thtt. French Marshal Bouflers," but was success- 
fully defended by Count Lipne. In 1736 the elector of Treves, 
Clemens Wenceslas, took up his residence in the town, and gave 
great assistance in its extehsion and improvement; and a few years 
tatcr it became, through tho invitation of his minister, Duminiqiie, 
one of the principal rendezvous of the French emigres. In 1794 it 
Was taken by the Revolution army, and, after the pea^e of Luiiuvillc, 
It was made the chief town of the Khine and Moselle department. 
Id 1814 it was occupied by the Hussians, and by the Congress at 
Vieuna it was assigned to Prussia. 

COBRA {Xaju trij)uJtaHsj, a, poisonous Colubriiie Suaka, 
belonging to the family Elapidix, known also as tlif 
Hooded .Snake, or Cobra di Capello. In this species the 
anterior ribs are elongated, and by raiding aud bringiuj 
forward these, the neck, which otherwise is not distinci 
from the head, can be expanded at will into a broad disc oi 
hood, the markings on which bear i striking resemblance 
to a [wir of barnacles, hence the name " Spectacle Snake ' 
also aijplied to the cobra. It possesses two rows of palatine 
teeth in the upper jaw, while the maxillary bones oear the 
fangs, of which the anterior one only i;i in connection will 
the poison gland, the others in various stages of growtL 
remaining loose m the surrounding flesh until the dcstruc 
tion of the poison fang brings the one immediately behini! 
to the frout, which then gets anchylosed to the iiiaxillaii 
bone, aud into connection with the gland secreting the 
poison, which in the cobra is about the size of an almond 
Behind tho poison fangs there are usually one or iwt 
ordinary teeth. The cobra attains a length of nearly 6 feel 
and a girth of about G inches, and with the exception ol 
the markings on the hood is of a uniform brown coloui 
above and bluish-white beneath. There are, however, many 
distinct varieties, in some of which the spectacle maikinga 
on the hood are awauting. The cobra may be regard«d as 
nocturnal in its habits, being most active by night, alihoii^'b 
not uufrequently found in motion during the Aay. it 
usually conceals itself under logs of wood, in the roofs oi 
huts, and in holes in old walls and ruins, where it is often 
come upon inadvertently, inflicting a death wound before 
it has been observed. It feeds on small quadrupeds, frogs, 
lizards, insects, and the eggs of birds, m search of which il 
sometimes ascends trees. When seeking its prey it glide! 
slowly along the ground, holding the anterior third of its 
body aloft, with its hood distended, on the alert for any 
thing that may come in its way. " This attitude," says Sii 
J. Fayrer, "is very striking, and few o'ojects are more cal- 
culated to inspire awe than a large cobra when, with hia 
hood erect, hissing loudly, and his eyes glaring, he prepares 
to strike." It is said to drink large quantities of water, 
although, like reptiles in general it wdl live for many 
months without food or drink. The cobra is oviparous , 
and Its eggs, which are from 18 to 25 in number, are of 
a pure white colour, somewhat resembUng in size and 
appearance the eggs of the pigeon, but sometimes larger 
These it leaves to be hatched by the heat of the sun. It 
is found in all parts of India from Ceylon to the Himalayas, 
where it occurs at a height of 800() feet, and it is justh 
regarded as the most deadly of the Indian Thanatophidia. 
A large proportion of the deaths from snake bite, where 
the species inflicting the wound has been ascertained, 
is shown to be due to the cobra , and it is estimated 
that fully one-half of the 2.0,000 deaths that annually 
occur in India from this cause may be attributed to thu 
unluckily common species. The bite of a vigorous cobra 
will often prove fatal in a few minutes, and as there is no 
known antidote to the poison, it is only lu rare instances 
that such mechanical expedients as cauterizing, con- 
striction, or amputation can be applied with sufficient 
promptitude to prevent the virus from entering the cir- 
culation. Of late years, owing to a small reward offered 
by the Indian Government for the head of each poisonous 
snake, great numbers of cobras have been destroyed . 
but only low caste Hindus will engage in such work 
the cobra being regarded by the natives generally 
with superstitious reverence, as a divinity powerfid to 
injure, and therefore to be propitiated; and thus oftentimes 
when found m their dwellings this snake is allowed to 
remain, and is fed and protected. " Should fear," says Sir J. 
Fayrer, " and perhaps the death of some inmate bitten by 
accident prove stronger than superstition, it may be caught, 

C O B — C C 


tenderly landletl, and deported to some field, ■nlicre it 'n 
released and allowed to depart in peace, not killed" 
(Thanatophidia of India). Great numbers, especially of 
young cobras, are killed by the adjutant birds and by the 
mungoos — a small mammal which attacks it with impunity, 
apparently not from want of susceptibility to the poison, 
but by its dexterity in eluding the bite of the cobra. Mere 
scratching or tearing does not appear to be sufTicicnt to 
bring the poison from the glands ; it is only when the fangs 
are firmly implanted by the jaws being pressed together that 
the virus enters the wound, and in those circumstances it 
has been shown by actual experiment that the mungoos, 
like all other warm-blooded animals, succumbs to the poison. 
Iq the case of reptiles, the cobra poison takes effect much 
more slowly, while it has been proved to have no effect 
whatever on other venomous serpents. The cobra is the 
snake usually exhibited by the Indian jugglers, who show 
great dexterity in handling it, even when not depnved of 
its fangs. Usually, however, the front fang at least is 
extracted, the creature being thus rendered harmless until 
the succeeding tooth takes its place, and in many cases all 
the fangs, with the germs behind, are removed — the cobra 
being thus rendered innocuous for life. The snake charmer 
usually plays a few simple notes on the flute, and the cobra, 
apparently delighted, rears half its length in the air and 
sways its head and body about, keeping time to the music. 
The cobra, like almost all poisonous snakes, is by no means 
aggressive, and when it gets timely warning of the approach 
of man endeavours to get out of his way. It is only when 
trampled upon inadvertently, or otherwise irritated, that it 
attempts to use its fangs. It is a good swimmer, often 
crossing broad rivers, and probably even narrow arras of the 
sea, for it has been met with at sea at least a quarter of a 
mile from laud. 

COBURG, or, in German Kohin-rr, the capital of the 
duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and, alternately with Gotha, 
the residence of the duke and the seat of the administration, 
is situated on the left bank of the Itz, an affluent of the 
Regen, and on the southern slope of the Frankenwald, 40 
miles S.S.E. of Gotha. The town is for the most part old, 
and contains a large number of remarkable buildings. The 
ducal palace, or Ehrcnburg, is a fine Gothic edifice, with an 
extensive library, and collections of coins, paintings, and 
specimens in natural history; it was originally a convent 
of the Barefooted Friars, received its present appropriation 
from John Ernest in 1549, and was restored by Ernest in 
18-14. In front of the palace is a bronze statue of the lattet 
duke by Schwanthaler, and in the court-garden is the ducal 
mausoleum. Among the churches the most remarkable is 
the Moritzkirchc, with a tower 335 feet high, the bcauti 
ful Hofkirche, and the modern Boman Catholic church. 
The educational institutions include a g)-mnasium, founded 
in 1604 by Casimir, and thus known as the Casimirianum ; 
a Realschule, established in 1848, a normal college, a 
deaf and dumb asylum, and a school of architecture. The 
arsenal contains a public library ; and the so-called Ari(/us- 
tensti/t, where the ministry of the duchy is located, has an 
extelisive collection of objects in natural history. Coburg 
further possesses a town-house. Government buildings, 
an observatory, and a theatre. On a commanding eminence 
in the vicinity is the ancient castle of Coburg, which dates 
at least from the 11th century. Till 134S it was the 
residence of the counts of Ilenneberg, and till 1547 belonged 
to the dukes of Saxony ; in 1781 it was turned into a 
pinitcntiary and lunatic asylum ; but in 1835-S it received 
a complete restoration. The most interesting room in this 
building is that which was occupied by Luther for three 
months in 1530, and thus became the birthplace of his 
famous hymn, Eine fcstc Burg isl unsa Colt ; the bed on 
which he sleut and the p\ilpit from which he preached in [ 

the old chapel are still shown. Coburg is a place ul con- 
sideril/Ie industry, and possesses a large brewery, factories 
for the weaving of linen and cotton goods, tanneries, and 
dye-works ; and there is an important trade in the cattle 
reared in the neighbourhood. Among various places of 
interest in the vicinity are the dftcal residences of Callenberg 
and Itosenau, in the latter of which Albert, the Prince 
Consort, was born in 1819 ; the castle of Lauterberg ; and 
the village of Neuses, with the house of the poet Riickert, 
who died there in 186G, and on the other side of the river the 
tomb of the poet Thiimmel. Population iu 1871, .12, 810. 

COCA. See Ci'ca. 

COCCEIUS, or Cocn, Johann (1C03-1GC9), a Dutch 
theologian, was born at Bremen. After studying at 
Hambuig and Franecker he became in IG29 professor of 
Hebrew in his native town. In 1G3G he was transferred 
to Franecker, where he held the chiiir of Hebrew, and from 
1643 the chair of theology also, until 1C50, when he became 
professor of theology at Leydcu. He died on the 4th 
November 1CC9. Cocceius was a profound Oriental 
scholar, and his chief services were rendered in the depart* 
ment of Hebrew philology and exegesis. The common 
statement that he held that every passage has as many 
meanings as it can be made to bea^is founded on an entire 
misconception of his fundamental law of interpretation. 
What he really maintained was the sound principle that 
individual words and phrase's are to be interpreted according 
to their contextual connection, and not according to any 
predetermined dogmatic system, whether patristic or 
scholastic As one of the leading exponents of the 
"federal " theology, he spiritualized the Hebrew scriptures 
to such an extent that it was said that Cocceius found 
Christ everywhere in the Old Testament and Grotius found 
him nowhere. He held millenarian views, and was the 
founder of a school of theologians who were called after 
him Cocceians. His most distinguished pupD was the 
celebrated Vitringa. He wrote commentaries on most of 
the books of the Old Testament, but his most valuable 
work was his Lexicon et Commeiitarius Sermcytis Hth. et 
Chald. (Leyden, 1C69), which has been frequently repub- 
lished. The federal or covenant theology which he taught 
is fully expounded in his Summa Doctrines de I'adcre ft 
Testaniento Dei (1G4S). His collected works were pub- 
lished in twelve folio volumes at Amsterdam in 1701. 

COCHABAMB.\, a city and bishop's see of Bolivia, 
capital of a province and department, is situated about 
8370 feet above the level of the sea, on both banks of the 
Piio de la Rocha, a sub-tributary of the Rio Grande, to the 
south of a considerable Cordillera. It is about 122 miles 
N.N W. of Sucre, its latitude is 17° 27' S., and its longi- 
tude G5° 46' W. The streets are broad, and the houses for 
the most part of one story and surrounded by gardens, so 
that the area of the city is great in comparison with its 
population. There are fifteen churches, a gymnasium, aud 
a cabildo ; aud an extensive industry is maintained in the 
production of woollen and cotton stuffs, leather, soap, 
glass-ware, and pottery. The population is largely com- 
piosed of Indians ; and the prevailing language is Quichua. 
Cochabamba was founded in the 16th century, and for 8 
time was called Oropesa. In the revolution of 1S15 the 
women of the city distinguished themselves by their bravery, 
and successfully attacked the Spanish camp ; and in 
1818 a number of the heroines were put to death by tBe 
Spanish forces. In 1874 the city was seized by Miguel 
Aguirre, and a large part of it laid in ruins, but peace was 
soon afterwards restored, and the regular authoritiis 
reinstated. The population in 1858 was 40,C78. 

COCHIN, 3 feudatory state of Southern India, situated 
within the prcsideucv of Fort St George or M.ulr3s, between 
2° 48' and 10° 50' N. laU. and between 76' 5' and 7C*.'>8' 


C C - C c 

13 long. Tbe state, wLicli is of irregular shape, is bounded 
on the W., N., and E. by the districts of South Malabar 
and Coiinbatore, and for some distance on the W. by the 
Indian Ocean ; on the S. it is bounded by ihp state of 
Travancore. Cochin contains a total area of 1361 square 
miles, and a population, according to a census taken in 
1875, of 598,353 souls, dwelling in 118,196 houses. The 
state is divided into seven td/nh, or sub-districts, viz.. 
Cochin, Cannanore, Mugundapuram, Tn'chur, Tallapalli, 
Chitur, and Cranganore. 

Cocliin consists for the most part of a maritime lowland 
hemmed in between the sea and the Gkdts. It includes, 
however, the mountains which thus wall it out from inner 
India, and the lower portion is copiously watered by the 
torrents which pour down them. These torrents dwindle 
in the hot weather to rivulets, but during the rains they 
swell into great cataracts, rising in one instance at least 16 
feet in twenty-four hours. On the lowlands, they unite as 
elsewhere on the western coast into shallow lakes or " back- 
waters," lying behind the beach line and below its level. 
In the monsoon the Cochin backwaters are broad navigable 
channels and lakes ; in the hot weather they contract into 
shallows in many places not 2 feet deep. The vegetation 
is luxuriant ; rich crops of rice are grown on the lowlands ; 
the hills send down vast quantities of tin\ber by means of 
the torrents. The remains of once fine forests of teak are 
preserved in the north-eastern corner of the state, and still 
form a considerable source of wealth. Coffee has of late 
years received much attention and promises well. The 
other products are the usual ones of an Indian state, — cotton, 
pepper, betel-nut, chillies, ginger, various spices, cardamoms, 
arrowroot, ic. An excellent account of Cochin will be 
found in Dr Day's Land of the Permauh. The rdjAs of 
.Cochin claim to hold the territory by descent from Chermdn 
Perum.'^l, who governed the whole of the surrounding 
country, including Travancore and Malabar, as viceroy of 
the CholA kings, about the beginning of the 9th century, 
and who afterwards established himself as an independent 
riji. In 1776 Cochin was subjugated by and became 
tributary to Hyder All. In 1792 Tippu ceded the 
sovereignty to the British, who made over the country to 
the hereditary riji, subject to a tribute of lls.100,000. 
The state is now in subsidiary alliance with the British 
Go\trnmeut, under a treaty dated 17th October 1809. By 
this engagement, which was entered into ou the suppression 
of an insurrection on the part of the rAjas of Cochin and 
Travancore against the British power, the Cochin chief 
agreed to pay, in addition to the tribute of Es.100,000, 
an annual sum, equal to the expense of maintaining a bat- 
talion of native infantry, or Arcot Ks. 17 6,037, making an 
aggregate annual payment of Rs. 276,037. In return for 
this payment, and certain engagements entered into by the 
t^i, the East India Company undertook to defend the 
integrity of the state territory against all enemies. Subse- 
quently the annual tribute to the British Government was 
reduced to Es. 2iO,000, and again afterwards to Es. 200,000 
(£20,000) at which it now stands. A British resident 
represents the government of India in Cochin conjointly 
with Travancore. The present rdji succeeded to the throne 
io March 186i. 

' The-total' revenue of Cochin for the Malabar year 1040 
(1 873-74 A.D. ), amounted to XI 30,85 1 , being the highest in- 
come recorded for any year; the principal items were theland 
revenue, X61,764; customs, £11,035; and salt, £15,7.13. 
The disbursements for the sameyear amounted to £11 1,858, 
leaving a surplus for the year of £18,993. Tlie state has 
now the sum of £200,000 invested in British Government 
securities. A high school, with an average of 170 pupils, 
And 5 district schools are maintained by tlio state. 
II)3pilal3 and uisiicnsarigs and a post uQice uro aUo kqit 

up, and a considerable sum, amounting to £13,669 in 
1874, is animally spent in public works. The niililaiy forco 
is a nominal one of 1 commissioned officer and 3-10 non- 
commissioned officers and men. The two trading ports 
(exclusive of the British port of Cochin) arc JInlipuram and 
Narakel, at which 31 vessels, a burden of 22,626 ton.% 
arrived in 1873-74. The capabilities of Narakel as a port 
of shelter during the S.W. monsoon have been satisfactorily 
proved, and the mail-steamers of the British India Company 
touch there for four or five months oi the year, when the 
neighbouring English port of Cochin is unapproachable. 

Cochin, a town and port of British India, belonging to 
the Malabar district of Madras, situated in 9° 58' 5" N. 
lat and 76° 13' 55" E. long. The town lies at the northern 
extremity of a strip of laud about twelve miles in length, 
but at few places more than a mile in breadth, which is 
nearly insulated by inlets of the sea and estuaries of 
streams flowing from the Western Gh.-^ts. These form tlie 
Cochin backwater described in the article ou the 
Cochin state. The town of Cochin is about a mile in 
length by half a mile in breadth. Its first European 
possessors were the Portuguese, from whom it was captured 
by the Dutch in 1663. Under the Dutch the town prospertul, 
and about 1778 an English traveller describes it as a 
place of great trade; "a harbour filled with ships, streets 
crowded with merchants, and warehouses stored with goci^s 
from every part of Asia and Europe, marked the inductry, 
the commerce, and the wealth of the inhabitants." lu 
1796 Cochin was captured from the Dutch by the British, 
and in 1806 the fortifications ami public buildings were 
blown up by order of the .authorities. The explosion 
destroyed much private property, and for 'a long time 
seriously affected the prosperity of the town. Uiide<- 
Dutch rule Cochin was very populous, containing Europeans^ 
MopUs or Musalmdns, Hindus, Arabs, Persians, and 
Christians of various sects, comprising natives, Armenians, 
Indo-Fortuguese, and those denominated Syrian Christians. 
The Jews have also a settlement here. They are of two 
classes, the Fair or White Jews, of more recent arrival and 
settlement in the country, and the Black Jews, who 
reside apart in a village outside the town. According tu 
the cenisusof 1871, Cochin town contains 2731 houses aud a 
population of 13,840 souls, cla.ssified as follows: — Hindus, 
3883, Muhammadans, 2174; Christians, 7783; and 
" Others," 46. The town is constituted a municipality, 
and in 1873-74 the municipal income (excluding balances) 
amounted to £1573 10s., and the exjiendituro to £1560 
10s. The entrance to the port of Cochin is obstructed by 
a bar across the mouth of the river, and during the S.W. 
monsoon, which lasts for four or five months, vessels can 
neither enter nor depart from it iu safety. Notwithstand- 
ing the difficulties of navigation, however, tlie port has a 
considerable maritime trade. In 1873-74, 171 British 
vessels of a burden of 108,579 tons, 27 foreign vessel.') 
of 7010 tons, and 1644 native craft of a total of 49,215 
tons burden entered the port, and paid a total of £1974 
as port dues, — by far the greater part, £1520, being paid by 
the British ships. The value of the exports iu 1873-74 
amounted to £755,796, and of the imports to £547,252, 
paying a total customs duty of £5161. A lighthouse at 
the south entrance of the harbour marks the entrance to 
the port, and is visible at a distance of 15 miles. 

COCHIN CHINA, a name applied to the eastern division 
of the Indo-Chinese peninsula, composed of the territories 
of Anam proper, Tong-king, and the French colony of 
Cochin China. It forms a long strip of country which 
stretches in an arc of a circle along a coast-line of 1240 
miles from 8° 30' to 23° N. lat. With a breadth of 372 
miles in the north of Tong-king, it i3 afterwards narrowed 
! by a diain of muuntaius pirallcl to the China Sea, and ha* 



no more thau 50 miles of breaJlli in tiio greater part of the 
kingdom of Wai; but in Lower Cochin ChiOa it widens 
out again to about 100 miles. The most western point, 
iu Tong-king, reaches 102° 20' E. long., and the most 
eastern, Cape Varela, in Cochin China, is in 109° 40'. The 
boundaries are — on the N. tho Chinese provinces of Yun-nan 
and Kwang-se, on tho E. and S. the China Sea, on the W. 
the Gulf of Siam, tho kingdom of .Cambodia, and the Laos 
country tributary to the Siamese empire. According to 
the most probable estimates the empire of Anam has an 
area of from 1 30,000 to 230,000 square milea, or about 
the same extent as France ; while the French colony 
occupies about 21,630. The western limits of this empire 
are, however, very imperfectly determined, and the regions 
to the west of Tongking are still unexplored. The N. of 
•ochin China is washed by tho Gulf of Tong-king, a great 

Sketch-Map of Cochin China. 

inlet formed by the coast of Tong-king on the W. and the 
island of Hainan and the peninsula of Lien-chow on the 
R At its mouth, towards Tiger Island and the S.W. part 
of Hai-nan, tho gulf has a breadth of about 138 English 
miles, which almost represents its medium breadth. Near 
the west coast are several islands, and towards tho head of 
the gulf a great nuifiber of islets and banks. From sound- 
ings which have been taken, throughout its whole extent, it 
has been found that in the middle of the entrance there is 
a depth of from 210 to 330 feet, which diminishes towards 
tVe coasts ; and the depth is less half-way up tho gulf, 
where the bottom is generally soft. 

Passing along the coast from Cape Pak-loung, where the 
frontier commences between China and Tong-king, we find 
that all the part north of the Gulf of Tong-king is little 
known ; it is said to be fringed with banks and rocks, 
and some large islands have been visited by English vessels 
in pursuit of pirates. The most important are the Pirate 
Islands, a group of multitudinous islets in a bay of which 
the Chinese name is Fie-tzl-long, and the Pearl Islands. 
Neit we find tho mouth of the River Lach-Huyen, which 
is deep, but obstructed about a mile inland by a bar prevent- 
ing the entrance of any vessel drawing more than 11 J feet. 
Next come the mouths of theEiver of Tong-king, Song-Coi, 
or Hong-kiang (Red River). The delta of this river is 
formed by four main branches — Cua^ tra lay, Cua lac, Cua 

> Cu3 sIsniGcs cubourhun:. 

dhai, Cua ba lat — which communicate witn each other both 
by natural channels, called arroyos, and by artificial canahi 
These are charged with alluvial matter, and produce con- 
siderable increase of soiL Mr E. Ploix, a hydrographio 
engineer who visited the gulf between 1857 and 1859, 
estimates tho annual advance of the coast at about 330 
feet. It is by these rivers that Ke-cho, or Harnoi, the 
capital of Tong-king, can be reached. This town and tho 
port of Ninh-hai, in the province of Hai-dzuong, -were opened 
to foreign commerce by a treaty concluded between Franca 
and the Government of Hu^, March 15, 1874. To allow a 
ship to pass up the river at any season its draught must not 
exceed 5i feet, and from the -end of May to the end of 
November, vessels drawing 12 feet can cross the bars. 

About 18° 10' N. lat. lies the island Hon-tseu, or Goats' 
Island, near a prominent cape about 1410 feet high. A 
little to the south of Hon-tseu is the point to the north of 
which there is only one tide in 24 hours, except during a 
period of two- weeks, when on three or four days there 
are two tides of little force. At Cape Boung-Quihoa there 
is a good anchorage well sheltered by islands, of which 
the chief is South Watcher Island, or South Vigie. 
Id front of Cape Lay is the little Tiger Island, where the 
west coast of the Gulf of Tong-king terminates. On the 
China Sea the coast presents successively, as wo pass south- 
ward, the mouth of the River Hu6, defended by a fort; 
the Bay of Tourane, wide, deep, and well sheltered, but 
unfortunately situated in an unhealthy district, and in the 
poorest part of the country ; the Bay of Quit-Quit, a very 
good anchorage, and the safest on this coast during tho 
N.E. monsoon; tho Island Cu-lao-r6, or Pulo Canton; 
the port of Qui-nhon, or Binh dhinh, in the province of 
this name, opened to European commerce by the treaty 
of March 1874; the bay and the commodious port of Phu- 
yen ; Cape Yarela, or Mui-nai, a very lofty peak visible 
30 nautical miles out at sea, and to the south of the capa 
the port of Hon-ro, safe at all seasons of the year ; the 
Bay of Phan-rang and Cape Padaran, or Mui-Din, districts 
bordered by coral banks ; Cape Ke-ga ; and Cape Ba-kee, 
which forms the limit between lower Cochin China and 
the kingdom of Anam. Between Capa Padaran and Capa 
Ba-kea ihe coast is low, and bordered by dangerous 
banks. In front are the little islands of Pulo Cecir; 
Catwick, and Pulo Sapate, of difficult access. 

The whole of lower Cochin China being formed of 
alluvial deposits, its coast is very low, has little irregularity 
of surface, and is covered with mangroves. The different 
mouths of the River Cambodia or Jle-kong form a delta of 
mors than 70 miles in extent. The soil is subject to fre- 
quent changes on account of the alluvial deposits of the river, 
which is bordered by sand banks stretching seawards out 
of sight of land. At the entrance of theCiver Don-nai, 
which leads to Saigon, rises Cape St Jacques, a peak 920 
feet above the level of the sea. At 45 sea-miles from the 
coast and from the mouths of the Me-kong, is tho island of 
Pulo Condore, with a good port, and a penitentiary esta- 
blished by the French Government. On the west coast of 
Lower Cochin China, in the Golf of Siam, is the port of 
Ha-Tien, communicating by a canal with one of the arms 
of the Me-kong. 

To the north of Tongking terminate tne last underfalls 
of the high plateau of Thibet ; a long chain stretches 
parallel to the Sea of China as far as the south of the 
kingdom of Anam of which it forms the. western boundary. 
The highest point of this chain does not exceed 5250 feet 
Between the last ramifications of the mountains at Thibet 
there descend from the plateau of Yun-nan and in a south- 
east direction the affluents of the great River Song-Coi 
or Hong-kiang, which undergoes periodic variations in the 
s'.ipply of iu waters. In tho month of ifarch it is very 



low ; but cvcrj' year about the month of July it k.ives its 
ctiauuel, Hoods a part of the country, and rolls along with 
a very powerful current. Before passing Ha-noi it receives 
the tribute of two great rivers, known to the natives by 
thj names of the Black River and tl e Clear Uiver. 

The kingdom of Anam, closely slut in between the 
mount lins and the uca, is drained by numerous but 
unimportant, streams. Lower CocLin China, or French 
Corliin China, is abundantly watered by the numerous 
mouths and the canals which form the delta of the Me- 
kong or Cainliodia. This river takes its rise in the 
mountains of Thibet, waters the southern provinces of China 
and the district of Laos tiibutary to cjiain, and crosses 
through the kingdom of Cambodia, where it divides into 
three branches. The first, which does not penetrate into 
Cochin China, turns towards the north-west and loses itself 
in the Lake of Tonli Sap The second, which takes the 
name of Hinder Itiver (Hau-giang or Song-sau) flows 
scailh cast, enters Cochin China, communicates wtth the 
Sen of Siam by tho Canal Vinhte of Ila-tien and by that 
of Kachgia, and enters the Chir.a Sea by two mouths. 
The third branch, named Front River (Ticngiang or 
Songtruoc), flows parallel to tho preceding, divides at 
Vinh-long into four arms, and debouclies by six mouths, 
riicse streams form numerous islands and communicate 
with each other by means of canals oi arroyus. In spite of 
the length of its course and the great ma^s jf its waters, 
the Me-Kong cannot be utiliied as a. means of communica- 
tion with Central China, because of the numerous icssauts 
and rapids which encumber its course. It is besides 
subject to an annual Hood; the wcters begin to rise in 
May, attain their maximum in October, and decrease until 
March. From the month of March to the month of i.Iay 
the level is almost constant. -Two other streams water the 
east of Jyower Cochin China, — the Vaico, divided into two 
branches, and the Donnai. These rivers communicate 
with each other and with the mouths of the Me-kong by 
numerous arroyos. Tho Donnai receives 'he Saigon River ; 

I and u 13 by this means that the largest vessels reach the 
town of that name. 

The climate of the north of Anam differs much from that 
of the south. In Tong king, though it is usual to divide 
the year into a dry and a wet season, there is properly 
speaking no dry season. In December and January the 
thermometer falls to 41° or 43° Fabr. Summer corresponds 
to the period of the rains from tlie end of April to the 

' month of August ; and at that lime it is excessively hot. 
Storms are frequent, and the coasts are often visited by 
typhoons. At the same time Tung-king is a healthy 
country ; the weather during four months is excellent ; 
and the French colony of Saigon might find there — what has 
never been discovered jn Cochin China proper — a suitable 
site for a sanatorium. The climate of the French colony 
is unhealthy for Europeans; they cannot be acclimatized. 
The mortality of the troops is rather high ; and before 
their residence was shortened to two years it might be 
calculated at 9 or 10 per cent, for a three years' residence. 
The chief cause of the maladies which affect Europeans is 
the character of the soil. On the banks of the rivers, in 
the salt mar.shes, and along the shores of the sea, inter- 
mittent fevers of great severity are frequent. In the 
forest land rages the terrible wood-fever, from which the 
native himself cannot escape, though he lives unharmed 
in the midst of the rice swamps. But the great plague of 
Lower Cochin China is dysentery, — a disease which, 
endemic in all warm countries, proves in Cochin China 
particularly fatal. It is to it that the greater part of 
the deaths among Europeans are to be ascribed ; and they 
often succumb to its effects after their return to their native 
country. Most of the cbildran born of European warents 

in Cochin China die a short time after birtfi. Wiile 
women are there eiposed to many dangers, especially 
during their delivery ; and there is consequently little hojie 
of forming there a race of Creoles. The native women, on 
the contrary, are very prolihc, and sutTer surprisingly little 
in childbirth. It is also interesting to observe that the 
Anamites, like the races of the extreme East, recover from 
wounds of the greatest severity, which would infallibly 
kill Europeans even in their own country. 

The mean temperature of Lower Cochin China is 83° 
Fahr. The greatest heat in April and May within doors ia 
07° Fahr. In the mornings of December the temperature 
falls to 65° Fahr. The year is divided into the dry season, 
which corresponds to the N.E. monsoon,' and the rainy 
season, which corresponds to the S.W. monsoon. What' 
renders the climate peculiarly injurious and enervating is 
that, besides the very slight difference between the tempera- 
tures of day and night, the hygrometric readings are alwa}s 
very high. The surface of Cochin China, composed of 
recent alluvial deposits, is absolutely flat, and in some 
places is below the level of the sea. The slightness of the 
slope of this vast plain allows the tide to advance far 
inland, and the borders of the rivers to be alternately 
covered with water and exposed to the perpendicular raya of 
the sun. All the coasts are covered by mangroves (the 
marsh-tree of the tropics), which with their dull monotonous 
foliage everywhere betoken the unhealthiness of the soil. 

The finest species of tiger, the royal tiger, is to be met ( 
with from the mountains which bound Tong-kiiig on the ' 
north as far as the south of Lower Cochin China ; and a 
short time ago it was still to be found in the wooded hills 
close to Saigon. The other wild animals are the panther, the 
rhinoceros, the elephant— which the people of Anam have 
not learned to domesticate — the cocoa-nut bear, the stag, 
the wild boar, the wild ox, arid 'monkeys of various kinds. 
The domestic animals are goats, horses, buffaloes (with 
which the Indo-Chinese carry on the difficult and unhealthy 
cultivation of the rice-fields), and pigs, which are kept in 
great numbers. There are numerous birds of many species, 
which — SI, in all tropical regions — arc remarkable for the 
beauty of their plumage. Among the rest men- 
tioned pea-fowl, pheasants, turtledoves, the green pigeons 
of Pulo Condore, paroquets, hornbiUs, sultana fowls, and 
various species of wading birds and palmipeds. The 
rivers abound with life ; and the fish, though of poor 
quality, form an important part of the food of the people. 
They are caught, along with frogs and snakes, even in the 
mud of the rice fields. The crocodile is frequently met 
with, and adds another item to the native cuisine. This 
hot damp country swarms with reptiles, of which some 
species are very dangerous. Among these are *he liuge 
cobra di ca|iello (Saja), many species of adders, and the 
immense python, which is of much use in destroying 
during the night all kinds of rat.s, including the intolerable 

The forests furnish several kinds of timber for build- Vegetable 
ing. In the plains and valleys are numerous fruit-trees, products. 
— the banana, the guava, the papaw, the medlar-trce, the 
orange, the citron, and, most abundant of all, the cabbage- 
palm and the cocoa-tree, and the cinnamon of which Tong- 
king furnishes a superior quality. The people of Aiiam 
are essentially agricultural. Besides rice, which is the 
chief production of the country, the cultivated lands furr.ish 
cotton, mulberry, sugar-cane, maize, betel-nut, and veget- 
ables, especially potatoes, earth-nuts, and pepper. Tea is 
cultivated also, especially in Tong-king, but the people of 
Anam do not know how to prepare it. 

To the traveller who poys only a brief visit the kingdom^ 
of Anam appears ill provided with metals. If a mine be 
discovered the natives forbid access to it, and Dtill more fre» 



quently, for fear of the authorities, are unwilling to give any 
information. Two excellent authors, Messrs T. Crawfurd 
and M'Culloch have supported this false opinion in their 
works. More precise information has, however, been 
obtained, recent explorers of the country stating that 
Tong-king is very rich in metals, and furnishes especially 
gold, silver, brass, zinc, and iron. It is from Tong-king 
that the famous tam-tams, the manufacture of which is 
s:ilJ a secret to Europeans, are obtained. Cochin China, 
properly so-called, furnishes also gold, silver, brass, and 
marble ; and coal is found there in several places. Lower 
,Cocbm China, like all alluvial plains, is poor in minerals ; 
■quan les, however, of granite and of jet are worked. 
'. There is little industrial activity in Anam, but in 
Tong-king the manufacture of articles inlaid with niother- 
of-pcail is carried on. From China Cochm China re- 
ceivts a large quantity of manufactured goods, cotton and 
silk stuils, porcelain, and tea. The importation from 
f ranee is also very considerable. The principal exports are 
rice (which forms of itself half the sum total), salt fish, 
provided principally by the lishcries at tiie mouth of the 
two chief rivers, salt, uiidyed cotton, pepper, and the skins 
of animals. The great commercial importance of Cochin 
Oluna arises from the excellence of its situation, as a way 
of communication with the rich and populous provinces of 
middle China. England has long been seeking to open a 
route for trade between the north-cast of India, or Pegu, 
and the aouth-west of China, but up to the present time, 
notwithstanding the courage and devotion of explorers, 
these attempts have failed. 
'"""" From 18C6 to 1>>6S a French expedition, commanded by 
Captain Doudart de Lagriie, followed up the course of the 
\Ie-kong, and penetrated into middle China. This expedi- 
tion cost its chief his life, for he died in consequence of the 
fatigue which be underwent in Vun-nan. This examination 
of the Mekong proved that this fine river is, as already 
noticed, unfit fur regular navigation. Another route, 
however, by the Tong-king, may be opened up ; and it is 
comparatively e;isy and habitually used by the natives. In 
1872 Mr Dupuis, a French mtTohant, passed up the course 
of the Hong-kiaug as far as Maug-Hao, a town of Yuu-nau, 
where the river ceases to be navigable. He came down 
the river again in 1S73. He declares it to be iia\-igable 
III every season, and has thus solved the problem which 
Captain Doudart de Lagrt^e sought to solve by means of 
the Me-kong. M. Dupuis's expedition led the French 
authorities, at the solicitation of the Government of 
Hui5, to despatch M. Francis Garnier to the Tong-king ; 
but the gallant explorer assassinated by pirates in the 
neighbourhood of Ha-noi 
lology. The native of Anam is the worst built and the ugliest of 
all the Indo-Chinese who belong to the Mongolian race. 
He 13 scarcely of middle height, and is shorter and less 
vigorous than his neighbours. His complexion is tawny, 
darker than that of the Chinese, but clearer than that of the« 
Cambodian, his skin is thick, his forehead low; his skull 
slightly depressed at' the top, but well developed at the- 
sides. His face is flat, with highly protruding cheek-bones, 
and is lozenge-shaped or eurygnathous to a degree that is 
nowhere exceeded. His nose is not only the flattest, but 
also the smallest among the Indo-Chinese , his mouth is 
lirge, and his bps thick; his teeth are blackened and bis 
gums destroyed by the constant use of the betel-nut, the 
aieca-nut, and lime, a custom which perhaps originated in 
Lygienic reasons. His neck is short, his shoulders slope 
greatly, his body is thick-set, large, all of one piece, as it 
were, and wanting in suppleness. His pelvis is large, 
vith a considerable separation of the upper part of the 
femora, givi':g to his gait a curious swagger, which has, I 
imt without leason, been described as theatrical. This ! 

odd swagger by itself sufCces lo distinguish'tba Ananjeso 
from every other Indo-Chinese people witiiout exception. 
Another peculiarity, which especially distinguishea this 
race from the other Indo-Chinese biaaches, is a greater 
separation of the big toe from the rest than, is found 
in any of the other peoples that walk bare-footed. It 
is sutficiently general and well marked to serve as an 
ethnographic test ; and it indicates that the people of Anam 
are not descended — as some authors have asserted — from a 
mingling of indigenous savages with the Chinese, but have 
existed as a distinct race for a long time. According to 
Father Lcgrand de la Liraye (.Voles hutoriques tin- 
la nation Annamite, Saigon, I860), this curious feature 
lias served to distinguish the people of Anam since the year 
22S5 B.C., that is to say, C3 years after the Biblical deluge. 
This statem :nt, taken as it is from the Chinese annals, 
shows that the Anamese could not have reccived-.this char- 
acteristic from their neighbours ; and it is a very curious 
fact tj^at it has been transmitted to the present inhabitant:! 
despite the frequent intermarriages with other races which 
ninst have taken place during this period of forty centuries. 
The inhabitants of Lower Cochin China aie evidently 
weaker and smaller than those of Tong-king, aud this pro- 
bably, results from their dwelling in marshy rice-fields. 

In the midst of the Anamese live Cambodians and" 
immigrant Chinese, the latter, associated together accord- 
ing to the districts they come from, carrying on nearly 
all the commerce of the country. In the forests ou the 
frontiers of Cochin China dwell certain wretched savages 
called llois, or Stiengs, of whom little is known ; tnd 
alongside of these are the Chams, a Mahometan people 
which appear to be of Arab origin, and, in spite of 
a strong infusion of Chinese blood, preserve the warlike 
qyalities of their ancestors, their love of fighting, their gay 
and open character, and their abstinence from theft. Their 
stature is tall, and they are characterized by the enormouj 
projection of the soft parts of the abdomen. Their women, 
while iiiixiug freely in society without veiling, have a high- 
f piritod virtue which forms a contrast to the corruption that 
prevails around them. Their language shows that they 
once knesv the lion and the chamois; and while they are 
now iu£erft?r in civilization, they preserve traces in their 
voc.ibi^ary -Of a higher condition. Among the different, 
races which inhabit Indo-China numerous mixtures taiie 
place. There are crosses of the .^namite with the Hindu, 
with the Malay, with the Cambodian, and with the 
Chinese. The last of these half breeds, who are called 
Min-huongs, are the most numerous and interesting. 

Evidently derived from the Chinese, of which it appeaS 
to be a very ancient dialect, the Anamese language is eonv- 
posed of monosyllables, of slightly varied articulation, 
expressing absolutely different ideas according to the tone 
in which they are pronounced. It is quite impossible to 
connect with our musical system the utterance of the 
sounds of which the Chinese and Anamese languages are 
composed. 'What is understood by a "tone" in this 
language is distinguished in reality, not by the number of 
sonorous vibrations which belong to it, but rather by a use 
of the vocal apparatus special to each. Thus, the sense 
will to a native be completely changed according as the 
sound is the result of an aspiration or of a simple utterance 
of the voice. Thence the difficulty of substituting oar 
phonetic alphabet for the ideographic characters of the 
Chinese, as well as for the ideophonetic writing partly 
borrowed by the Anamese from the letters of the celestial 
empire. We owe to the Jesuit missionaries the introduc- 
tion of aa ingenious though very complicated system, which 
has caused remark.ible progress to be made in the employ- 
ment of phonetic characters. By means of six accents, 
one bar. and a crotchet, it is uossible to rote with sutGcient 



preciaioii the indications of tone without ■which the Anaraeso 
words have no sense for the natives. This system is 
universally adopted in French Cochin China, and the new 
geneiation, almost without exeeiition, are able to read aud 
write in Latin characters. 
hr»tIon»l The Aaamese are idle, incapable of deep emotion, and 
=''*'^'^'" fond of ease. They show much outward respect for 
'""• , superiors and parents, but they take great delight in 
mocking and banter. They cherish great love of their 
native soil and native village, and canuot long remain far 
from home. On the whole they are mild, or rather 
apathetic, but the facility with which they learn is remark- 
able. Buddhism, mingled with coarse popular beliefs, is 
llie dominant creed, but the learned hold the doctrine of 
Confucius, and in truth the people of Anam are but slightly 
religious. Nevertheless, like their neighbours, the Chinese 
and the Cambodians, they have a great respect for the 
dead, and their worship' almost entirely consists of 
ceremonies in honour of their ancestors. Like the Chinese 
they dispose of the body by inhumation. Among the 
Ravage tribes of the interior there is scarcely any idea of a 
God, and .the_superstitiou3 practices to which they are 
'addicted can scarcely be considered as the expression of a 
definite religious idea. Christianity counts 40t),O00 
adherents in Tong-king and 5000 in Lower China, 
joreru The system of government in the empire of Anam is 

Bent. jmi-g ^^j absolute monarchy without any other constitution 

than powerful custom. The succession to the throne 
follows the order of primogeniture. Between the citizens 
there exists the most complete equality, since public offices 
are open to all, and there are no other social distinctions 
than those due to office or fortune. The sovereign, at once 
high priest and supreme judge, governs despotically with 
the assistance of six ministers. The army, or rather the 
military list, for a large part of the force exists only on 
paper, is composed of 80 regiments, with 500 men in each. 
It is recruited from Cochin China , Tong-king furnishes 
no soldiers. It is under the command of a commander- 
in-chief, a kind of constable of the kingdom, or grand 
marshal, who is personally responsible for the defence of 
the citadel of Hue. The marine, which has no ships, 
is composed of 30 regimeiUs, under an admiral-in-chief, 
who is assisted by a vice-admiral and two rear-admirals, 
each of whom commands 10 regiments. The mandarins, 
63 in China, form two distinct classes — the civil and the 
military. The first class are scholars who have passed 
literary examinations. The latter are chosen chiefly on 
account of physical fitness ; and it is only i n the highest ranks 
that well-educated respectable men are to be found. The 
people have a great regard for the learned, who have all 
received a higher moral education, — that of Confucius. 
The niari&arins are divided into nine degrees, and each 
degree comprises two classes. Besides the French colony, 
the empire of Anam is divided into 24 provinces placed 
each under the authority of a governor. The province is 
Subdivided into departments, arrondissements, cantons, and 
communes. The French colony.administered by a governor 
assifited by a privy council, comprehends the six ancient 
provinces of the south. It is now divided into four 
provinces, bearing the names of their chief cities, — Saigon, 
Ml-tho, Vinh-long, and Bassac. The provinces form to- 
gether 19 inspectorships with an administrator of native 
affairs at the head of each. 
Cliief The chief town and the ancient capital of Tong-king, 

ujvnu. Ha-noi, or Ke-cho (i.e., the market), situated on one of the 
branches of the Song-Coi, though at present greatly fallen, 
still contains at least 60,000 inhabitants. It possesses a 
very large citadel, which serves as the residence of the 
viceroy and of the special envoy or royal commissioner, who 
is the first authority in Tong-king. This citadel, at present 

badly kept in repair and poorly equipped, was built in tha" 
couree of last century according to plans furnished by 
European engineers. The provincial capitals of Hai-dzuoug 
(30,000 inhabitants), Bac-Ninh, Nam-Dmh, likewise possess' 
important citadels ; and that of Minh-binh, also the 
chief town of a province, is ihe strongest of all Tong-king. 
Hud, or Phu-tua-tien, capital of the kingdom of Anam, is 
composed of two portions-,— the inner town, a vast fortress 
built on the Vauban system according to the plans of French 
engineers, and occupied by the Government ; and the outer 
town, which is inhabited by the mass of the population, 
who are estimated at 100,000 souls. Mention may also be 
made of Tourane and Quin-nhon, or Binh-dhinh, important 
ports open to European commerce. Saigon, the capital of 
the French colony, is composed of three towns: — Ist,! 
an Asiatic town, inhabited by Anamese husbandmen, 
fishers, or servants, by mercantile Chinamen, by Malays, 
Tagals, and Hindus engaged in various occupations; 2d, 
the town of the colonists ; and 3d, the Government town,, 
inhabited by the Government employes, administrators,' 
officers, and physicians. The houses are mainly built of! 
brick. Two gardens, one belonging to the governor and, 
the other the botanical, overlook the town. The latter isi 
very interesting, containing as it does a fine collection of 
trees and plants, both indigenous and exotic, as well as a 
very curious menagerie. At the port of Saigon 387 vessels 
entered aud 398 left in 1874, which forms about half of 
the whole maritime trade in the colony. Eight miles from 
Saigon is the town of Cho-len (i.e., the great market), a 
Chinese town with an extensive commerce, and according 
to some writers 80,000, according to others 30,000 or 
40,000 inhabitants. The other towns of the colony are 
Go-cong to the south-west of Saigon, where, in the midst, 
of the rice fields, there lives an agricultural population, 
which presents in all its purity the true Anamese type; 
Mi-tho, a port on one of the arms of the Me kong, and tha 
second town of the colony ; the fort and the town of Vinh- 
long ; the fort and town of Chandoc , Ha-tien, on the 
Gulf of Siam, one of the most unhealthy places on the 
coast, inhabited by Chinese and Anamese , and at the 
Cape St Jacques, the military port and fort of Ba-ria. 

It is difficult to state the exact number of the population PvkuI; 
of the empire of Anam, and authors vary greatly in their - " 
estimates. The data which appear most worthy of credit 
give a total sum of 10 or 12 millions. As to the French 
colony, the last official census of which the results have 
b?en published was made in 1873; it gives 1,487,200 
inhabitants, of whom 49,500 were Chinese and 82,700 
Cambodians. The Europeans numbered 1114, exclusive, 
of the Government officials and the garrison. 

The Anamese, according to their own annals, are natives liijtorr. 
of the south of China. " In the 2d or 3d century before"" - 
Abraham," says P^re Legrand de la Liraije, " four barbarous 
tribes occupied the limits of the Chinese empire; to the 
south was the tribe of the Giao-chi." . It is from this tribe 
that the Anamese claim to have descended ; and at the time 
when history begins to acquire some degree of certitude, 
about 2357 before our era, the Chinese annals mention the 
Anamese under the name of Giao-chi, which signifies " with 
the big toe." According to native scholars the history 
of this epoch is of a legendary character. It results from 
their labours that for twenty centuries the race of Giao-chi 
was governed in vassalage to the empire by a dynasty of 
Chinese origin, which lasted till 257 B.C. From that date 
tUl 110 before the Christian era the throne was held by 
two other vassal dynasties; and from 110 B.C. till SOT 
A.D. these dynasties were replaced by Chinese governors. 
In tha beginning of the 10th century some of the native 
chiefs, weary of the Chinese rule, revolted ; and their 
efforts were crowned with succe.3s. From 9G0 downwards. 

C O (> — C c 


under the gove'.iment of native princes, the Anamese lived 
independent, a. id preserved rather the name than the reality 
of vassalage t<.> the Chinese empire. Since that time the 
nation, with a most remarkable aptitude for expansion, has 
aggrandirad rtself at the expense of its neighbours, and has 
conquered from the Cambodians Tsiampa and the six pro- 
vinces of the south which now form the French colony. 
It is to be noted that the Cambodians, though endowed 
with physical force far superior to that of the Cochin Chinese, 
have been beaten by thein in every encounter. 

It is nearly a century since the first treaty of alliance 
was signed between France and the kingdom of Anam. By 
this treaty, dated the 28th November 1787, the kin^ of 
CochinChina ceded to Franco in full property the Penin- 
sula of Tourane and the Isle of PuloCondore. The agree- 
' ment was only partially executed, but it was sufficient to 
render the influence of France predominant in Cochin 
China; and Christianity made rapid progress in Tong-king.- 
At the deuth of the king Gia-long, in 1820, the party 
hostile to strangers prevailed; and several attempts to pro- 
tect the French missionaries aud establish the French influ- 
ence had failed, when in 1 858, in consequence of the murder 
of M. Diaz, — who was put to death by order of the king, 
merely on account of -the news that a French ship was 
cruising in sight of the coast, — a squadron was sent under 
the command of Admirj^l Rigault de Genouilly, who seized 
Tourano. Shortly a/tcr the &di;iiral made explorations in 
the south, seeking a better situation for a settlement than 
Tourane, and passing up the River Don-nai, he tookposses; 
sion of Saigon, the true capital of Lower Cochin China. On 
the 5th .Tune 1862 the court of Hu6 accepted a treaty, by 
which it abandoned three provinces to France, and bound 
itself to pay an indemnity of war. After various expedi- 
tions occasioned by revolts, France occupied in I8C7 the 
three other provinces of Lower Cochin China, and after 
long negotiations a treaty was signed at Saigon, on the 15th 
March 1874, definitively abandoning the six provinces to 
France. This treaty opens besides to the commerce of all 
nations one port in eastern Cochin China and one port in 
Tong-king, and guarantees liberty of transit from the sea 
as far as Yun-nan. 

Bibliography.— Hi.. Barbie du Bocnge, secretary of the Central 
('ommission of the Geographical Society at Paris, published in 1867 
It very complete bibliography of the books, periodicals, tnaouscripta, 
■ind plans relating to the history and geography fcf Anam, in a 
uampnlot of 105 pages, 8vo. In M. Vivien de Saint Martina weU- 
known work — V Annie Giographiquc, Hachetta and Cie — there is 
t9 be found a list well up to date of new works on Indo-China, 
among which we may mention — Fr. von Richthofen, Sur lea Pro- 
viiues Sud-oxt(st de la Chine; MacMahonJColoncl A. P.) Jioules du 
Sitd-ouest de la Chine; Edinburgh' Rtvicw, April 1873; F. Vial, 
Le9 premiins annSes de la Cochinchine, 1874 ; Romanet du Cail- 
laux. La France au Tong King; Aymonnier, Dictionnaire fran^isr 
cambodgien el O^ographie du Cambodge, 187^; G. Coryton, *' On the 
Routes between British Burmah and the VVest of China," in vol. 
xix. of Joum. R. G. S., 1849; Papers read by Docteor llonditres 
and Docteur A. Morice before the Societe d' Anthropologic, in Jan. 
1875; T>T}ittTmBn*if Aper^ pathologique sur la Cochinchine ; Bigrel, 
Carte ginirale de la Cochinchine frani;ai3e^ with, an interesting note 
on the proper names. The following recent works have not been 
mentioned in the Annie G^og'raphique . — iTustructiona nauliqucs 
fiubliiea par le Ministire de la Marine; Tableaux de Population, 
de Culture, de Commerce, et d^ /Navigation, publiis par Ic Ministire 
de la Marine; Petit court de Geographie de la Basse Cochinchine, 
by P. J. B. Truong-vinh-ky, Saigon, 1875; Cours d'histoire 
annamite A Vusage des 4coles de la Basse Cochinchine, by Truong- 
vinh-ky ; Voyage ^Exploration en Indo-Chine peridant Ics annies 
1866, 1367, 18BS, sous le Commajulement de M. Doudart de Lagrie^ 
publii sous la direction de M, Francis Ctaruier, 2 vols. )'' Hachette, 
1873 — a magnificent work. The following arc of earlier date: — 
Viaggi di Tre Vesairri in 1668 ; Barrow, A Voyage to Cochin China 
in the years 1792 anrf 1793 ; Bissach^re, Etat actuel de Cochin- 
chine, 1812 ; Crawfurd'e Embassy to the Courts of Siam and Cochin 
China, 1828 ; Gutzlaff *' GeOfcTTaphy of the Cochin Chinese Empire,*' 
in Journ. Hoy. &oc., 1849); BomUevaux, Voyage dans f Jndo-Chitie, 
1818-66 Pari*, 1858; Youillot, La Cochinchine et la Tonquin, 

1359; cortambert and De Rosny, Tableau de la Cochinchine; 
Mouliot, Siam, Cambodia, ami Lao, 1864. A Dictionnarium an- 
amitieum, lusUanum, et latinum was published at Rome in 1671 by 
Ptre Alex, de Rhode ; and another, the combined work of Pigneaux 
and Tabard, appeanid in 1838. An essay on the language and 
writing was published by Schott in 1855. (C. MA.) 

COCHINEAL, a dye-stuff used for the production of 
scarlet, crimson, orange, and other tints, and for the pre- 
paration of lake and carmine. It consists of the females 
of Coccus cacti,.a,n insect of the order Jlemiptera, which 
feeds upon various 'sjjecies of the Cadace<s, more especi- 
ally the nopal plant, Opuntia cocci^lUfera, a native of 
Mexico and Peru. The dye was introduced into Europe 
from Mexico, where it had been in use long before the 
entrance of the Spaniards in the year 1518, and where it 
formed one of the staple tributes to the Crown for certain 
districts. In 1523 Cortes received instructions from the 
Spanish court to procure it in as large quantities as 
possible. It appears not to have been known in Italy so 
late as the year 1548, though the art of dyeing then 
flourished there. Cornelius van Drebbel, at Alkmaar, first 
employed cochineal for the production of scarlet in 1650. 
Until about 1725 the belief was very prevalent that 
cochineal was the seed of a plant, but Dr Lister in 1672 
conjectured it to be a kind of ketmes, and in 1703 Leeu- 
wenhoeck ascertained its true nature by aid of the micro- 
scope. Since its introduction cochineal has supplanted 
kermes {Coccus ilicis) over the greater part of Europe. 
The male of the cochineal insect is half the size of the 
female, and, unUke it, is devoid of nutritive apparatus ; it 
has long white wings, and a body of a deep red colour, 
terminated by two diverging setae. The female is apterous, 
and has a dark-brown plano-convex body ; it is found in 
the proportion of 150 to 200 to one of the male insect 
The dead body of the mother insect serves as a protection 
for the eggs until they are hatched. Cochipeal is now 
furnished not only by Mexico and Peru, but also by 
Algiers and the S. of Spain. In TenerifTe it was success- 
fully cultivated in 1 858, on ^he failure of the vines there 
through disease, but the diminished value of cochineal of 
late years has much affected its production in the Canaries 
Cochineal is collected thrice in the seven months of the 
season. The insects are carefully brushed from the 
branches of the cactus into bags, and are then kUled by 
immersion in hot water,. or by exposure to the sun, steam, 
or the heat of an oven — much of the variety of appear- 
ance in the commercial article being caused by the 
mode of treatment. The 'dried insect has the form of 
irregular, fluted, and concave grains, which weigh about 
^ of a grain, as many as 70,000 insects being estimated to 
weigh 1 ft. Cochineal has a musty and bitterish taste. 
There are two principal varieties — silver cochineal, which 
has a greyish-red colour, and the furrows of the body 
covered with a - white bloom or fine down , and black 
cochineal, which is of a dark reddish-brown, and destitute 
of bloom. Granilla is an inferior kind, gathered from 
uncultivated plants. The best crop is the first of the 
season, which consists of the unimpregnated females ; the 
later crops contain an admixture of young insects and 
skins, which contain proportionally little colouring matter. 
Cochineal owes its tinctorial power to the presence of 
a substance termed cochinealin, or carmiriic acid, a com- 
pound of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, which may be 
prepared from the aqueous decoction of cochineal.. The 
comparative value of different specimens of cochineal may 
be ascertained by a method based upon the bleaching action 
of ferricyanide of potassium upon a weak potash solution 
of the dye. The black variety of cochineal is sometimes 
sold for silver cochineal by sh-aking it with powdered tale, 
or heavy-spar ; but these adulterations can be rc;i:'i'iy 
detected by means of a lens. The duty on cochineu. was 

VL — 13 


C C — C C 

repealed in 1845. In 1869 the eicporls of cochineal from 
the Canaries reached 6,310,000 lb, value £842,921. Of 
this amount 4,232,600 lb, consisting of grana, granilla, 
and po/ro, were shipped to Great Britain, value £054,092. 
More than half of this quantity was supplied by the Island 
of Grand Canary. In three months ending 3ht March 
1676 the imports were 10,094 cwts, value £112,334. 

For a monograph of t!ie Coccida, including the cochineal insect, 
«e« Sigaoret, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1865-74. For accounts of the 
cochineal insect consult also — Theis, ibid., v. p. 1 ; Eurmeister, 
HandbMkder Entomologk; Vincent, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. viii., 1st 
Itr.: Westwootl, Modern Classijioalion of Insects, pp. 44S, 449. 
For a description of the cultivation of cochineal in Java, see teeth's 
Wovrdenbock van Nederlandsch Indie — Cochenitle. See also " Ob- 
•ervations on the Making of Cochineal in Jamaica," In Phil. Tran., 
1691, pp. 502-3 ; and Royle's Essay on the Productive liisourccs of 
India, pp. 47-65, 1S40. 

■ COCKATOO (Cacatuidce), a family of Scansorial Birds, 
distinguished from other Old World parrots by their greater 
size, by a crest of feathers on the head, which can be raised 
or depressed at will, and by their enormously developed 
bills. They inhabit the Indian Archipelago, New Guinea, 
and Australia, and are gregarious, frequenting woods and 
feeding on seeds, fruits, and the larv.-e of insects. Their note 
is generally harsh and unmusical, and although they are 
readily tamed when taken young, becoming familiar, and in 
some species showing remarkable intelligence, their powers 
of vocal imitation are exceedingly limited. Of the true 
cockatoos [Cacatua) the best known is the Crested Cockatoo 
(Cacaiua galenta), of a pure white plumage with the 
exception of the crest, which is deep sulphur yellow, and of 
the ear and tail coverts, which are slightly tinged with 
yellow. The crest when erect stands 5 inches high. Those 
birds are found in Australia in flocks varying from 100 to 
1000 in number, and do great damage to newly sown grain, 
for which reason they are mercilessly destroyed by farmers. 
They deposit their eggs — two in number, and of a pure 
white colour — in the hollows of decayed trees, or in the 
fissures of rocks, according to the nature of the locality in 
which they reside. This is the species visually kept in 
Europe as a cage bird. Leadbetter's Cockatoo (Cacaiua. 
LeadbeAteri), an inhabitant of South Australia, excels all 
otliers in the beauty of its plumage, which consists in 
great part of white, tinged with rose colour, becoming a 
deep salmon colour under the wings, while the crest is 
bright crimson at the base, with a yellow spot in the centre 
and whito at the tip. It is exceedingly shy and difficult of 
approach, and its note is more plaintive while less harsh than 
that of the preceding species. In the cockatoos belonging 
to the genus Calyptorkynchus the general plumage is black 
or dark brown, usually with a large spot or band of red or 
yellow on the tail, and in some species behind the ear also. 
The largest of is known as the Funereal Cockatoo 
(Calyptorkynchus funeren-s), from the lugubrious note or 
call which it utters, resembling the two syllables Wy — la — , 
the native name of the species. It deposits its eggs in the 
hollows of the large gum trees of Australia, and feeds 
largely on the larvae o£ insects, in search of which it peels 
t^ff the bark of trees, and when thus employed it may be 
approached closely. " When one is shot, the remainder of 
tlic company," says Gould, " fly round for a short distance, 
and perch on the neighbouring trees until the whole are 
brought down." 

COCKATRICE, a fabulous monster, the existence of 
which was firmly believed in throughout ancient and 
mediiEval times, — descriptions and figures of it appearing 
in the natural history works of such writers as Pliny and 
Aldrovandus, those of the latter published so late as the 
beginnin(^ of the 17th century. Produced from a cock's 
egg hatched by a serpent, it was believed to possess the 
most deadly powers, plants withering at its touch, and men 

and animals dying poisoned by its look. It stood in aws,. 
however, of the cock, the sound of whose crowing killed it, 
and consequently travellers were wont to take this bird 
with them in travelling over regions supposed to abound in 
cockatrices. The weasel alone among mammals was- 
unad'ectcd by the glance of its evil eye, and attacked it at 
all times successfully ; fur when wounded by the monster'* 
teeth it found a ready remedy in rue — the only plant which 
the cockatrice could not wither. This myth reminds one 
of the real contests between the weasel-like- mungoos of 
India and the deadly cobra, in which the latter is generally 
killed. The term "cockatrice" is employed on four 
occasions in the English translation of the Bible, in all of 
which it denotes nothing more than an exceedingly 
venomous reptile ; it seems also to be synonymous with 
" Basilisk," the mythical king of serpents. 

COCKBURN, Mrs Aliso.v (1712-1794), justly cele- 
brated for having written one of the most exquisite of 
Scottish ballads, the " Flovvere of the Forest," ' was the 
daughter of a border laird, Robert Rutherfurd of Fairnalee, 
and was born in the heart of the Southern Highlands in 
the autumn of 1712. Her education was slight. She 
spent her youth in rambling and riding about the country- 
side, and in paying visits to an aged minister in the neigh- 
bourhood, of whoso " heavenly affection " for her she 
wrote enthusiastically in after years. She was a graceful 
dancer, spent two winter seasons in Edinburgh, and was 
one of the Edinburgh belles of her time. Different causes 
have been assigned for the composition of the " Flowers of 
the Forest" Mr Chambers states that it was written on 
the occasion of a great commercial disaster which ruined 
the fortunes of some Selkirkshire lairds. Her later bio- 
graphers, however, think it more probable that it was 
written on the departure to London of a certain John 
Aikman, between whom and Alison there appears to have 
been an early attachment. In 1731 Alison Rutherfurd 
was married to Patrick Cockburn of Ormiston, one of a 
family of stanch Whigs and Presbyterians, and an advo- 
cate at the Scottish bar. After her marriage she knew all 
the intellectual and aristocratic celebrities of her day. In 
the memorable year 1745 she vented herWhiggism in a squib 
\ipon Prince Charlie, and narrowly escaped being taken by 
the Highland guard as she was driving through Edinburgh 
in the family coach of the Keiths of Ravelston, with the 
parody in her pockets Mrs Cockburn was an indefatigable 
letter-writer and a composer of parodies, squibs, toasts, and 
" character-sketches " — then a favourite form of composi- 
tion — like other wits of her day ; but the " flowers of the 
Forest" is the only thLiigshe wrote that possesses great lite- 
rary merit. She survived her husband forty -one years, 
living to the age of eighty-two, and to the last she main- 
tained her social popularity. At her house on Castle-hill, 
and afterwards in Crighton Street, she received many illus- 
t-rious friends, among whom were Mackenzie, Robertson, 
Hume, Home, Monboddo, the Keiths of Ravelston, the 
Balcarres family, and Lady Anne Barnard, the authoress 
of " Anld Robin Gray." She was in Edinburgh when Dr 
Johnson visited that city, towed thither by the triumphant 
Boswell. She saw and commented upon Bums's short, 
bright Edinburgh career. As a Rutherfurd she was a con- 
nection of Sir Walter Scott's mother, and was her intimate 

* There are two versions of this song, — the one by Mrs Cockburn, 
the other byiliss Jean Elliot of Mioto. Both were foujided on the 
remains of an ancient Border ballad. It is believed by the descendants 
of her family that Mrs Cockburn composed her version — that beginning 
" I've seen the smiling of fortune beguiling" — before her marriage in 
1731. Anyhow, it was composed mnny ypars before Jean Elliot's 
sister versts, beginning, *' I've heard thtm lilting at our ewe-ruilking." 
Theae were written in 1756, and printed soon afterwards. Mrs 
Cockbum's song, however, was sot published until 1765, vi'hQO Jeao 
Rl!...-.i 5 -^"iis already pontuar. 

C C — C c 


friend. Lockhart quotes an interesting letter written \>y 
Mrs Cockburu in 1777, describing the precocious conduct 
of little Walter Scott, then scarcely six years old, during a 
visit which she paid to bis mother. It was Mrs Cockburn 
also who wrote the character-sketch of Scott's father, which, 
when it was given as a toast, was so true as to bo 
immediately recognized. Scott himself spent pleasant 
evenings at Mrs Cockburn's house when she was a very 
old lady and he a young advocate. Mrs Cockburn died in 
1794, having survived her only child. Captain Adam 
Cockburn, fourteen years. 

COCKBURX, Sir GEnncE (1772-1853), admiral, was 
of Scottish extraction, and was born in London. He 
entered the navy in his ninth year. After serviug on the' 
home station, and in the East Indies and the Mediterranean, 
he assisted, as captain of the "Minerve," at the blockade 
of Leghorn in 1796, and a year afterwards he fought 
in the battle of Capo St Vincent. In 1809, in command 
of the naval force on shore, he contributed greatly to 
the reduction of Martinique, and signed the capitulation by 
which that island was handed over to the English ; for his 
services on this occa.sion ho received the thanks of the 
House of Commons. After service in the Scheldt and at 
the defence of Cadiz he was sent in 1811 on an unsuc- 
cessful mission for the reconciliation of Spain and her 
American colonies. He was made rear-admiral in 1812, 
and in 1813-14 he took a prominent part in the American 
war, especially at the battle of Bladensburg and the cap- 
ture of Washiugton Early in 1815 he received the Order 
of the Bath, and in the autumn of the same year he carried 
out, in the " Northumberland," the sentence of deportation 
to St Helena which had been passed upon Bonaparte. 
Jn 1818 he received the Grand Cross of his Order, and w^as 
made a Lord of the Admiralty ; and the same year he was 
returned to parliament for Portsmouth. He was promoted 
to the rank of vice-admiral in 1819, and to that of admiral 
in 1837 ; he became senior naval lord in 1841, and held 
office in that capacity till 1846. From 1827 he was a privy 
councillor. In 1851 he was made Admiral of the Fleet, and 
in 1852, a year before his death, his brother's baronetcy 
fell to him by inheritance. See O'Byrne, iVnra/ Biography; 
James, Xaral History ; Gentleman's Magazine for 1853. 

COCKBURN, Henry Dl-.\d.\s (1779-1854), known as 
Lord Cockburn, was born in Edinburgh, October 26, 1779. 
He was educated at the High School and at the university 
of Edinburgh; and he was a member of the famous 
Speculative Society, to which Scott, Brougham, and Jeffrey 
belonged. He entered the faculty of advocates in the year 
1800, and attached himself, not to the party of his relatives, 
who could have afforded him most valuable patronage, but 
to the Whig or Liberal party, and that at a time when it 
held out few inducements to men ambitious of success in 
life. On the accession of Earl Grey's ministry in 1830, he 
became Solicitor-General for Scotland. In 1834 he was 
raised to the bench, and on taking his seit as a judge in 
the Court of Session he adopted the title of Lord Cockburn. 
Cockburn's forensic style was remarkable for its clearness, 
pathos, and simplicity ; and his conversational powers were 
unrivalled among his contemporaries. The extent of his 
literary ability only became kiiown after he had passed his 
seventieth year, on the publication of his biography of Lord 
Jeffrey in 1852, and from the Memorials of his Time, which 
appeared posthumously in 1850. Kc died on the 26th of 
April 1854, at his mansion of Bonaly, near Edinburgh. 

COCKER, Edward, the reputed author of the famous 
Arithmetick,ih& popularity of which lias added a phrase to 
the list of English proverbialisms, was born about 1632, 
and died between 1071 and 1675. He was an engraver, 
and also taught writing and arithmetic. He is credited 
with the authorship and execui ion of some fourteen sets of 

copy slips, one of which, Daniel's Copy-Book, ingraven hy 
Etiward Cocker, PhiComath, is preserved in the British 
Museum. Pepys, in his Diary, makes very favourable 
mention of Cocker, who appears to have displayed great 
skill in his art. Cocker't AnthmeticJc, the fifiy-second 
edition of which appeared in 1748, and whiclr has pafsed 
through some sixty editions in all, was not published during, 
the lifetime of its reputed author, the first impression bear- 
ing date of 1678. The late Professor De Morgan in his 
Arit/imeticai Books (1847) adduces proofs, which may be 
held to be conclusive, that the work was a forgery of the 
editor and publisher, John Hawkins ; and there appears to 
be no doubt that the Decimal Artthnulic (1684), and tho 
English Dictionary (second edition, 1715), issued by 
Hawkins under Cocker's name, are forgeries also. De- 
Morgan condemns the Ariihmetick as a diffuse compilation 
from older and better works, and dates " a very great de- 
terioration in elementary works on arithmetic" from the 
appearance of the book, which owed its celebrity far more 
to persistent pufSng than to its merits. He pertinently 
adds, — " This same Edward Cocker must have bad great 
reputation, .«,ince a bad book under his name pushed out 
the good ones." 

COCKERELL,CharlesRobert (1788-1863), architect, 
was bom in London. After a severe preliminary training 
in his profession, he visited and studied the great architec- 
tural remains of Greece, Italy, and Asia Minor. At .iEgina, 
I'higalia, and other places of interest, he conducted exca- 
vations on a large scale, enriching the British Museum 
with many fine fragments, and adding several valuable 
monograiihs to the literature of archaeology, the best of 
which is said to be that on the mausoleum of Halicamassus. 
Elected in 1829 an associate of the Royal Academy, he 
became a member in 1830, and in 1839 he was appointed 
professor of architecture, his lectures in which capacity 
were so greatly esteemed as to be attended by all the 
students of the sevor.-il arts professed wilhin the school. 
On the death in 1837 of Soane, the dijtinguished archite(^ 
of the Bank of England, Cockerell was appointed his suc- 
cessor, and successfully carried out the alterations that have 
been needed in that building. In addition to branch 
hanks at Liverpool and Manchester he erected in 1840 ibe 
New Library at Cambridge, and in 1845 the university 
galleries at Oxford, the last one of the architect's least 
happy efforts, as well as the Sun and the Westminster Fire 
Offices ill Bartholomew Lane and in the Strai'.d ; and Tite 
and he were joint architects of the London and Westminster 
Bank. On the death of Henry Lonsdale iii 1847, 
Cockerell was selected to tin. .St George .< Hall. Liver- 
pool, a task which he executed with great succi ss. Cocker- 
ell's best conceptions were those inspired by cLissic models ; 
his essays in the Gothic — the college at L.ampettr. for 
instance, and the chapel at Harrow — are by no me.i^a so 
successful. Among his numerous publications, ho .ever, 
may be mentioned those On the Iconography of Wells 
Cathedral, and On. the Sculy^tures of Lincoln and Exeter 
Cathedrals, which prove his thorough knowledge of Gothic 
art as well as of Greek. His Tribute to the Memorij of Sir 
Christopher ITrere (1838) is a collection of the whole of 
Wren's works drawn to the same scale. 

COCKERMOUTH.a parliamentary borough and market- 
town of England, in the county of Cumberland, 25 miles by 
rail from Carlisle, at the confluence of the Derwent and the 
Cocker, both of which are crossed by bridges in the 
immediate vicinity. The town is irregularly built, but is 
clean and well paved. It has remains of an old castle, built 
soon after the Conquest, a town-hall, a free grammar school, 
and a house of correction ; and its manufactures include 
linen and woollen goods, thread, hosiery, hats, and paper. 
Id the neighbourhood are extensive coal iniaes. which giv* 


C C — O O G 

employment to nearly 2000 workmen. In 1S71 the town- I 
ship had a population of 511S, the borough (which 
returns one member to parliament), with an area of 84G7 
acres, had 6936. Of the early occupation of the site of 
Cockermouth conclusive evidence is atiorded by the relics 
discovered from time to time ; directly north of the town is 
a tumulus called Toot's Hill ; and at Pap Castle, about half 
a mile to the north-west, are the remains of a Roman camp. 
The barony or honour of Cockermouth was held shortly 
after the Conquest by Wallheof, lord of AUerdale, and has 
since passed tbrougli a long series of possessors, including 
the Umfravilles. Mullens, Lucies, Percies, and Nevilles, 
down to the present Lord Leconheld. The towu was 
captured in 13S7 by the Scotch under Douglas, and in 1648 
the castle, garrisoned for king Charles, was taken and 
dismantled by the Parliamentarians. Wordsworth the poet 
was born at Cockermouth in 1770 ; and Tickell, the friend 
of Addison, at the village of Bridekirk, about two miles to 
the north. 

COCKLE (Cardium), a genus of Acephalous Mollusks 
belonging to the family Cardiadc^. and comprising about 
200 species, nearly a third of which are said to occur in 
the Indian Ocean, while only a few, but these exceedingly 
abundant in individuals, and widely distributed, are found 
in northern and temperate latitudes. The shells of cockles 
are highly convex, and almost invariably show a ridge-and- 
furrowsculpturc. the ridges or ribs being often spiny, 
and the valves locking closely together. The animal 
inhabiting the shell is provided with a large, fleshy, and 
highly elastic foot, by means of which it can rapidly bury 
itself in the soft muddy sand which it frequents, reappear- 
ing above the surface with equal facility. In performing 
those leaps, for which it is remarkable, "the long taper 
foot," says Gosse, " is thrust to its utmost, and feels about 
for some resisting surface, a stone for instance, which it 
no sooner feels than the hooked point is pressed stiffly 
against it, the whole foot, by muscular contraction, is made 
Euddaply rigid, and the entire creature — mantle, siphons, 
fodl, shell, and all — is jerked away in an uncouth manner." 
ilany of »he species are of considerable value as articles of 
food, especially the Common Cockle (Card turn edule), 
gregarious everywhere in the sandy bays and estuaries 
around the British coast, from low-water mark to a few 
fathoms deep, and extending from Iceland to the Canaries, 
and as far east as the Caspian and Aral Seas, where it 
occurs in on© of its varieties. The shell of the cockle is 
liable to considerable variation, getting thinner and more 
elongated' posteriorly in sheltered situations and in muddy 
ground, more convex and thicker when exposed to rougher 
conditions. They vary also in size from 1 inch to 2J 
inches 'in breadth. They occur in great abundance on 
several parts of the British coast, and in many places 
cockle-gathering gives employment to large numbers of 
people , thus at Penclawdd in Glamorganshire, the women 
and children are regularly employed in gathering and 
preparing cockles, which they afterwards dispose of in the 
Swansea market At Starcross they have " cockle-gardens," 
where those mollusks are reared, and these are said to 
possess a better flavour than the ordinary cockle Some 
species or other of Cardium is used for food by the maritime 
populations of almost every country in the world, and the 
dietetic value of these mollusks appears to have been 
equally appreciated in prehistoric times, as the shell-mounds 
or kjbkkenmoddings of many countries abundantly testify. 
As cockle shells contain about 90 per cent, of carbonate of 
lime, they are calcined and used instead of common lime 
where the latter cannot readily be obtained. 

COCKROACH {Blatlidce), a family of Orlhopterous 
Insects, distinguished by their flattened bndios. lung 
thread-liko antcnnte, and shining leathery iiilegumeuts. 

Cockroaches are nocturnal creatures, srcretiug themselves 
in chinks and crevices about houses, issuing from their 
retreats when the lights are extinguished, and moving 
about with extraordinary rapidity in search ot food. 
They are voracious and omnivorous, devouring, or at least 
damaging, whatever comes in their way, for all the species 
emit a disagreeable odour, which they communicate to 
whatever article of food or clothing ttiey may touch The 
Common Cockroach {Btalla orientalis) is not indigenous to 
Europe, but is believed to have been introduced from the 
Levant in the cargoes of trading vessels. The wings in 
the male are shorter than the body , in the female they are 
rudimentary The eggs, whii-h are 16 in number, are 
deposited in a leathery capsule fixed by a gum-like sub- 
stance to the abdomen of the female, and thus carried 
about tdl the young are ready to escajie, when the capsule 
becomes softened by the emission ot a Huid substance. 
The larvae are perfectly white at first, although in other 
respects.not uidike their parents but they are not mature 
insects until after the sixth casting of the skin. The 
Amencan Cockroach (Hhnta amencana) is larger than the 
former, and is not uncommon in European seaports trading 
with America, being conveyed in cargoes of gram and other 
food produce. The largest known species is the Drummer 
of the West Indies {Bhitla ou/anlea). so called from the 
tapping noise it makes on wood, sulficient, when joined in 
by several individuals, as usually happens, to break the 
slumbers of a household. It is about 2 inches long, with 
wings 3 inches in, and forms one ot the most 
noisome and injurious of insect pests. The best mode of 
destroying cockroaches is. when the fire and lights are 
extinguished at night, to lay some treacle on a piece of 
wood afloat on a broad basin of water. This proves a 
temptation to the vermin too great to be resisted. The chinks 
and holes from which they issue should also be filled up with 
unslaked lime, and some may he scatter.ed on the ground. 

COCLES, HoRATius, a Roman hero, who, «itL J^purius 
Lartius and Titus Herminius .as sole companions, defended 
the Sublician bridge against Lars Por.sena and the whole 
army of the Etruscan.s. While the three hemes kept back 
the enemy the Romans cut down the bridge behind. 
When It was almost ready to fall his comrades retreated, 
but Horatius waited till the work was conipleie, and Rome 
was saved. Then, despite the arrows ot the enemy, he 
swam in safety to the opposite shore. A statue was 
erected in his honour, and he received as much land as he 
could plough round in a single day. According to anuther 
s^ory, Horatius'was alone in his heroism, and gave his life 
for his country. The former version is adopted by Lord 
Macaulay id his Ln^s nf Aiictent ftomr. 

COCOA, or more properly Cacao, is a valuable dietary 
substance yielded by tlte seeds of several .«mall trees 
belonging to the genus T/irohmma, of the natural order 
StfTcnlinrfrT. The whole genus, which comprises nine or 
ten species, belifngs to the tropical parts of the American 
continent , and although the cocoa of commerce is probably 
the produce of more than one s[)ecies, by far the greatest 
and most valuable portion is obtained from the Theobrnm. 
Cacao of Linnaeus. The generic name is derived from 6v 
(pod) and (ipuifia (food), and was bestowed by Linn.-eus a: 
an indication of thehich appreciation in which he held the 
beverage prepared from the seeds, which he considered to 
be a food fit for the gods. 

The common cocoa tree is of low stature, seldom exceed- 
ing 16 or 18 feet in height, but it if taller m its native 
forests than it is in cultivated plantations. 'Xhs leaves aio 
large, smooth, and, ellip'ic-oblong and .acuminat" in 
form, growing principally at the ends of branches, but 
sometimes springing directly Irom the main trunk. Tbf 
floweis are small, and occur in numerous clusters on the 


main branches and tho trunk, a very marked peculiarity 
which gives the matured fruit the appearance of being 
artificially attached to the tree. Generally only a single 
fruit 13 matured from each cluster of flowers. When ripo 
the fruit or " pod " is elliptical-ovoid in form, from 7 to 10 
inches in leugth, and from 3 to 4i inches in diameter. It 
has a hard, thick, leathery rind of a rich purplish yellow 
colour, externally rough and marked with ten very distinct 
longitudinal ribjS or elevations. The interior of the fruit 
ha3°five cells, in each of which is a row of from 5 to 10 
seeds embedded in a soft delicately pink acid pulp. Each 
fruit thus contains from 20 to 40 or more seeds, which 
aonstituto tbs raw cocoa or "cocoa beans" of commerce. 



' Grinch of Cocoa Tree, with Fmit in section. 

The tree appears to have been originally a native of Mexico ; 
but it can be cultivated in suitable situations within the 
25th parallels of latitude. It, however, Nourishes best 
within the loth parallels^ at elevations ranging from near 
the sea-level up to about L'OOO feet in height. It is now 
cultivated in Mexico, Honduras, Guater'ala, Nicaragua, 
Braeil, Peru, Ecuador, New Granada, Venezuela, Guiana, 
and most of the West Indian Islands. Its cultivation has 
also been attempted in other tropical regions of the globe ; 
but the industry has hitherto not been developed on any 
considerable scale away from the American continent and 
the West Indian Islands. 

For the successful cultivation of the cocoa tree a rich 
well-watered soil and a humid atmosphere, with freedom 
from cold winds and protection from violent storms, are 
necessary. As the young plants are extremely delicate and 
tender, they are reared in nursery grounds till they attain 
a height of from 15 tc 18 inches, and after planting ouf 
they still require protection from the wind and sun, -which 
is provided by growing " provisions " (food-yielding plants), 
and the coral-bean tree, Erythrina Corallodeiidron, among 
the young trees. The trees begin to bear in the fourth or 
fifth year, but they do not attain their full productive 
vigour till about their eighth year, and they ought to con- 
tinue prolific for from thirty to forty yeacs thereafter. As 
the trees carry buds, flowers, and fruit in all stages at the 
same time, ripe pods may be collected at any period of the 
year, but there are periodical harvests dependent on the 
suitability of the weather for collecting the fruit and curing 
ih« see.'U. In Venezuela, where the famous Caracas cocoa 
w ^rown, the gathering takes place in June and December, 

these being the crop of St John and tho Christmas crop 
respectively. In gathering the workman is careful to cut 
down only fully ripened pods, which he adroitly accom- 
plishes with a long pole armed with two prongs or a knife 
at Its extremity. The pods are left in heaps on the ground 
fur about twenty-four hours ; they are then cut open, and the 
seeds are taken out, and carried in baskets to the place 
where they undergo the operation of sweating or curing. 
There the acid juice which accompanies tho seeds is first 
drained off', after which they are placed in a sweating box, 
in -which they are enclosed and allowed to ferment for some 
time, great care being taken to keep the temperature from 
rising too high. The fermenting process is, in some cases, 
effected by throwing the seeds into holes or trenches in ths 
ground, and covering them with earth or clay. The seeds 
in this process, which is called claying, are occasionally 
stirred to keep the fermentation from proceeding too 
violently. The sweating is a process which requires the 
very greatest attention and experience, as on it to a great 
extent depend the flavour of the seeds and their fitness 
for preservation. The operation varies in duration according 
to the state of the weather, but a period of about two days 
yields the best results. Thereafter the seeds are exposed 
to the sun for drymg, and those of a fine quality should 
then assume a warm reddish tint, which characterizes 
beans of a superior quality. 

The cocoa tree was cultivated, and its produce held in 
the highest esteem, in Me.xico and Peru previous to the 
discovery of the American continent by Columbus. 
Prcscott, in his Conqvtst of Peru, says of the followers 
of Pizarro, that as they sailed along the Pacific coast 
they saw " hill-sides covered with the yellow maize 
and the potato, or checkered in the lower levels with 
blooming plantations of cacao." The same writer, referring 
to the use of cocoa in Mexico, says of the Emperor 
Montezuma that " he was exceedingly fond of it, to judge 
from the quantity, no less than 50 jars or pitchers being 
prepared for his own daily consumption ; 2000 more were 
allowed for that of his household." "Traffic," he adds 
again, " was carried on partly by barter and partly by 
means of a regulated currency of different values. This 
consisted of transparent quills of gold dust, of bits of tin 
cut in the form of a T, and bags of cacao containing a 
specified number of grains." 

A knowledge of this valuable article of food was first 
brought to Europe by Columbus, but some time elapsed ere 
its virtues were appreciated in the Old World. Spain was 
the first nation in which its use became common ; and to 
this day cocoa is much more extensively consumed among 
the Spaniards than by any other European community. 
The earliest intimation of the introduction of cocoa into 
England is found m an announcement in the Public 
Advertiser of Tuesday, 16th June 165", notifying that 
"In Bishopgate Street, in Queen's Head Alley, at a 
Frenchman's bouse, is an excellent West India drink, called 
chocolate, to be sold, where you may have it ready at any 
time, and also unmade, at reasonable rates." About the 
beginning of the ISth century chocolate had become an 
exceedingly fashionable beverage, and tlie cocoa tree was » 
favourite sign and name for places of public refreshment 
Cocoa and chocolate are frequently mentioned- in contem 
porary literature, and among others Pope, in his Rapt oftlie 
Lode, alludes to it; the negligent spirit, fixed liko Ision- 
"in fumes of burning chocolate sliall glow, 
And tremble at the sea that froths below." 
The high price at which it vas retailed kept chocolate 
among the luxuries of the wealthy ; and coffee, which had 
been introduced two or three years before chocolate, and 
ten, which came a year later, both soon far out-stripped Iheu. 
rival beverage in public estimation. 



Kiw cocoas are distinguished in commerce by tlie iianic 
of the localities of their growth ; and it is found that' the 
produce of particular regions maintains, pretty constantly, 
a distinctive character and appearance. The must esteeinea 
of all varieties is that obtained from Venezuela, known in 
commerce as Caracas cocoa, next to which in value stand 
the red "puts" of TriiiiJad. The finest quahties are in 
form and size not unlike thick round almonds ; they have a 
husk of a. clear brick-red colour, and the cotyledons, which 
are of a deep chocolate browu, have a fine membrane 
permeating their entire substance, and dividing tbem into 
numerous irregular sc^ment^, into which the seeds are easily 
broken down. The kernels are astringent in taste, with a 
mild, not disagreeable flavour In chemical composition, 
as well as in physical characteristics, they vary within 
certain limits ; but the analysis by Payen may be taken as 
jreprescoting their average constitution. It is as follows ■ — 

Fat (Coco.T Butter) 
Kurogcuoos compouuds . 



Theobromine ... 

S.I line substanc03 


Cocoa red 

Essential oil 


20 OO 


2 00 

2 00 



[ traces 


The constituent upon which the peculiar value of cocoa 
•depends is the theobromme, an alkaloid substance which 
till recently was supposed to be distinct from, though 
closely allied to, the theino of tea and coffee. It is now, 
however, known that the alkaloid in these and in two or 
three other substances similarly used is identical, and their 
physiological value is consequently the same. The fat or 
cocoa butter is a firm, solid, n-hite substance at ordinary 
te-raperatures, having an aL'reeable taste and odour, and 
very remarkable for its freedom from any tendency to 
become rancid. It consists -essentially of stearin with a 
little olein, and is used in surgical practice, and in France 
as a material for soap and pomade manufacture. The 
starch grains present in raw cocoa are small in size, and of 
■a character so peculiar that there is no difficulty in distin- 
guishing them under the microscope from any other starch 
granules. As an article of food cocoa differs essentially 
from both tea and coffee. While only an infusion of these 
substances is used, leaving a large proportion of their total 
weight unconsuraed, the entire substance of the cocoa seeds is 
prepared as an emulsion for drinking, and the whole is thus 
utilized within the system. While the contents of a cup 
of tea or coffee can thus only be regarded as stimulant in 
its effect, and almost entirely destitute of essential nutritive 
properties, a cup of prepared cocoa is really a most nourish- 
ing article of diet, as, in addition to the value of the 
theobromine it contains, it introduces into the system no 
inconsiderable proportion of valuable nitrogenous and 
oleaginous elements. 

The manufacturing processes through which raw cocoa 
passes have for their object the development of the aroma 
pecuhar to the substance, and its preparation in a soluble 
palatable and digestible form. The first operation consists 
in roasting the seeds, whereby the empyreumatic aromatic 
substance is formed, and the starch particles are changed 
into dextrin. The roasting ia accomplished in large 
revolving cylinders, after the completion of which the 
roasted seeds are taken to the crushing and winnowing 
machine. Hero the seed? are reduced to the form of nibs, 
which are separated from the shells or husks by the action 
of a powerful fau blast. The nibs are next subjected to a 
process of winnowing in small quantities in hand sieves, 
by which the hard cqcu^ " ^-crnis " ftre sifted out, and 

muuldy or discoloured fragments are at the same fir-? 
removed by hand. Nibs so prepared constitute tna 
simplest and purest preparation in which manufactured 
cocoa is sold ; but they require prolonged boiling to effect 
their complete disintegration. The nibs when ground to 
a fine meal can be cooked with much greater facility. 
Another form in which the pure seeds are prepared is In 
flaked cocoa, which consists of the nibs ground up into a 
rather coarse uniform paste. . The grinding is effected iu 
cylinder qiachines, having an outer fixed casing -within 
which a drum revolves. The nibs are fed in by a hoppe: 
ou the upper part of the apparatus, and are carried rounc 
its circumference by the revolution of the drum, and 
delivered as a thin uniform pasty mass, the heat developec 
by the friction within the cylinder being sotiicient to 
liquefy the oil, which again sets on cooling of the paste. 
Of late years a preparation called extract of cocoa has come 
into extensive use. It is_ made by removing a certain 
proportion of the fat from the seeds, whereby the remaining 
substance can be ground to an impalpable powder, which 
yields a beverage much more palatable and agreeable to 
many etomachs then cither entire nibs or the so-called 
soluble .ocoas. The removal of the fat is effected by 
placing nibs, after they have been reduced by grinding to 
a fine !;mooth paste, in bags, and subjecting them to power- 
ful pressure in heated presses. The fat e.Kudes slowly end 
quickly solidifies, and a solid compact cake is left in the 
press, which only requires to be broken up and finely 
■ powdered for use. j 

Most other preparations, whether sold as cocoa or cho- 
colate, are mixtures of various substances with ground 
nibs, the object of the mixture being to mask the presence 
Df 'he cocoa -fat, ami to render the whole readily miscible 
with boiling water. The ordinary distinction between these 
soluble cocoas and chocolate is that the cocoa is usually 
sold in the form of a powder, the chocolate being made up 
in cakes, which require to be scraped down, boiled, and 
" milled " or frothed before being ready for drinking. In 
making the soluble cocoa, which is sold under such names 
as homoeopathic, Iceland moss, pearl cocoa, ic , the nibs ane 
first ground up in a heated stone mill, and. while in a soft 
pasty condition, thoroughly mixed with certain proportions 
of sugar and arrowroot, or other and inferior starches. The 
compound is afterwards ground to tine powder and sold 
under various names and at different prices, according to 
the quality of the cocoa and the nature and proportion of 
the ingredients which are combined with it. The finer 
chocolates are combinations of cocoa with sugar alone, 
flavoured with some aromatic substance, generally vanilk; 
but into the composition of cheap quaUties starchy 
substances enter. The nibs for chocolate are brought to a 
fine pasty state in a heated mill, and the sugar or sugar 
and starch with vanilla are then added ^nd thoroughly in- 
corporated in the mill. The paste is next passed several 
times between heavy horizontal rollers to produce a 
thoroui;hly homogeneous mixture. It is lastly cast into 
moulds whUe still in a thin pasty state, and after cooling it 
forms hard solid cakes, and is ready to wrap up for the 
market. Ckocolates for eating are prepared with large 
proportions of sugar and various flavouring substances, and 
the elegant preparations of these and of chocolate creams 
by M^nier of Paris and Fry and Sons of Bristol undoubtedly 
form most wholesome, palatable, and nutritious confections. 
To the lastrnamed firm we have t9 express our obligation 
for information courteously placed at our disposal. 

Preparations of cocoa are still much more largely con- 
sumed in Spain than in any other European country. Iu 
Great Britain the consumption, partly stimulated by th» 
improvements effected in its manufacture, is steadily incrca? 
ing, although a.s compared with the consumption of tea and 

C O C — C D 


;offce its cmpluyment is yet on a very restricted scale. The 
following figures cxLioii the ratiu of increase of cocoa 
entered for home consumption since 1820 : — 

1820 ■ 267,32111) 1860 4.533,124 tb 

1830 425,382 1870 6.943,102 

1840 2,640,470 1874 8.863.646 

18.'.0 3,080,641 1875 9,973,926 

In addition to these quantitiesof raw cocoa, a considerable 
•quantity of prepared cocoa and chocolate is now imported 
from France. In 1S20 the imports of manufactured cocoa 
only amounted to l-l lt>, but in IS"! 91,466 lb were ira 
ported. Am import duty of Id. per lb on raw and 2d. per 
8i on innnurictiircil cocoa is levied in Great Lritain. 

COCOA-NUT PALM (Cocos nucifera), sometimes, and 
pi'rliaps more correctly, called the coco-nut palm, is a very 
beaiuif 111 and lofty palm-tree, growing to a height of from 60 
to 100 feet, with a cylindrical stem which attains a thickness 
of 2 feet. The tree terminates in a crown of graceful waving 
[iinnate leaves. The leaf, which may attain to 20 feet in 
length, consists of a strong mid lib, whence numerous long 
acute leaflets spring, giving the whole the appearance of a 
gigantic feather. The (lowers are arranged in branching 
tpikes 5 or G feet long, enclosed in a tough spathe. and the 
fruits maiure in bunches of from 10 to 20. The fruits 
when mature are oblong, and triangular in cros.s section, 
measuring from 12 to IS inches in length and 6 to 8 inches 
in diameter. The fruit consists oi a thick external husk or 
nnd of a fibrous structure, within which is the ordinary 
cocoa-nut of commerce. The nut Las a very hard, woody 
shell, enclosing the nucleus or kernel, within which again 
13 a milky liquid called cocoa-nut milk. The palm is so 
widely disseminated throughout tropical countries that it is 
impossible tijidi.-tiucuish its original habitat. It flourishes 
with equal vigour on the coast of the East Indies, through- 
out the tropical islands of the Pacific, and lu the West 
Indies and tropical America. It. however, attains its 
greatest lu-turiance and vigour on the sea shore, and it is 
most at home in the innumerable small islands of the 
Pacific seas, of the vegetation of which it is eminently char- 
acteristic. Its wide distribution, and its existence in evi.n 
the smallest coral islets of the Pacitic. have been favoured 
by the peculiar triangular shape of the fruit, which drop- 
ping into the sea from trees growing on any shores would 
be carried by tides and currents to be cast up and to 
vegetate on distant coasts. 

The cocoa nut palm, being the most useful of it» entire 
tribe to the natives of the regions in which it grows, and 
furnishing many valuable and important commereial pro- 
ducts, 13 the subject of careful cultivation in man)- countries. 
On the Malabar and Coromandel coasts of India the trees 
grow in vast numbers, and in Ceylon, which is peculiarly 
well suited for their cultivation, it is estimated that twenty 
millions of the trees flourish The wealth of a native in 
Ceylon is estimated by his property in cccoa-nut trees, and 
Sir J. Emerson Tennent notes a law caae in a district court 
in which the subject in dispute was a claim to the 2520th 
part of ten of the precious palms. The cultivation of cocoa- 
nut plantations in Ceylon is thus described by Sir J. E. 
Tennent. " The first operation in cocoa-nut planting is the 
formation ol a nurserj', for which purpose the ripe nuts are 
placed in squares containing about 400 each ; these are 
covered an inch deep with sand and sea-weed or soft mud 
from the beach, and watered daily till they germinate. 
The nuts put down in Apfil are sufficiently grown to be 
planted out before the rams of September, and they are 
then set out in holes 3 feet deep and 20 to .30 feet apart. 
. . Before putting in the young plant it I3 customary 
to bed the roots with soft mud and sea-weed, and for tho 
first two years they must be watered and protected from 
the glare of the sun under shades made of the plaited 

fronds of the cocoa-nut palm, or the fau-li!ce leaves uf the 
palmyra " The palm begin? to bear IruiC from the lifth 
to the seventh year of its age, each stock carrying from 
5 to 30 uuts, the tree maturing on an average CO uuts 

The uses to which the various parts of the cocoa-nut palm 
are applied m the regions of their growth are almost 
endless. The nuts supply no inconsiderable proportion of 
the food of the natives, and the milky juice enclosed within 
them forms a pleasant and refreshing drink. The jujco 
drawn from the unexpanded flower sjiathes forms " toddy, " 
which may be boiled down to sugar, or it is allowed to 
ferment and is distilled, when it yields a tpirit which, in 
common with a like product from other sources, is known 
as "arrack." The trunk yields a timber (known in 
European commerce as porcupine wood) which is used for 
building, furniture, hrewood, ic; the leaves are plaited 
into cajan fans and baskets, and used for tliatching the 
roofs of houses ; the shell of the nut is employed as a water 
vessel ; and the external husk or rind yields the coir fibre, 
with which are fabricated ropes, cordage, brushes, Ax. The 
cocoa-nut palm also turinshes very important articles of 
external commerce, of which the principal is cocoa-nut oil. 
It IS obtained by pressure or boiling from the kernels. 
which are first broken up into small pieces and dried in 
the sun, when they ore known as copperah or copra. It is 
estimated that 1000 full-sized nuts will yield ujiwards of 
500 lb of copra, from which 25 gallons of oil should be 
obtained. The oil is a white solid substance at ordinary 
temperatures, with a peculiar, rather disagreeable odour, 
from the volatile fatty acids it contains, and a mild taste. 
Under pressure it separates into a liquid and a solid portion, 
the latter, cocoa-stearin, being extensively used in the 
manufacture of candles. Cocoa-nut oil is also used in the 
manufacture of marine soap, which forms a lather with sea 
water. Coir is also an important article of conmieice, 
being in largo demand for the manufacture of coarse 
brushes, door mats, and woven coir matting for lobbies and 
passages. A considerable quantity of fresh nuts is 
imported, chiefly from the West Indies, and sold as a dainty 
among the poorer classes, or used in the preparation of z 
kind of confection. 

COCi'TUS, a tributary of tho Acheron, a river of 
Thesprotia, which flows into the Ionian Sea. Its modern 
name is tlie Vuvo. The name is also applied, in classical 
mythology, to a tributary of the Acheron, a river in Hades. 
The etymology suggested is from KMKvfiv, to wad. 

COi) (.Uorrhua vulgaris), a well-known speciesof GadiJtr, 
a family of Anacanthme Fishes, possessing, in common with 
the other members of the genus, three dorsal and two anal 
fins, and a single barbel at the chin It is a widely 
distributed species, being found throughout the northern 
and temperate seas of Europe, Asia, and America, extending 
as far south as Gibraltar, but not entering the Mediter- 
ranean, and inhabits water from 25 to 00 fathoms deep, 
where it always feeds close to the bottom It is exceed- 
ingly voracious, feeding on the smaller denizens of the 
ocean — fish, crustaceans, worms, and mollusks, and greedily 
taking almost any bait the fisherman chooses to eiiploy. 
The cod spawns in February, and is exceedingly proli6c, 
the roe of a single female having been known to contain 
upwards of eight millions of ova, and to form more than 
half the weight of the entire fish. Only a small proportion 
of these get fertilized, and still fewer ever emerge from tha 
egg. The number of cod is still further reduced by the 
trade carried on in roe. large quantities of which are used 
in France as ground-bait in the sardine fisher)-, while it 
also forms an article of human food. The young are about 
an inch in length by the end ofspring, but are not fit for 
thf market till the second year, and it has been stated thaJ 


C D — C D 

they do not reauti maturity, as shown by the power of 
roproduction, tiU the end of thair third year. They usually 
moasuro about 3 feet in length, and weigh from 12 to 20 
tb, but specimens have been taken from DO to 70 tb in 
weight. As an article of food the cod-tish is in greatest 
perfection during the three months preceding Christmas. 
It is caught on all parts of the British and Irish coasts, but 
the Dogger Bank, and Rockall, oflf the Outer Hebrides, have 
b«ea specially noted for their cod-fisheries. Until recently, 
the London market was in great part supplied from the 
former of these ; but now the fishery is chiedy carrisd on 
llong the coast of Norfolk and Sutfolk, where great 
quantities of the fish are caught with hook and line, and 
conveyed to market alive in " well-boats " specially built 
for this traffic. Such boats have been in use since the 
beginning of the 18th century. The most important cod- 
fishoryin the world is that which has been prosecuted for 
tenturies on the Newfoundland banks, where it is not 
ancommon for a single fisherman to take over 500 of these 
fish in 10 j)r 11 hours. The fish iave lately been decreas- 
ing in that well-vom locality, but that the yield is still 
enormousL is seen from recently pubUshed returns, from 
which it appears that the quantity of cod obtained by the 
Canadian fishery alone in 1875 weighed over 31,000 tons, 
while in 1874 it reached 34,500 tons. These, salted and 
dried, are exported to aU parts of the world, and form, 
when taken in connection with the enormous quantity of 
fresh cod consumed, a valuable addition lo the food 
resources of the human race. The swimming bladder of 
this fish furnishes isinglass, little, if at all, inferior to that 
obtained from the sturgeon, while from the liver is obtained 
cod-liver oil, now largely used in medicine as a remedy in 
Bcrofulous complaints and pulmonary consumption.' " The 
Norwegians," say.^ Cuvier, "give cod heads with marine 
plants to their cows for the purpose of producing a greater 
proportion of milk. The vertebrse, the ribs, and the bones 
in general, are given to their cattle by the Icelanders, and 
by the 'Kamtchatdales to their dogs. These same parts, 
properly dried, are also employed as fuel in the desolate 
steppes of the ley Sea." A.t Port Logan in Wigtonshire 
cod-fish are kept in a large reservoir, scooped out of the 
Bolid rock by the action of the sea, egress from which is 
prevented by a barrier of stones, which does not prevent 
the free access of the water. These cod are fed chiefly on 
mussels, and when the keeper approaches to feed them they 
may be seen rising to the surface in hundreds and eagerly 
seeking the edge. They have become comparatively tame 
and famdiar. Frank Buckland, who some years ago visited 
the fJace, states that after a little while they allowed hini 
to take hold of them, scratch them on the back, and play 
with them in various ways. Their flavour is considered 
superior to that of the cod taken in the open sea. 
r COD-LIVER OIL is au oil of great medicinal value, 
obtained from the Lver of the common cod { vul- 
yaris),aad also to some extent from the ling ( Lota mol»a), the 
whiting (Merlangus vulgaris), the pollack ( .Verlan^us polla- 
chius), as well as other members of the Gadidce. The oil ob- 
tained from the livers differs in quality from a very pure 
pale-coloured hquid to a dark evil-smelliog product, accord- 
ing to the care exercised and the processes adopted for its 
extraction. The very dark coloured rank oils are used only 
for burning and lubricating, and in commerce are known 
as cod oil. The purer qualities, up to an oil having a 
brown sherry colour, are alone used medicinally as cod-liver 
oil. Various methods of extracting the oil are adopted in 
the different countries where its preparation is prosecuted. 
Generally it may be stated that the medicinal oil is 
obtained from selected livers, which are carefully examined, 
cleaned, split up, and thrown together into a large vessel. 
From these a very small proportion of a pure and almost 

colourless oil exudes spontaneously, and exposure to the 
heat of the sun causes a further exudation. By the 
application of heat in a steam or water bath to a tempera- 
ture not exceeding 180°, Fahr., a proportion of still pale, 
or straw-coloured oil is obtained. The od which results 
from the application of a higher heat and pressure, and 
that obtaiiiea iiom unhealthy and from putrid livers, are 
only used industrially as cod oiL The extraction of th« 
oil IS most extensively prosecuted in Newfoundland and id 
Norway ; but a considerable quantity is also prepared in 
the Shetland Islands and along the east coast of Scotland. 

Three varieties of medicinal oil are recognized lu com- 
merce — pale, light brown, and brown , but these insensibly 
merge into-each other, and are only the result of different 
processes or periods of preparation, as mentioned above. 
The pale oil possesses a fishy odour and a slightly acrid 
taste, while with the darker oil there is a distinctly dis- 
agreeable empyreumatic odour and taste. In composition 
the oil contains olein and margarin, with small proportions 
of free butyric and acetic acids, a peculiar principle termed 
gaduin, certain bile acids, free phosphorus, phosphatic salts, 
and traces of iodme and bromine. Cod-liver oil is valuable 
in medicine on account of its great nutrient properties ; .it 
adds rapidly to the store of fat within the human frame, 
and it enriches the blood in red corpuscles. It is much 
more digestible than other animal oils, a fact which may 
account for its superior therapeutic value. At one time it 
was supposed that its virtues resided m the iodine and 
bromine which the oil generally contains ; but these are 
present only in exceedingly minute proportions, and some- 
times they cannot be traced at all. The oil has long been 
favourably known in medicine as a remedy for rheumatic 
complaint3,but its great value m pulmonary consumption has 
been demonstrated only in comparatively recent times. It 
is administered internally in chronic rheumatism, scrofula, 
phthisis, chronic skin diseases, and general debility; and it 
is sometimes externally applied in affections of the skin, 
The oil 13 taken with facility by young children ; but the 
repugnance of adults to its taste and eructations is not 
easily overcome, and many methods have been suggested 
for masking its taste. With that view the oil is enclosed 
in gelatinous capsules, or prepared in the form of aromatized 
emulsions, of equal parts of mucilage, of gum tragacantb, 
and the oil. There are numerous other forms of emulsions 
recommended, as well as combinations with medicinal 
syrups, and cod-liver oil creams, jellies, and bread , and 
various devices are familiarly employed as in the adminis- 
tration of unpleasant medicines, Failing all these, cod-liver 
oil has been introduced into the system by injection. 

CODE. A code is a complete and systematic body of 
law, or a complete and exclusive statement of some portion 
of the law. Such, at least, is the, sense m which the word 
is used when it ls proposed to recast the laws of a country 
like England in the form of a code. Many collections of 
laws, however, which are commonly known as codes, would 
not correspond to this definition. The Code of Justinian, 
the mo3t_ celebrated of all, is not in itsel( a complete and 
exclusive system of law. It is a collection of imperial 
constitutions, just as the Pandects are a collection of the 
opinions of jurisconsults. The Cods and the Pandects 
together being, as Austin says, " digests of Roman law in 
force at the time of their conception," would, if properly 
arranged, constitute a code. Codification in this sense is 
merely a question of the/orm of the laws, and has nothing 
to do with their goodness or badness from an ethical or 
political point of view. Sometimes codification only 
means the changing of unwritten into written law ; in the 
stricter sense it means the changing of unwritten or badly 
written law into law well written. 

Roman Coctts. — Under the empire the conslitutiunts or 



(dicta of the chief of the stale had th? force of law. The 
practice of collecting the coDStitutions of the emperors seems 
to have been begun by private lawyers — such at all events 
is the character of the oldest collection, known as the 
Codex Gregorianm it Jlermogeiiitinvs, which formed the 
model for the imperial codes of Theodosius and Justinian. 
Tlie Tbeodosian code was the work of a commission of 
sixteen, to whom, in 435 a.d., the emperor intrusted the 
task of collecting the edicts and constitutions from the time 
of Constantine. It was finished in 438, and promulgated 
BS the law of the empire. 

In 528 tbe Emperor Justinian ordcrea a new collection 
te be made, and appointed a commission of ten for that 
purpose, including the celebrated Triboiiian. The com- 
missioners were to compile one code out of the " three 
codes — Grcftoiian, Hermogcnian, and Thcodosian," and 
the constitutions which had been ordained since the last of 
these was confirmed. The commissioners had full power 
to make such changes as might be necissary in the 
language of the constitutions, and to omit all that was 
unnecessary, ohsoUte, or inconsistent. The collection was 
to include rescripts as well as constitutions, and was to 
supersede (as the Tbeodosian code also did) the sources 
fr(pm which it had been compiled. The code was finished 
w jthin fourteen mouths, bnt a revised edition was rendered 
necessary by someliew decisions .and constitutions of the 
emperor. In 534 the new code was published and the first 
edition superseded. The second is the Code we now possess ; 
the first has been lost. The Code is divided into twelve 
books, and each book into titles, under which the constitu 
tions are arranged in chronological order, and with the 
names of the emperors by whom they were enacted. There 
is a general corre.spondence between the order of the 
Digest and tlie Code of Justfnian, but neither the Digest 
por any of the codes pretended to scientific classification. 
The arrangement was dictated by_the. order of writers on 
the Praetorian Edict. 

The same causes which made these collections necessary 
in the time of Justinian have led to similar undertakings 
among modern peoples. . The actual condition of laws until 
the period when they are consciou.sly remodelled is one of 
confusion, contradiction, repetition, and disorder ; and to 
these evils the progress of society adds the burden of 
perpetually increasing legislation. Some attempt must be 
made to simplify the task of learning the laws by improving 
Iheir expression and arrangement. This is by no means an 
easy task in any country, but in our own it is surrounded 
with peculiar difficulties. The independent character of 
English law has prevented us from attempting what has 
already been done for other systems which have the basis 
of the I?oman law to fall back upon. ' 

The most celebrated modern code is the Code Napoleon. 
The necessity of a code in France was mainly caused fcy 
the immense number of separate sy.?tems of jurisprudence 
existing in that country before 1789, justifying Voltaire's 
sarcasm that a traveller in France had to change laws 
about as often as he changed horses. The conception of a 
general code for the whole country had occurred to jurists 
and statesmen before Napoleon, and the Convention, in fact, 
discussed two projects presented by Cambac^rts, one of 
which had been found too complicated and the other too 
condensed. Napoleon, on becoming consul, appointed a 
commission headed by M. Tronchet to review previous 
efforts and present a new project. In four mouths the 
project was presented to the Government, submitted to the 
judges, and discussed by the Council of State — Napoleon 
himself taking part in tbe deliberations. :At first published 
under the title of Code Civil des Francis ; it was afterwards 
ertt,itled the Code Napoleon, — the emperor wishing to attach 
his nam3 to a work which he regarded as the pro-atesl gKry 

of his reign. The Code Napcldon consists of 2281 articles, 
arranged under titles and divided into three books, preceded 
by a preliminary title. The subjects of the different books 
are — 1st, "Despersonnes"; 2d, " Des biens et des diff^rcnts 
modificatious de la proori^t^ ; " 3d, " Des diff^rents manieres 
d'acqu(5rir la propridte/' The code, it has been said, is the 
product of Roman and customary law, together with the onli- 
nances of the kings and the laws of the Revolution. In form 
it has passed through several changes caused by the politi- 
cal Wcissitudes of the country, and it has of course suffered 
from time to time important alterations in sub.stance, but it 
still remains virtually the same in principle as it left the 
bands of its fsamers. The code has produced a vast number 
of commentaries, among which may be named those of 
Duranton, Troplong, and Demolombe: ~ The remaining 
French codes are tbe Code de procedure civile, the Code de 
cotnnierce, the Code d' instruction criminelle, and the Code 
penal. The merits of the French code have entered into the 
discussion on the general question of ccxlification. . Austin 
agrees with Savigny in condemning the ignorance and 
haste' with which it was compiled. "It contains," says 
Austin, " no definitions of technical terms (even the most 
leading), no exposition of the rationale of distinctions 
(evtn the most leading), no exposition of fh6 broad 
principles and rules to which the narrower provisions 
expressed in the code are subordinate ; hence its fallacious 
brevity." The French codes have, however, taken firm 
root in most of the countries of continental Europe. . Intro- 
duced by French ronquest they nevertheless were eagerly 
adopted by the people after the French arms had withdrawn. 
Tbe Penal Code, f<^r example, was thus established in Italy, 
Sicily, Holland, Belgium, the Rhine Pronnces, Poland, and 
Switzerland. The principles of the French code orevail in 
most of tbe Latin races. 

The Prussian code {Code Frederic) was published by 
Frederick the Great in 1751. It was intended to take 
the place of "Roman, common Saxon, and other foreign 
subsidiary laws and statutes," the provincial law s remaining 
in force as before. One of the objects of the king was to 
destroy the power of the advocates, whom he hoped to 
render useless. The Italian civil code, published in 1866, 
on the establishment of Italian unity, is founded mainly on 
the French code. , The object of all these codes was to 
frame a common system to take the place of several systems 
of law, rather than to restate in an exact and exhaustive 
form the whole laws of a nation, ■which is the problem of 
English codification. The French and Prussian codes, 
although they have been of grejit service in simplifying the 
law, have failed to prevent outside themselves that 
accumulation of judiciary and statute law which in England 
has been the chief motive for codification. A more exact 
parallel to the English problem may be found in tbe Code 
of the S'afc of New York: The revised constitution of tho 
State, as adopted in 1846, " ordered the appointment of two 
commissions, one to reduce into a written and a systematic 
code the whole body of the law of the State, and the other 
to revise, reform, simplify, and abridge the rules and 
practice, pleadings,- <tc., of the courts of record." By an 
Act of 1837, the State Legislature declared that the body 
of substantive law should be contained in three codes — the 
Political, the Civil, and the Penal. Tbe works of both 
commissions, completed in 1865, now fills six volume.<(, 
containing the Code of Civil Pro/.-cdure (including the law 
of evidence), the Book of Forms, tbe Code of Criminal 
Procedure, the Political Code, the Penal Code, and the Civil 
Code. In the introduction totbe Civil Code it is claimed 
that in. many departments of the law the codes have 
" provided for every possible case, so that when a new case 
arises it is better that it should be provided for by Jiew 
legislation." The New York code is defective in tho 



important points of definition and arrangement. Mucb in- 
terest has anached to the Penal Code drawn up by Edw ird 
Livingston fur tho Stats of Louisiana, about SO years ago. 
The system consists of a Code of Criiue and Panishraeiits, 
a Code of Proi;ednre, a Code of Evidence, a C -de of Re- 
form and Prison Discipline, and a Book of Detiaitions. 
"Though tha State for which the code-i were pre|i.ired," 
says Chief Jn.'tice Chise. "neglected to avail itself of the 
labour;) assigned and solicited by itself, they have proved, 
together With their iiuroducHons, a troisuro of suggestions 
to winch mmy .States are indebted for useful legisUtion." 
A complete edition of Livingston's works has recently been 
published by the National Prison Association of the United 

Since the time of Bentham, the codification of the law of 
England has been the dream oi our most enlightened jurists 
and statesmen. In the interval between Bentham and our 
own time there has been an immense advance in the 
scientific study of law, but it may be doubted whether the 
problem of codification is at all nearer solution. 
Las mainly been directed of late to the historical side of science, to the phenomena of the evolution of laws as 
part of the development of society, and from' this point of 
view the question of remodelling the law is one of minor 
interest. To Bentham the problem presented itself in the 
simplest and most direct form possible. What he proposed 
to do was to set forth a body of laws, clearly expressed, 
arranged iii the order of their logical connection, exhibiting 
their own rationale, and excluding all other law. On the 
other hand the problem has in some respects become easier 
since the time of Bentham. With the Benthamite codifica- 
tion the conception of reform in the substantive law is 
more or less rai.iced up. If codification Jiad been possible 
m his d.iy, it would, unless it had been accompanied by the 
Bcarching reforms which have been effected since, and 
mainly through his influence, perhaps have been more of 
an evil than a good. The mere dread that, under the guise 
of codification or improvement in form, some change in 
substance may secretly be effected has long been a practical 
obstacle in the way of legal reform. But the law has now 
been brought into a state of which it may be said that, if 
It is not the best in all respects that might be desired, it is 
It least in most respects as good as the conditions of legisla- 
tion will permit It to be. Codification, in fact, may now be 
treated purely as a question of form. What is proposed is 
that the law, being, as we assume, in substance wtat the 
nation wishes it to be, should be made as accessible as 
possible, and as intelligible as possible. These two essential 
conditions of a sound system of law are, we need hardly 
say, far from being fulfilled in England. The law oi the 
land is embodied in thousands of statutes and tens of 
thousands flf reports. It is expressed in language which 
has never been fi.xed by a controlling authority, and which 
has swayed about with every change of time, place, and 
circumstance. It ha? no definitions, no rational distinctions, 
no connection of parts. Until the passing of the Judica- 
ture Act it was pervaded throughout its entire sphere by 
the flagrant antinomy of law and equity, and that Act has 
only ordered, not executed, its consolidation. No lawyer 
pretends to know more than a fragment of it. Few 
practical questions can be answered by a lawyer without a 
search into numberless Acts of Parliament and reported 
cases. To laymen, of course, tho whole law is a sealed 
book. As there are no authoritative general principles, it 
happens that the few legal maxims known to the public, 
being apprehended out of relation to their authorities, are 
as often likely to be wrong as to be right. It is hopeless 
to think of making it possible for every man to be his own 
lawyer, but wo can at least try to make it possible for a 
Ittvifyer to know the whole kw. The earlier advocates of 

codification founded their case mainly on tVio evils of 
judiciary law, i.e., the law contained in thu reported decisions 
of the judges Bentham's bitter antipathy to judicial 
legislation is well known Austin's thirty-niiuh lecture 
(Lectures, ed 18G9) contains an exhaustive criticism of tho 
tenable objections to judiciary law. All such law is 
embedded iii decisions on particular cases, from which it 
must be extracted by a tedious and difficult process of 
induction. Being created for particular cases it is 
necessarily uncomprehensive, imperfect, uncertain, and 
bulky. These are evils which are incident to the nature of 
judiciary laws. Of late years the defective form of our exist- 
ing statute law has also given rise to loud complaints. Year 
by year the mass of legislation grows larger, and as long as 
the basis of a system is judicmry law, it is impossible that 
the new statutes can be completely integrated therewith. 
The prevailing mode of framing Acts of Parliament, and 
especially the practice of legislating by reference to previous 
Acts, likewise produce much uncertainty and disorder.' 

Whether any attempt will ever be made to su'persede 
this vast and unarranged mass by a complete code seems 
very d^iubtful. Writers on codification have for th&-most 
part insisted that the work should be undertaken as a 
whole, and that 'the parts should have relation to some 
general scheme of the law which should be settled first. 
The practical ditficulties in the way of an undertaking so 
stupendous as the codification uno ccetu, of the whole mass 
of the law hardly require to be staled. The probability is 
that attempts will be made from time'to time to cast the 
leading portions of the law into the form of a code. Some 
years ago it was believed that the proper preliminary to a 
cade would be a digest of the law, and a commission, was 
appointed in 1866, under which draughtsmen were set 
to work t6 prepare specimen' digests of three selected 
portions of law The attempt was abandoned in 1872, the 
commissioners being of opinion that it could not be 
properly proceeded with in detail, and they recooTmended 
that a general digest should be undertaken. . 

In discussions on codification two difSoulties are insisted 
on by Its opponents, which have some practical interest — - 
(1) What IS to be done in thos'e :ases for v/hich the code 
has not provided 1 and (2) How is new law to be incorpn- 
rated with the code i The objection that a code will hamper 
the opinions of the court, destroy the flexibility and 
elasticity of the common law, &c., disappears when it is 
stated m the form of a proposition, that law codified will 
cover a smaller number of cases, or will be less easily 
adapted to new cases, than law uncodified. The Code 
yapolecii orders the judges, undar a penalty, to give a 
decision on all cases, whether contemplated or not by the 
code, and refer them generally to the following sources ; — (1 ) 
Equity naturelle, loi naturelle ; (2 1 Roman law ; (3) ancient 
customs; (i) usages, examples, decisions, jurisprudence; 
(5) droit commun ; (6) principes g^neraux, maximes, 
doctrine, science. The Prussian code, on the other hand, 
requires the judges to report new cases to the head of the 
judicial department, and they are decided by the legislative 
commission. No provision was made in either case for 
incorporating the new law with the code, an omission which 
Austin j'lstly considers fatad to the usefulness of codifica- 
tion. It is absurd to suppose that any code can remain 
long without requiring substantial arbitration. Cases will 
arise when its meaning must be extended and modified by 
judges, and every year will produce its quofa of new 
legislation by the stats. The courts should be left to 
interpret a code as they now interpret statutes, and 
provision should be made for the continual revision of the 
code, so that the new law created by judges or directly by 
the state may from time to time be worked into the cnde. 
The process of gradual codification adopted in India hat 

C D — C CE L 


'been reccmmended for imitation in England by those who 
have had some experience of its working. The first of the 
Indian codes was the Penal Code drawn up by Macaulay, 
and presented to the Governor-general in 1837. It did not 
become law, however, till ISGO. It has been highly 
praised, and its merit is the more remarkable as Macaulay 
had only a slight professional acquaintance with the law 
before he went tu' India. A code of Civil Procedure 
became law in 1759, and was followed by a code of Penal 
Procedure m 1861. The substantial law was then under- 
taken which published its first instalment in ISOf). 
Tbe use of illustrations is a peculiar feature of the Indian 
code. (E. R.) 

CODOGNO, a town of Italy, in the province of Milan, 
and district of Lodi, with a station at the junction of the 
railway from Milan to Piacenza with that between Cremona 
and Pavia, about '20 miles from the last-named city. In 
the parish church is an Ascension of the Virgin, the best 
painting of Callista Piazza, an artist of the 1 6th century. 
The town is chiefly important as the centre of a large trade 
in Parmesan cheese ; and it also carries on the manufac- 
ture of silk. Population upwards of 1 1,000. »• ». 

CODKIiVGTON, Sir Edwabd (1770-1851), admiral, 
belonged to an old Gloucesterihire family ■- He entered the 
navy m 1783.'.. In 1794 he served as lieutenant on board 
Howe's flagship in the actions o6f Brest, and was sent home 
with despatches anuouncing the result. In 1805 he re- 
ceived the command of the " Orion," a seventy-four, in 
which he fought at Trafalgar, receiving a gold medal for 
his conduct in the action. In 1808 he was gazetted to the 
"Blake," another seventy-four, in command of which he 
shared in the Walcheren expedition, assisting in the forcing 
of the Scheldt in 1809. During the next three years he 
was on active service off the Spanish coast In 1813 he 
sailed for North America, where he was made rear-admiral 
and captain of the fleet. Returning to England at the close 
of the war, he received a Knight Commandership of the 
Bath in 1815; and six years afterwards (1821) he was 
gazetted vice-admiral. In 1826 he was appointed to the 
commandin-chief of the .Mediterranean squadron of eleven 
sail sent to restrain Ibrahim Pasha from operating against 
th'e Greeks, and sailed in the " Asia" fur the Morea. Here 
he was joined by the French and Russian contingents, of 
five and eight sail respectively, under Admirals de Rigny 
and Heiden, who were put under his orders. A literal inter- 
pretation of instructions led to the battle of Navarino, in 
which the Turkish and Egyptian fleets, of 36 sail, with a 
cloud of gunboats, schooners, and craft of all sorts, were 
almost entirely destroyed. For his share in this actiDU 
Codrington received a Grand Cross of the Bath; but the 
steps winch led to it occasioned considerable dissatisfaction 
in England, and he was recalled in 1828. He was returned 
to Parliament fur Devonport in 1832 in the Liberal interest, 
and was re-elected in 1835 and 1837. In the latter year he 
was gazetted ad,miral. He accepted the Chiltern Hundreds 
in 1839. on his appointment as commaiidcr-in-chief at 
Portsmouth, and his three years' tenure of that oflSce con- 
cluded his public life Hedied in London. April 28. 1851. A 
memoir of Codrington. by his daughter, Lady Bourchier, ap- 
peared in 187.'5.anti an ahridsmcntof the largerwork in 1875. 

CODRUS. the hero of an early Athenian lesjend, was 
the last king of Athens, and belongs to the 11th century 
B.C. According to the story, it was prophesied that the 
Dorians would conquer Attica if they spared the life of the 
Attic king Devotiiig himself to his country, Codrus. in 
disguise, provoked a quarrel with some Dorian soldiers. 
Ho fell, and the Dorians retreated homeward. To so noble 
a patnot no one was thought worthy to succeed ; and the 
title of king was thenceforth abolished, that of archon 
taking Its place. 

COEHORN, Mennc. Bap.on van ,';04i-i704). ••tne 
Dutch Vauban," was ot Swedish extraction, and was bom 
at Leeuwarden, in Fnesland. He served lo the campaigo 
of 1667 against Turenne, and later distinguished him- 
self at the sieges of Maestricht (1673) and Graave ( 1674), 
and at the battles of Senef (1674), Cassel (1677), and 
,St Denis (1678). The genius of Vauban had made a.^ne 
art of the attack and defence of fortified places, and Cbe- 
horn, who had already invented the mortar, had imposed 
on himself the task of meeting and beating tljat fine 
engineer on his own ground. But William of Orange 
did not recognize the abilities of his young captain, aud 
in despair of success Coehorn had determined to transfer 
his services to France. W'illiam, hearing of this, seize i 
the' person of the engineer, and by a mixture of force 
and persuasion obliged him to renounce bis design, and 
to accept a colonelcy m the Dutch service, with the com- 
mand of two of the Nassau- Fnesland battalions. The peace 
secured by the Treaty of Nimegueu (1678) gave Coehorn 
his first great opportunity. He repaired and perfected the 
defences of ' many strong places, and he rushed into 
polemics with a nval engineer, a certain Paen. His criti- 
cism and rejoinder appeared at Leeuwarden in 1682 and 
1683, and in 1685 he gave to the wurld, in Dutch, bia 
first great work, The New System of Fortification (Leeu- 
warden, folie), two French editions of which appeared m 
1706, while three others were issued from the Hague in 
1711, 1714, and 1741 respectwely. From 1686 to 1691 
Coehorn's genius and activity^ answered the innumerable 
demands that were made upon them. In 1692 Vauban 
himself laid siege to Namur, and Coehorn waited within 
the city. The town was reduced in a week ; but the 
castle in its quintuple enceinte, manned by Coehorn 
and his own regiment, seemed .impregnable. The Dutch 
chief, however, was severely wounded, and the castle 
capitulated, with the honours of war, eight days after 
the city. The campaign of 1695 brought his revenge- 
He reduced the city, on which Vauban in the meanwLile 
had expended all the resources of his art, and the castit fell 
a month afterwards. The Peace of Ryswick (1697j sent 
Coehorn back to his task of repairing and improving. He 
laid out the entrenchments round Zwoll and Groningen, 
and built the fortifications round Ximeguen, Breda, Namur, 
aud Bergen-op-Zoom. In 1701, however, the war of tha 
Spanish succession broke out, and Coehorn went at once 
to the front. By_tho siege and ca])ture in succession of 
Venloo, Steveneworth, Ruremond, and Liege, he rendered 
the allies masters in a single campaign of the line of the 
Meuse from Holland to Huy. He followed up these 
exploits by the investment and reduction of Bonn (1703), 
and passing thence into Flanders, with Sparr, he forced 
the French lines in the Waes, between the sea and the left 
bank of the Scheldt. Returning to the centre of opera- 
tions qn the Meuse, he besieged and took Huy in the same 
year, under the very eyes of Villeroi. Thence he went to 
the Hague to confer with Marlborough concerning the 
next campaign, and was there cut oil by apoplexy, March 
17, 1704. A monumeut to him was raised by his children 
at Wykel, and an historical eulogy of him was published 
at Frankfort in 1771. For a description and critical esti- 
mate of the engiiieeri:ig theories of Coehorn, see Marini, 
Biblioleca dt Fortificanone (1810). and Bonomer, Eisax 
ginin-nl de Fortification (1814). 

CCELENTERA. or, lesa correctly, Ccelenterata, tho 
name of a group of aiumals, including the classes Hydrozoa, 
Anthozoa, and Ctenophora, (The two last-mentioned 
cla.sses are by Huxley and a few others placed in a singi? 
clas.', Aciinozoa. ) The reader will consult the articles on 
Acti.nozoa, Corals, and H^'BRozoa. with that on the 
Aniuai, Kingdom, for the more important details toncbing 


C E — C E 

'tho structure, classiGcatiou, and affinities of coelenterate 

According to Van Beneden, R. Leuckart, and some 
others, the Sponges also have their place among Cuelentera, — 
a view which has of late years received much support in 
consequence of the profounder study of the calcarious' 
sponges begun by Miklucho-MacUy and diligently followed 
up by Haeckel. There is much to be said in favour of 
regarding- the sponges as an aberrant (and, at the same 
time, degraded) coelenterate class, but, for the present, it 
will be well to treat them as a group apart. 

It is usual to consider the Coelentera (with or without 
the sponges) as a primary group, or sub-kingdom, ol 
animals ; and a high authority has stated that the institu- 
tion of this group has been the greatest improvement in the 
arrangement of the animal kingdom effected since the time 
of Cuvier. But, should we so interpret the results of 
certain recent cmbryological inquiries as to throw the 
Coelentera into one great division along with all the higher 
invertebrates, such a mode of treatment would reduce 
Coelentera to the rank of a province. 

Name. — The word Coelentera (or rather its German 
equivalent) first occurs on page 38 of Beitriige zur 
Kennluiss wirbelloser Thiere, von Frey und Leuckart, 
Braunschweig (Vieweg), 1317.^ 

Here it should be mentioned that Burmeister (Zoonomische 
Briefe, Zweiter Theil, p. 279) has given the same name to 
a very different group of animals. He denotes by it the 
majority of the nematoid worms, placing in a separate sec- 
tion(Amorphoccela) Gordius and its allies, whose alimentary 
canal is more or less atrophied. In this sense Coelentera is 
nearly equivalent to Coelelminthes of Cuvier. 

Coelentera* is derived from koi'\os (hollow) and ivrepov 
(intestine or viscus). 

Definiiioh. — Allowing for the difficulty of expressing 
modern scientific concepts by compounds formed from 
words in common use, the meaning of which needs to be 
somewhat stretched, this etymology guides us to the 
definition of the Coelentera as animals having a conspicuous 
alimentary canal, which, with its prolongations, occupies 
the whole interior of the body,' and does the work of a 
vascular as well as of a digestive system. It is not true to 
add, however, that the C(Elentera are invariably destitute 
of cavities comparable (morphologically) to the blood 
vessels, perivisceral spaces, and other serous passages of the 
higher animals. Such cavities, hitherto usually overlooked, 
undoubtedly exist in some cases, as appears from the inves- 
tigations of Metschnikoff,^ Eilhard Sohulze,^ and others. 

The wall of the body in the Ccelentera has the same 
fundamental composition as among the higher animals, and 
exhibits various degrees of differentiation.^ Inner and 

* See Die KdOcschinamme, voa Ernst Haeckel, Berlin (Reimer), 

* See further another work by Leuckart, Ueber die Morphologie 
-und die Verwandtschn/isverhdltnisse der wirbellosen Thiere^ ibid., 

1343 ; and the valuable *' Bericht " contributed by the &ame writer to 
the Ar^hiv /iir NaiurgcsckichU from that date to the present ; alyo 
his university viro^amme, entitled — De Zoophytorum et hisloria ei 
digniiaie systematica, Lipsis, 187-3. 

' The doubts suggested on this point by R. Leuckart (Bericht f. 
3868-9, p. 188), in opposition to the views of Noschin, Semper, and 
Kowalewsky, may faow at length be regarded as set at rest by the 
Rppear.ince of the last-named writer's recent Memoir on the Developrrvnt 
of th' Ccelentera, This indispensable' work has unfortunately been 
printed in the Russian language, but the reader may consult its figures, 
in conjunction with the excellent German abstract, by Hoyer, in the 
second vol. of the Jahresherichte of Hofmann and Schwalbe. 

* " StudiOD ^ber die Entwickelang der Medusen und Siphonopboren,'' 
In Zeitschr, f.'wiss. Zool., tav. Band, p. 73. 

* Uber den Bau von Si/ncoryne Sarsii, Leipzig (Engelmann), 1873. 

* Almost the only comprehensive details on this subject which we 
}x>3se33 are contained in the Russian memoir by Kowalewsky, already 
referred to. 

outer layers of epithelial tissue, splinted by connective 
tissue (in close relation with which we usually find 
muscular fibres), arc always developed. 

Neither the absence of nervous tissues nor the presence 
of those c\irious microscopic organs known as thread-cells 
can henceforth be enumerated among the characters common 
to and distinctive of Ccelentera. Though a nervous system 
remains to be discovered in many, it certainly exists in 
some ; and in yet other cases, where anatomical evidence is 
wanting, its presence may reasonably be conjectured from 
purely physiological data. 

Most, if not all, Codeutera have thread-cells ; but these 
exist likewise in other organisms, notably in certain 
moUusks which were formerly supposed to derive them 
from the coelenterate animals on which they preyed. 

The plant-like aspect of many Coelentera arises in two 
ways. In the simple (not compound) ccelenterates, such 
as most sea-anemones, the tentacles or prehensile ap- 
pendages are so arranged as to simulate, when not too 
closely inspected, the petals of ordinary flowers (particularly 
flowers with numerous narrow petals, e.g., Mesembryanthe- 
mum) or the strap-shaped corollas of composite plants, 
like dahlias. In the compound species buds and branches 
are formed, marking changes in direction of growth ; and 
hence those wonderful phytoid aggregates which for su 
many centuries puzzled naturalists. 

Affinities. — The nearest relations of Ccelentera are 
undoubtedly the Echinodenns, whose remarkable vascular 
system is developed from one or more rudiments primarily 
formed as diverticula of the alimentary canal. The 
Ccelentera exhibit, even more perfectly than the echino- 
derms, a radiated arrangement of their parts, and, to a 
lesser degree, have this primitive disposition controlled by 
a superinduced bilateral symmetry. On the other hand 
the affinities of ccelenterates to worms, save through the 
echiuoderms, are very obscure.'' 

Of animals inferior to the Coelentera in complexity of 
structure their nearest reputed allies are the Infusoria.^ 
We are not yet able, however, to demonstrate the existence 
of any relationship of this kind, in spite of all that has 
been urged in its favour by ClaparMe, Greef, and other 
eminent anatomists. (J. E. o.) 

COELLO, Alonso Sanchez (1515-1590), painter, ac- 
cording to some authorities a native of Portugal, was 
born, according to others, at Benifacio, near the city of 
Valencia. He studied many years in Italy; and return- 
ing to Spain in 1541 he settled at Madrid, and worked 
on religious themes for most of the palaces and larger 
churches. He was a follower of Titian, and, like him, 
excelled in portraits and single figures, elaborating the tex- 
tures of his armours, draperies, and such accessories in a 
manner so masterly as strongly to influence Velasquez in 
his treatment of like objects. Many of his pictures were 
destroyed in the fires that consumed the Madrid and Prado 
palaces, but many good examples are yet extant, among 
which may be noted the portraits of the Infantes Carlos 
and Isabella, now in the Madrid gallery, and the St Sebastian 
painted in the church of San Ger6nimo, also in Madrid. 
Coello left a daughter, Isabella Sanchez, who studied under 
him, and painted excellent portraits. 

COEN, Jak Pieterszoon (1587-1630), the founder of 
Batavia, was born at Houru, and was sent when a youth to 
Rome to be instructed in the principles of commerce. In 
1607 he went to India, but returned some four years after- 
wards, and in 1012 was sent out a second time, with the 
command of two ships. He acquitted himself so well of 

' On the mutual relations of these groups, consalt the concluding 
part of an essay by A. Goette — ** Vergleichende Entwickelunge- 
geschichte der Comatula mediterranea," ic Archiv/iir Mikroskopischa 
Analomie, lii. Band. 1S7G. 

C (E N — C CE U 


))i3 commiBsion, and made himself so remarkable Viy the 
brilliance and success of his practice of commerce, that ui 
1613 he was named .director-general of the Indian trade. 
Iq 1617 be was made president at Bantam; and in 1G19, 
having taken and destroyed .lacatra, he founded on its ruins 
the city of Batavia, wjiich he forthwith proclaimed the 
capital of the Dutch East Indies. In 1G22 Coen revisited 
Europe, but five years afterwards he returned to Java. 
In 1G29 the Javanese emperor attempted to dislodge the 
intoilopors, and laid siege to Batavia ; but Coen beat ofl' 
all liis attacks. lie died the following year. 

CCENOBITES (from Koim'?, conimnn, and /3io<!, life), a 
religious ordor living in a convent, or in community, — in 
opposition to the aucboreta or hermits who live in solitude. 
See MoNASTicisM. 

CCEUK, Jacques, founder of the trade between France 
nnd the Levant, was born at Bourges, near the close of 
tho 14th century. His father, Pierre Coeur, was one of 
the richest peltry merchants of the flourishing city of 
Bourges ; and we hear first of Jacques in 1418, when he 
married Mac^e de L^odepart, daughter of an influential 
citizen, afterwards provost, a quondam valet of John of 
Berry. Aboutl429 he formed a commercial partnership with 
two brothers named Godard ; and in 1432 he is heard of at 
Damascus, buying and bartering, and tninsporting Levan- 
tine ware (gall-nuts, wools and silks, goats' hair, brocades 
and carpets) to the interior of France by way of Narbonne. 
In the same year he established himself at Montpellier, 
end thi^re commenced those gigantic operations which have 
made him illustrious among financiers of all time. Details 
are absolutely wanting; but it is certain that in a few years 
he placed liis country in a position to contend nof unsuc- 
cessfully with the great trading repubh'c3 of Italy and 
C.italonia, and acquired such reputation as to be able, 
mere trader as he was, to render material assistance to the 
Order of Rhodes and to Venice herself. 

In 1436 Coeur was summoned to ParLs by Charles VII., 
and made master of the mint that had been established in 
that city. The post was of vasti importance, and the duties 
were onerous in proportion. The country was deluged 
with the base monies of three reigns, charged with super- 
scriptions both French and English ; and Charles had de- 
termined on a sweeping reform. In this design he was 
ably seconded by the great merchant, who, in fact, inspired 
or prepared all the ordinances concerning the coinage of 
France issued between 1435 and 1451. In 1438 he was 
made steward of the royal expenditure ; and in 1440 he 
and his family were ennobled by letters patent In 1444 
ho was sent as one of the royal commissioners to preside 
over the new parliament of Languedoc — a dignity he bore 
through successive years till the day of his disgrace. In 
1445 his agents in the East negotiated a treaty between 
the Sultan of Egypt and the Knights of Rhodes ; and in 
1447, at his instance, Jean de Village, his nephew by mar- 
riage, was charged with a mission to Egypt. The results 
of this communication were most important ; concessions 
were obtained which greatly improved the position of the 
French consuls in the Levant, and that influence in the 
East was thereby founded which, though often interrupted, 
was for several centuries a chief commercial glory of France. 
In the same year Creur assi.sted in an embassy to the counts 
uf Savoy ; aud in 1448 he represented the French king at 
the court of Nicholas V., who treated him with utmost 
distinction, lodged him lu the Papal palace, and gave him 
a special licence to traffic with the Infidels. From about 
this time he made large advances to Cliarles for carry- 
ing on his wars; and in 1449, after fighting at the 
king's side through the campaign, he entered Rouen in his 

At this moment the great trader's glory was at its height 

He had represented France, in three cmnassies, and had -sup- 
plied the sinews of that war which had ou.sttd the English 
from Normandy. He was invested with various offices of 
dignity, and possessed the most colossal fortune that had 
ever been amassed by a private Frenchman. The sea was 
covered with his ships ; he had 300 factors in his employ, 
and houses Of business in all chief cities of France. He 
had bnilt hotels and chapels and bad founded colleges in 
Paris, at Montpellier, at Bourges. Dealing in all things — 
money and arm.';, peltry and jewels, brocades and woollens — 
broking, banking, farming, he had absorbed the trade of 
the lountry, and merchants complained they cimld make 
no gains on account of "that Jacquct." Soon, however, 
he was a broken man and a fugitive. Charles was sur- 
rounded with the enemies of the merchant ; he was " un- 
stable as water," and he was always needy. Jacques Coeur 
bad to go the way of others who had been the friends and 
favourites of the king. 

In February 1449 Agnes Sorel, the mistress of Charles, 
died of puerperal fever. It was maintained, however, that 
the Dauphin Louis had procured her death; and some con- 
siderable time after her death, Jacques Coeur, who had 
been named one of her executors, was accused formally of 
having poisoned her. There was not even a pretext for 
such a charge, but for these and other alleged crimes, 
the king, on the 31st July 1451, gave orders for the 
arrest of Jacques Coeur and for the seizure of bis goods, 
reserving to himself a large sum for the war in Guienne. 
Commissioners extraordinary, the merchant's declared 
enemies, were chosen to conduct the trial, and an inquiry 
commenced, the judges in which were .ither the prisoner's 
debtors or the holders of his forfeited estates. He was 
accused of having paid French gold ~nd ingots to the 
Infidels, of coining light monej', of kicnappiug oarsmen 
for his galleys, of sending back a CIiristij<.i slave who had 
taken sanctuary on board one of his ships, of committing 
frauds and exactions in Languedoc to the king's prejudice. 
He defended himself with all the energy of his nature. 
His innocence was manifest; but a conviction was neces- 
sary, and in spite of strenuous efl'orts on the part of his 
friends, after tweuty-two months of confinement in five 
pri.<;ons, he was condemned to do public penance for his 
fault, to pay the king a sum equal to about XI, 000,000 
of modern money, aud to remain a prisoner till full satis- 
faction had been obtained ; his sentence also embraced 
confiscation of all his property, and exile during royal 
pleasure. On June 5, 1453, the sentence took eilect; at 
Poitou the shameful form of making honourable amends 
was gone through ; and for nearly three years nothing is 
known of him. It is probable that he remained in pr;son ; 
it is certain that his vaft possessions were distrioatei 
among the intimates of Charles. 

In 1455 Jacques Coeur, wherever confined, contrived io 
escape into Provence. Ho was pursued ; but a partv 
headed by Jean de Village and two of his old factors, 
carried him ofl' to Tarascoo, whence, by way of Marseilles, 
Nice, and Pisa, ho managed to reach Rome. He was 
honourably and joyfully received by Nicholas V., who was 
fitting out an expedition against the Turks. On the 
death of Nichoks, Calixtus III. continued his work, aud 
named his guest captain of a fleet of sixteen galleys sent 
to the relief of Rhodes and the Archipelago. He set out 
on thi.t expedition, but was taken ill at Chios, and died 
there, November 25, 1456. He was buried on the island, 
but his place of sepulchre is not known. The stain waj 
not removea from his honour till the reigp of Louis XI., 
when, at tho instance of Oeofl'roy Coeur, the great mer- 
chant's name was finally rehabilitated. 

See the arlmirable tnonoeraph of Piorrc Clement — Jacqves Cizvr 
et Charles Scpl, 1858 ; Micnelet »nd Martin's liistorita ; VsUft iJ* 



VireyiUe.Oinrhi Sepl ct n-nt E/mquf, 3 vols, 1S62-1865; Bonamy, 
idfmfltrct sur tcs It^mxtrfs annifs de la w> rfc Jacques Coeur; 
Trouvc, Jacqni-s Caur, 1840 ; Louis Rajiial, ilistoirc d« Berry, vol. 
In. ; Louisa Coslcllo, Jacquts Occur, the French Argoriaul, London, 

COFFEE (French, Cafe; German, A'a/.c). This im- 
portant and valuable article of food is the produce chicHy 
ol C<^ffiaarahica,a. Kubiaccous plant indigenous to Abyssinia. 
which, however, as cultivated originally, spread outwards 
from the southern parts of Arabia, The name is probably 
derived from the Arabic K'hiwah, although by some it has 
beei? traced to Caffa, a province in Abyssinia, m which 
the tree grows wild. In the genus Coffea. to which the 
common coffee tree belongs, from -50 to CO species were 
formerly enumerated, scattered throughout the tropical parts 
of both hemispheres ; but by referring the American plants 
to a diffcj'ent genus, the list 18 now restricted to about 22 
species. Of these 7 beJong geographically to Asia , and of 
the 15 African species 1 1 are found on the west coast, 2 in 
Central and East A/nca. and 2 are natives of Mauritius 
Besides being found wild in Abyssinia, the common cofTee 
plant appears to be widely disseminated in Africa, having 
been seen on the shores of the Victoria Nyanza and in 
Angola on the west coast. Within the last year or two 
considerable attention has been devoted to a West African 
species, C. tiberica, belonging to the Libenan coxst, with 
a view to its extensive introduction and cultivation Its 
produce, obtained from native plants, have been several years 
in the English market. 

The common coffee shrub or tree is an evergreen plant, 
which under natural conditions grows to a height of from 
18 to 20 feet, with oblong-ovate, acuminate, smooth, and 
shining leaves, measunng about 6 inches in length by 2.^ 
wide Its flowers, which are produced in dense clusters lu 
the axils of the leaves, have a five-toolhed calyx, a tubular 
five-parted corolla, five stamens, and a single bifid style. 
The flowers are pure white in colour, with a rich fragrant 
odour, and the plants in blossom have a lovely and 
attractive appearance, but the blooiD is very evanescent. 
The fruit is a fleshy berry, 
having the appearance and 
size of a ..mall cherry, and 
as it ripens it assumes s 
dark red colour Each 
fruit contains two seeds 
embedded in a yellowish 
pulp, and the seeds are en- 
closed in a thin membran- 
ous endocarp (the parch- 
ment). The seeds which 
constitute the raw coffee 
of commerce are plano- 
convex in form, the fiat 
surfp ,es which axe laid 
ftgoinst each other within 
the berry having a longi- 
tudinal furrow or groove 
They are of a soft, semi- 
translucent, bluish or 
g^-eenish colour, hard and 
tough in texture. The 
regions found to be best 
adapted for the cultiva- 
tion of coffee are well- 
watered mountain slopes 
at an elesation ranging 
from 1000 to 4000 feet 

above latitudes Fro- 1— Branch of Coffea arabica. 
lying between 15° N. and 1.5° S., although it is successfully 
cultivated from 25° N. to 30° S. of the equator in situations 
wher« the temperature does not fall beneath 55° Fahr, The 

Libenan coffee plant, C. liberica, which has been broaghk 
forward as a rival to the ordinarUy cultivated species, i.' 
described as a l;irge leaved and large-fruited plant of a robust 
and hardy constitution. The seeds yield a highly aromatic 
and tine-tlavouied coffee; and so prolific u the plant, that 
a single tree is said to have yielded the enormous quan- 
tity of 10 Xb weight at one gathering. It is a tree, 
moioover, which grows at low altitudes, and it probably 
would flourish in many situations which have been proved 
to be uii.suitable for the Arabian coffee. Should it come 
up. to tha sanguine expectations of Ceylon planters and 
others to whom it has been submitted, there is no doubt 
that It wdl prove a formidable rival to the species which 
has hitherto received the exclusive attention of planters. 
It grows wild in great abundance along the whole of the 
Guinea coast. 

The early history of coffee as an economic product is 
involved in considerable obscurity, the absence of histoncal 
fact being compensated for by an unusual profusion of 
conjectural statements and by purely mythical stones. 
According to a statement contained m a manuscript 
belonging to the Bibliotbeque Nationale in Pans, the use 
of coffee was known at a period so remote as 875 a.D., or 
exactly 1000 years ago. In a treatise published in 1566 
by an Arab sheikh it is stated that a knowledge of coffee 
was first brought from Abyssinia into Arabia about the 
beginning of the 15th century by a learned and pious 
Sheikh Djemal-eddin Ebn-Abou-Alfagger, According to 
the treatise alluded to the use of coffee as a beverage waa 
prevalent among the Ahyssmians from the most remote 
period, and m Arabia the beverage when first introduced 
only supplanted a preparation from the leaves of the cat, 
Celastrus edulis. Its peculiar property of dissipating 
drowsiness and preventing sleep was taken advantage of 
in connection with the prolonged religious servfces of the 
Mahometans, and its use as a devotional antisoporific stirred 
up a tierce opposition on the part of the strictly orthodox 
and conservative section of the priests. Coffee was by 
them held to be an intoxicant beverage, and therefore 
prohibited by the Koran ; and the dreadful penalties of an 
outraged sacred law were held over the heads of all who 
became addicted to its use. Notwithstanding the threats 
of divine retribution, and though all manner of devices were 
adopted to check its growth, the coffee-drinking habit 
spread rapidly among the Arabian Mahometans, and the 
growth of coffee as well as its use as a national beverage 
became as inseparably associated with Arabia as tea is with 
China, For about two centuries the entire supply of the 
world, which, however, waa then limited, was obtained 
from the province of Yemen in South Arabia, where the 
celebrated Mocha or Mokha is still cultivated. 

The knowledge of and taste for coffee spread but slowly 
outwards from Arabia Felix, and it was not till the middle 
of the 16th century that coffee-houses were established in 
Constantinople. Here also the new habit excited consider- 
able commotion among the ecclesiastical public. The 
popularity of the coffee-houses had a depressing influence 
on the attendance at the mosques, and on that account a 
fierce hostility was excited among the religious orders againsi 
the new beverage They laid their grievances before the 
sultan, who imposed a heavy tax upon the coffee-houses, 
notwithstanding which they flourished and extended. After 
the lapse of another hundred years coffee reached Great 
Britain, a coffee-house having been opened in 1652 in 
London by a Greek, Pasqua Rossie Rossie came from 
Smyrna with Mr D. Edwards, a Turkey merchant, and in 
the capacity of servant he prepared coffee daily for Mr 
Edwards and his visitors. So popular did the new drinic 
become with Mr Edwards's friends that their visits 
occasioned him ereat inconvenience to obviate which he 



directed Rossie to establish a ijublic coffee-house, which 
he accordingly did. The original establishment was in St 
Michael's Alluy, Conihill, over the door of which Rossie 
erected a sign with his portrait, subsequently announcing 
himself to be " the first who made and publicly sold collce 
drink in England." It is remarkable that the introduction 
of coffee into England encountered the same hostility 
that it was fated to meet id other countries. Charles II., 
in 1675, attempted to suppress coffee-houses by a royal 
proclamation, in which it was stated that they were the 
resort of disaffected persons " who devised and spread 
abroad divers false, malicious, and scandalous reports, to 
the defamation of His Majesty's Government, and to the 
disturbance of the pftice and quiet of the nation." On the 
opinion of legal officials bei'ig taken as to the legality of 
this step, an oracular deliverance was given to the effect 
"that the retailing of coffee might be an innocent trade, 
but as It was used to nourish sedition, spread lies, and 
scandalize great ipcn, it might also be a common nuisance." 
In England as well as in other countries the most effective 
check on the consumption of coffee was found to be a 
heavy tix, which, while restricting honest trade, opened a 
channel for extensive smuggling operations. Coffee is 
spoken of as being in use in France bet.veen 1G40 and 
1660, and thereafter it may be said that the use of coffee 
was an established custom in Europe. It is noteworthy 
that the three principal dietetic bever.iges of the world 
were introduced into Great Britain within a few years of 
each other. Cocoa was the tirst of the three which actually 
appeared in Europe; having been brought to Spain from 
South America ; coffee followed, coming from Arabia by 
way of Coiistaotino[)le; and tea, the latest of the series, 
came from China by the hands of the Dutch. 
. Down to 1690 the only source of coffee supply was 
Arabia, but in that year Governor-General Van Hoorne of 
the Dutch East Indies received a few coffee seeds by 
traders who plied between the Arabian Gulf and Java. 
These seeds he planted in a garden at Batavia, where they 
grew and flourished so abundantly that the culture, on an 
extended scale, was immediately commenced in Java. One 
of the first plants grown in that island was sent to Holland 
as a present to the governor of the Dutch East ludia 
Company. It was planted in the Botanic Garden at 
Amsterdam, and young plants grown from its seeds were 
sent to Surinam, where the cultivation was established in 
1718. IVti years later the plant was introduced in the 
West Indian Islands, and gradually the culture extended 
throughout the New World, till now the progeny of the 
single plant .sent from Java to HoUand produces more 
coffee than is grown by all the other plants in the world. 
The cultivation is now general throughout all civilized 
regions of the tropical world. In point of quantity Brazil 
heads the list of coffee-growing countries, its annual produce 
probably exceeding that of all other localities combined. 
It is calculated that no less than 530,0i)0,000 coffee trees 
are at present flourishing, throughout that empire. During 
the Brazilian financial year ending 1S72, more than 
2,000,000 bags, each containing IGO &, were exported from 
Brazil ; and the United States alone absorb upwards of 
200,000,000 fi) of Brazilian coffee annually. The other 
principal American localities for coffee-growing are -Costa 
Bica, Guatemala, Venezuela, Guiana, Peru, and Bolivia, with 
Jamaica, Cuba, Porto Rico, and the West Indian Islands 
generally. In the East the principal coffee regions, follow- 
ing BrazU in amount, but much superior in the quality of 
their produce, are Java and Ceylon. The annual produce 
of Java reaches to about 1 30,000,000 lb ; and from Ceylon 
about 100,000,000 lb is annually exported. The culture 
of coffee is an important and rapidly gromng feature in 
Southern India, and it is also prosecuted in Sumatra, 

Reunion, Mauritius, and Southern Arabia, and on the west 
coast of Africa. The present total annual production of tho 
world has been estimated to amount to not less than 
1,000,000,000 lb. At the beginning of the 18th century, 
whde Arabia was still the only source of supply, probably 
not more than 7,500,000 lb was yearly exported from 
that country; the consumption of Europe in 1820 waa 
stated by A. Vou Humboldt at about 140,000,0001b, while 
300,000,000 D) probably represented the quantity used 
throughout the world. The yearly consumption in Gr^t 
Britain has for about 30 years been drooping in the face of 
a rapidly increasing population and consuming capacity, 
while the quantity absorbed by other countries has iucreased 
with extraordinary rapidity. The whole amount entered for 
home consumption in 1790 was 973,1 10 lb ; and an increase 
in the duly charged caused the consumption to drop in 1 796 
to 396,953 B). A reduction in the duty caused the con- 
sumption in 1808 to shoot up suddenly from 1,069,691 lb 
in tliat year to 9,201,837 lb in 1809. The quantity con- 
sumed never again mouuted so high till in 1825 it was 
affected by another reduction of duty, and 10,760,112- lb 
was retained for the home market. Thereafter the con^ 
sumption rapidlyand steadilyiucreased.reaching 22,669,253 
ft in 1830, 28,664,341 ft in 1840, and in 1847 coming 
to its maximum of 37,441,373 lb, from which point it 
again declined. In 1857 the consumption had fallen to 
34,352,123 lb ; in 1867 it was 31,567,760 ; aud in 1869 
it fell so low as 29,1 09,1 13 ft). The total imports for the 
year 1874 amounted to 157,351,376 lb. but of this only 
31,859,408 lb were retained for home consumption. The 
chief cause of the declining popularity of coffei in Great 
Britain is doubtless to be found in the extraordinary hold" 
which its rival beverage — tea — has taken on the community; 
but something of the falling off is also attributable to the 
extent to which coffee was for a long period made the 
subject of adulteration and sophistication. Indeed for some 
years, between 1840 and 1852, much of what was sold 
under the name of coffee was actually chicory, a root which 
at that period was cultivated and manufactured duty free, 
while coffee was subject to a heavy import duty. 

The different estimation in which coffee is held in various 
countries is well brought out m the followiug estimate of 
•the consumption per head calculated from the official returns 
for 1S73 ; — ' , 

Total tmporla of Coffee Areriee 
for consumption. per Le«d. 

Franco 98,635,000 lb 2-73 lb 

Belgium .'. ... 49,771,000 J34S 

Switzerland 18,779,500 7-03 

Russia, Euroiwan 14,740,920 0-19 

Sweden 26,555,218 611 

Norway 17,636,080 9 80 

Denmark 26,035,652 lS-8i> 

Holland „ 72,395,800 2100 

Hamburg (Germany) 178,715,936 

Austria (1871) 76.876,576 213 

Greece 2,131,367 1-42 

Italy (1S71) 28,511,560 100 

Ifnited Kingdom ^ 32,330,928 100 

United States 293,293,833 7-61 

The commercial distinctions as established in the British 
market relate — first, to qualities, as " fine, " " middling, " 
" ordinary, " " low, " and " triage, " the last being broken 
and damaged seeds; and secondly, to localities of produc- 

Shape, size, and colour of seeds are the principal elements 
which determine the commercial value of coffee. Shape, 
according to Mr W. P. Hiern (in a communication to the 
Linnean Society, April 20, 1876), is related to the particu- 
lar part of the plant upon which the seed grows ; size and 
succulence correspond with the nature of the locality of 
growth ; and colour has reference to the degree of maturity 
attained by the fruit at the time of gathering. The highly 



piized variety known as peabcrry is the result of tlie 
coalescence of the two seeds within the fruit, thus producing 
the appearance of a single rounded seed, usually of small 
si/c, whence the name. Regarding the famous Mocha or 
"Mokha" cofTee of Arabia, M( W. G. Palgrave Las the 
following remarks :— 

"The best cofTi", let cnviliers say wliot t/iey »iii, is that of 
Yemen, coninioiily entitled 'Mokha,' from the mam port of ex- 
portation. Now. I should be sorry to incur a I.Twsiiit for libel or 
ileftimatioii from our wliolesale or retail tradesmen ; but were the 
particle not prefixed to the countless labels in London shop windnus, 
that bear the name of the Red Sea liaven, they would have a more 
truttiy import than what at present tliey convey. Very little, so 
little indeed as to be quite unappiccijble. of tlie Mokha or Yemen 
berry ever linils its way westward of Constanliiiople Arabia itself, 
Syria, and K;:ypt consume fully two-thirrls, .nnd the ren)ainder is 
Almost exclusively absorbed byl'urkisliand Aiinenianrpsophagi. Ncir 
do these Inst get toi their share the best or the piir.'st Before reach- 
ing tlie harbours of Alexandria, Jalla, Reyrout. «^c , for further 
.exportation, the northern bales have beeii, while ^et on their >vay< 
sifted and re-sifted, grain by giain, and whatever they may hav& 
contained of the bard, rounded, half transparent, greenish- brown 
berry, the only one really worth loastiug and pounding, has beeu 
ilarefully picked out by experienced Bngers: and it is the less 
generous residue of flattened, opaque, and whitish grains which 
alone, or almost alone, goes on board the shipping So constant is 
this selecting process that a gradation, legiilar as the degrees in a 
map, observed in the quality of Mokha, that is, Yemen 
coffee, even within the limits of Arabia itself, in proportion as one 
approaches to or recedes from Wadi Nejran and the neighbourhood 
01 Mecca, the tirst stages of the radiating mart." 

Tlie "^^ocIla" of the English market is principally llie 
produce of India, but a good deal of American toffee is 
also passed iifto consumption under that abused name. 

The conditions most favourable for coffee planting are 
found in hilly situations, where the ground is at once 
friable, well drained, and enriched by the washing down 
of new soil from above by the frequent rains. The seeds 
are first sown in a nursery, and the youug plants when 
they are a few inches high are planted out in the permanent 
plantation at distances from each other of from 6 to S feet. 
Tlie operatioQ of planting is one which requires great 
care, and mucll' labour must be exponded on drainage, 
weeding, and cleaning the plantation, and in pruning or 
'• handling" the plants. Chiefly for convenience of secur- 
ing the crop, the trees are rarely allowed to exceed from 4 
to 6 feet in height, and being so pruned down they extend 
• heir branches laterally in a vigorous manner. The plants 
begin bearing in their second year, and by the third year 
they should yield a fairly rcmuocrative crop. The berries 
are ready for picking when they have assumed a dark-red 
colour and the skin shrivels up. Immediately after the 
berries are g.ithcred they are conveyed to the storehouse, 
where they undergo the operation of pulping ; and on some 
hill csUles in Ceylon, having suitable .situation and water 
supply, the gathered berries are carried by a water run 
through g.alvanized pipes to the store. The pulping is 
performed in an apparatus having two roughened cylinders 
which move in opposite directions. Between these the 
berries are carried forward with a flow of water, and the 
seeds are deprived of their surrounding pulp, being left 
invested in the skin or parchment. In this condition they 
nre spread out to dry, and as soon as practicable they are 
freed from the husk or parchment by passing them 
between heavy wooden rollers and winnowing away the 
broken husks. The shelled coffee is then sized by passing 
it down a tube perforated throughout its length with holes 
of regularly increasing diameter, and the various sizes are 
next hand picked to free thein from defective or malformed 
seeds, the coffee is then ready to pack for export. A tree 
in good bearing will yield from IJ to 2 lb of berries in a 
year; but its fertility depends largely upon conditions of 
climate, situation, and soil. Generally trees planted in 
lofty dry situations and in light soils yield small berries. 

which give a rich aromatic coffee, Txhile in low, flat, tnoir.c 
climates a nmre abundant yield of a kirgo.Mzid berry is 
obtained. The grealcr weight of the coar.ser qualities of 
coffee more than makes up lor the smaller price obtained 
for Ihem as against the higher cost of the liner growths; 
and therefore quality is too often i-acrificed to quantity. 

The cultivation of coffee is attended with many iisks and 
much anxiety. In Ceylon, where British capital and 
cnterprize have hitherto found their [irinci|ial sc(i|ie, the 
estates are exposed to the attacks i^f a mtwl mischievous 
and destructive rodent, lliecoffee or Culunda rat. A species 
of insect called the cofft-e bug, J.ecanmm mffrce, is a still 
more formidable and alarming pest with which planters 
have to contend. Of recent years prominent attention 
has been drawn to two diseased conditions arising in 
Singalese and Indian plantations by fungus growths. The 
first, called the coffee leaf disease, appeared in Ceylon in 
1S69, aud in Mysore a year later The fungus in this 
case, Itemileia vastalrix, is endophytous, growing within 
the substance of the leaf, and while no eti'ective cure has 
been discovered for it, it is not yet clear that it seriously 
affects the quality or amount of coffee yielded by Ihe jilanls. 
The second, known as the coffee rot, on the other hand, 
works great havoc in the .Mysore plantations, in which it 
has been observed, 
being especially hurt- 
ful in wet seasons. 
This funs^us has been 
exaniin^.d by Mr .\I. 
C. Cookfc, who names 
it Pillicnlaria kole- 
rota, and describes 
the affected leaves as 
being covered with a 
slimy gelatinous film, 
under which the 
leaves become black 
and quickly drop off, 
as do also the clusters 
of coffee berries. 

Raw coffee seeds 
are tough and horny 
in structure, and are 
devoid of the peculiar aroma and taste which are so 
characteristic of the roasted seeds. In minute structure 
coffee is so distiiict from all other vegetable substances that 
it is readily recognized by means of the microscope, and as 
roasting does not destroy its distinguishing peculiarities, 
microscopic examination forms the readiest means of 
determining the genuineness of any sample. The substance 
of the seed, .according to Dr Hassall, consists "of an 
assemblage of vesicles or cells of an angular form, which 
adhere so firmly together that they break up into pieces 
rather than separate into distinct and perfect cells. The 
cavities of the cells include, in the form of little drops, 
a considerable quantity of aromatic volatile oil, on the 
presence of which the fragrance and mai^y of the active 
principles of the berry depend" (see fig. 2). The testa or 
investing membrane of the seeds has a layer of long cells 
with a peculiar pitted structure. In chemical composition 
the seeds are complex, and they contain variable pro- 
porlionsof proximate principles. The following represents 
the average constitution of raw coffee according to i\» 
analysis of M. i'ayen ;— ■ 

Cellulose 3t 

Water J2 

Fat . ..........; 10 to 13 

Glucose, dextrin, and organic acid ... 15'5 

Legiiinin and casein.,.. 10 

Other nitrogenous substances ... ... '6 

CaBeme 08 

FiC. 2 — Microscopic .structure ol Coffee. 



Cifleunnatr of canreiue and potasslQm 3'i 
Viscid essential oil (insoluble io water) 
Aiomatic oiU (some lighter some 

heavier than \vat*r) 


to SO 


TLe physiological and dietetic value of coffee depends 
priQcipally upon the alkaloid caffeine which it contains, 
III common with tea, cocoa, mat^ or Paraguay tea, 
pnarana, and the African kola nut. It3 commercial 
value IS, however, determined by the amount of the aromatic 
oil. caffepne. which develops in it by the process of roasting. 
Dy prolonged keeping it is found that the richness of any 
.••ceds in this peculiar oil is increased, and with increased 
aroma the coffee also yields a blander and more mellow 
beverage. Stored coffee loses weight at first with great 
rapidity, as much as 8 per cent, having been found to 
dissipate in the first year of keeping, 5 per cent, in the 
second, and 2 per cent, in the third ; but such loss of weight 
19 more than compensated by improvement in quality and 
consequent enhancement of value. 

In the process of roasting, coffee seeds swell up by the 
liberation of gases within their substance, — their weight 
decreasing in proportion to the extent to which the operation 
IS carried. Roasting also develops with the aromatic 
caffeone above alluded to a bitter soluble principle, and it 
liberates a portion of the caffeine from its combination with 
caffetannic acid. Roasting is an operation of the greatest 
nicety, and one, moreover, of a crucial nature, for equally 
by insuSicicnt and by excessi^'e roasting much of the aroma 
sf the coffee is lost; and its infusion is neither agreeable to 
the palate nor e.vlnlarating in its influence. The roaster 
must judge of the amount of heat required f(5r the adequate 
roasting of different qu.ilities, and while that is variable, 
the range of roasting temperature proper for individual 
kinds 13 only narrow. In Continental countiies it is the 
practice to roast in sm.Ml quantities, and thus the whole 
charge is well under the control of the roaster ; but in 
Britain large roasts are the rule, in dealing with which 
much difficulty is experienced in producing uniform' 
torrefaction. and in stopping the process at the proper 
moment. The coffee-roasting apparatus is usually a 
malleable iron cylinder mounted to revolve over the fire 
on a hollow axle which allows the escape of gases generated 
during torrefaction. Messrs W. and G. Lawof Edinburgh 
have introduced a very ingenious adaptation of the cylinder 
whereby a compound simultaneous horizontal and vertical 
motion is secured, causing the seeds to be tossed about in 
all directions and communicating a uniform heat to every 
portion of the cylinder. The roasting of coffee should be 
done as short a time as practicable before the grinding for 
use, and as ground coffee especially parts rapidly with its 
aroma, the grinding should only be done when coffee is 
about to be prepared. Any ground coffee which may be 
kept should be rigidly excluded from the air. 

While Arabia produces the choicest variety of coffee, the 
T'lasting of the seeds and the prepararion of the beverage 
are aUu here conducted w ith unequalled skill Mr W. G. 
Palgrave gives the following account of these operations in 
'is Central and Eastern Arabia: — 

"Without deLij" Sowclylim begins his preparations for coffee. 
These open by abotit five minutes' blowing with the bellows, and 
jrninOTng the charcoal till a sufficient heat has beeji produced. 
Next ne places the largest of the coffee-pota, a huge niacKinc, and 
about two- thirds full of clear water, close by the edge of the glowing 
uoal pit, that its contents may become gradually warm while other 
operations are in progress. He then takes a dirty knotted rag out 
or a niche in the w.ill close by, and having untied it. empties out of 
it three or four haadfiils of unroasted coffee, the which he places on 
» little trencher of platted grass, and picks carefully out any 
blackened grains, or other nonhomologous substances commonly to 
bo found intermixed with the berries when purchased in gross; then, 
after mflch cleansing and shaking, he pours the grains so clesnsc-d 
iuio ■ largo open iron ladle, and places it over the month of the 

funnel, at the same time Mowing tte tellows and (tirrisg tha 
gnuus gently round and round till they crackle, redden, an(l amoke 
a little, but carefully withdrawing them from the heat long before 
they turn black or charred, after the erroneous faiihion of Turkey 
and Europe; after which he puts them a moment to cool on the 
grass platter. He then sets the warm water in the large coffbe- 
pot over the fire aperture, thai it may b« re.idy boiling at the right 

moment, and dr*ivs in close between his own trouserless legs a 

rrow pit 
admit the black stone pestle of a foot long and an inch and a half 

large stone mortar with a narrow pit in the middle, just enougl 

!g3 a 
;h to 

thick, \;hich he now takes in hand. Next pouring the half-roosted 
berrieainto the mortar he proceeds to pound them, striking right into 
the narrow hollow with wonderful dexterity, not ever missing his blow 
till the beans are smashed, but not reduced into powder. He then 
scoop them out, now reduced to a sort of coarse reddish giit, very 
unlike the fine charcoal powder which passes in some countries for 
coffee, and out of which every particle of real aroma has long siDi-« 

been burned or ground. After all these operations h» 

takes a smaller coffee-pot in hand, fills it more than half with hot 
water from the larger vessel, and then, shaking the poondcd coffet 
into It. sets it on the fire to boil, occasionally stirring it with a 
small stick as the WLter rises, to check the ebullition and prevent 
overflowing. Nor is the boiliiig.stage to be long or vehement ; on 
the contrary, it is and should be as slight as p.ossible. lii the- 
interim he takes out of another rag-knot a few aromatic seeds called 
lieyl, an Indian product, but of w^osc scientific name I regret to 
be wholly ignorant, or a little saffron, and after slightly pounding 
these ingi'edients, throws them into the simraeiing coffee to improve 
its flavour,— for such an additional spicing is held indispensable in 
Arabia, though often omitted elsewhere in the East. Sugar, I may 
say, would be a totally unheard-of profanation. Last of all, ha 
stinins oir the liquor through some fibres of the inner palmlwik, 
placed for that purpose in the jug-spout, and gets ready the troy of 
delicate party-coloured grass and the small colfee-cups ready for 
pouring out." 

There is no doubt that were proper attention bestowed 
upon the preparation of coffee it would become a much 
more popular beverage in Great Britain than it now is; 
but to obtain it in perfection much greater care is requisite 
than is ncces.sary in the case of tea. To obtain coffee with 
a full aroma it must be prepared as an infusion with boiling 
water, or the water may simply be allowed to reach the 
boiling point after infusion and nothing more. Dr Parkes 
has, however, pointed out that by infusion alone much of 
the valuable soluble matter iu ground coffee remains 
unextracted ; and he recommends that the coffee which has 
already been used for infusion should be preserved and 
boiled, and that ihe liquor therefrom should be used for 
infusing a fresh supply. By this means the substance of 
the previously infused coffee and the aroma of the new are 
obtained together. Among the numerous devices which 
have been proposed for preparing coffee, none is more 
elegant and efficient than an apparatus constructed 
by Mr James R. Napier F.R.S., for which a patent waj 
obtained by Mr 
David Thomson 
of Glasgow. It 
consists of a glass 
globe a (fig. 3), an 
infusing jar 6, of 
glass or porcelain 
and a bent tube 
c of block tin or 
German silver 
fitted by a cork 
stopper into the 
neck of the globe 
and passing to the 
bottom of the jar, 
where it ends iu 
a finely perforated 
disa The appa 
ratua also re- 
quires a spirit 
lamp d or other 

Fio. 3. — Napier 3 Coffee Apparattu. 

means of 
amount of heat to the globe. 

communicating a certain 
The coffee is iufused witt 


CO F — C F 

boiling water in the jar, and a small quantity of boiling 
water is also placed in the globe. The tube is then fitted 
in, and the spirit lamp is lighted under t'he globe. The 
Bteim generated expels the air from the'globe, and it bubbles 
up through the jar. When the bubbles of air cease to 
appear almost the whole of the air will have been ejected, 
and on withdrawing the lamp the steam in*the globe con- 
denses, creating a vacuum, to fill up which the infused 
coffee rushes up through the metal tube, being at the same 
time filtered by the accumulated ccffee grounds around the 
jicrforated disc. An error of very frequent occurrence in 
the preparation of coffee, which results probably from 
the habit of tea-making, consists in using too little coffee. 
l-'or a pint of the infusion from an ounce to an ounce 
and a half of coffee ought to be used. According to the 
experiments of Aubert a cup of coffee made from a Prus- 
hiiUi loth ('SS? oz.) contains from 15 to 19 grains of 

Coffee belongs to the medicinal or auxiliary class of food 
substances, being solely valuable for its stimulant effect 
upon the nervous and vascular system. It produces a feeling 
of buoyancy and exhilaration comparable to a certain stage 
of alcoholic intoxication, but which does not end in depres- 
sion or collapse. It increases the frequency of the pulse, 
lightens the sensation of fatigue, and it sustains the strength 
under prolonged and severe muscular exertion. The value 
of its hot iufusion under the rigours of Arctic cold has 
been demonstrated in the experience of all Arctic explorers, 
and it is scarcely less useful in tropical regions, where it 
oeneficially stimulates the action of the skin. It has been 
affirmed that coffee and other substances containing the 
alkaloid caffeine have an influence in retarding the waste of 
tissue in the human frame, but careful and extended 
observation has demonstrated that they have no such effect. 
-Although by microscopic, physical, and chemical tests 
the purity of coffee can be determined with perfect certainty, 
yet ground coffee is subjected to many and extensive 
ndulterations. Chief among the adulterant substances, if 
it can be so called, is chicory root ; but it occupies a 
peculiar position, since very many people on the Continent 
as well as in Great Britain deliberately prefer a mixture 
of chicory with coffee to pure coffee. Chicory is indeed 
destitute of the stimulant alkaloid and essential oil for 
which coffee is valued ; but. the facts that it has stood the 
test of prolonged and extended use, and that its infusion 
is, in some localities, used akne, indicate that it performs 
some useful function in connection with coffee, as used at 
least by Western communities. Forone thing, it yields a 
copious amount of soluble matter in infusion with hot 
water, and thus gives a specious appearance of strength and 
substance to what may be really only a very weak j repara- 
tion of coffee: The mixture of chicory vnth coffee is easOy 
detected by the microscope, the structure of both, which 
they retain after torrefaction, being very characteristic and 
distinct. The granules of coffee, moreover, remain hard 
and angular when mixed with water, to which they com- 
municate but little colour ; chicory, on the other hand, 
swelling up and softening, yields a deep brown colour to 
water in which it is thrown. The specific gravity of an 
infusion of chicory is also much higher than that of coffee. 
Among the niinerous other substances used to adulterate 
coffee are roasted and ground roots of the dandelion, carrot, 
parsnip, and beet ; beans, lupins, and other leguminous 
seeds; wheat, rice, and various cereal grains; the seeds of 
the broom, fenugreek, and iris; acorns; and "negro coffee," 
the seeds of Cassia occidentalis. These with many more 
sinnilar substances have not only been used as adulterants, 
b it nuder v-irious high-sounding names several of them 
have been introduced as substitutes for coffee ; but they 
have neither merited nnr obtained any success, and their 

sole effect has been to bring coffee into uujcserved disrepul.- 
with the public. ^ 

The leaves of the coffee tree contain caffeine in larger 
proportion than the seeds themselves, and their use as a 
substitute for tea has frequently been suggested. The 
leaves are actually so used iu Sumatra, but being destitute 
of any attractive aroma such as is posses.'sed by both tea and 
coffee, the infusion is not palatable. It is, moreover, not 
practicable to obtaiu both seeds and leaves from the same 
plant, and as the commercial demand is for the seed alone, 
no consideration either of profit or of any dietetic or 
economic advantage is likely to lead to the growth of coffee 
trees on account of. their leaves. (j. pa.) 

COFFER-DAMS have from very early times been 
employed as useful, and in some cases indispensable, 
structures in executing works of marine and river 
engineering. By excluding the water from the area they 
enclose, the work can be carried on within them with ndarly 
the same ease as on dry land. Whether used on a small 
or a large scale — whether as low-tide dams of clay or 
concrete of only a few feet in height, or as high-water dams 
of timber and puddle formed to resist the waves of the sea, 
they are in every sense structures of great importance in 
the practice of hydraulic engineering. 

Tide-dams are chiefly used in laying the foundations of 
piers or other works that must be founded under low-water 
level. They are generally made of clay and planking, 
and are only carried to the height of about 3 feet above 
low water. The water being pumped out during the last of 
the ebb tide affords one or two hours work at low-water, 
the 11 being submerged on the rise of the tide. In such 
dams a sluice should be introduced, which when open may 
allow the water to escape with the falling tide and so save 
pumping. Such tide-dams when exposed to a considerable 
wash of sea may advantageously be made of cement rubbls 
masonry, of the application of which to coffer-dams the 
earliest account we know is that stated in Stevenson's 
Account of the Bell-Rock Lighthouse (p. 230), where he 
successfully employed that method of construction in 1808 
in excavating the foundation of that work. When it is 
required to sink the foundation some feet into sand and 
gravel, a convenient expedient is the portable dam proposed 
by Mr Thomas Stevenson described in the Trans, of the 
Roy. Scot. Society of Alts, 1848, to which reference is made. 
The feature in this tide-dam is the use of double framed 
walings to support and direct the driving of the sheet pile?, 
and its advantages are its cheapness, its portability, and i'.s 
ready adaptation to a sloping or even very iiregular bottom. 

But when it is necessary entirely to exclude the water 
from large areas, as, for example, in dock-works, it is 
necessary to adopt coffer-dams of varied construction suited 
to the circumstances of each case, and as these protecting 
coffer-dam works, notwithstanding their temporary nature, 
demand much of the engineer's skill in their design and 
construction, we propose to notice some of the different 
modes of construction that have been adopted in such cases 
to suit the varying sub-soil and other features of different 

It may here be mentioned that, particularly in bridj" 
building, caissons were employed in early times instead (f 
coffer-dams, but they are now entirely out of use. Th? 
caisson was a flat-bottomed barge constructed of stronr >' 
framed timber-work, in which the under courses formi../ 
the foundation of the piers of a bridge, for example, wer . 
built at any convenient spot near the banks of the rive;. 
.The caisson was then floated' to the site of the pier, the 
bed of the river having previously been dredged so as to 
present a comparatively level and smooth surface. On t: ■ 
bed so prepared the caisson was sunk by admitting t 
water gradually by means of a valve provided for th-i 

C F F E R-D A ^I S 


purpose. The sides were so constructed as to admit of 
their easy removal from the bottom of the caisson whea it 
had been sunk to its bed. llankine mentions a caisson 
described by Becker which measured 63 feet long, 21 feet 
broad, and 1 5 feet deep orer all. The bottom beams used 
in constructing this large caisson were 10 inches square 
and 2 feet 10 inches apart from centre to centre, and the 
uprights forming the sides were 10 inches square and 5 
feet 8 inches apart from centre to centre. 

But to return to the subject of this article. The dams 
used in soft bottoms, where piles can be driven, are con- 
structed of timber, and vary in strength according to the 
head of water they bav- to sustain. But the general style 
of construction is in all cases the same. The dams are 
formed of parallel rows of piles driven into the bottom, 
the space between the rows being filled by a mass of clay 
puddle of sufficient thickness to exclude the water which 
percolates between the joints of the piles. In cases where 
the head of water is not great, the coffer-dam is generally 
constructed as shown in fig 1., where the gauge piles a 

'h C 



Fio. 1.— CotTcr-dam for Soft Boltora. 

are driven at distances varying from 4 to 8 feet apart, 
to which walings b are fixfid, and between the walings 
sheet piles c are driven. The sheet piles are shod with iroh, 
having a sloping edge to cause the piles to cling while being 
driven, and in the centre of each bay there is a key pile 
f, having a slight taper which on being driven down com- 
^iresses the sheet piles on either side of it closely together. 
In ca^es where the water pressure is great the sheeting piles 
are dispensed with, and the dam is formed of two or some- 
times three rows of whole timbers having the clay puddle 
between them. Fig. 2 is a dam on this principle, used iu 
the construction of the Thames embankment, and described 
in tho Transactiotia of the Imtilution of Civil Engineer$ by 
Mr Thomas Ridley,and after theexplanationsthat have been 
given, its construction will be easily understood as an outer 
and inner dam formed of two rows of close-driven whole 
logs with intervening spaces of 6 feet filled with clay puddle. 
In all cases the dams must be supported by sufficient stays 
or stmts, abutting on Arm ground, or, when this cannot be 
got, on dwarf piles driven deep enough to atlord sufficient 
resistance. It is also important to remove the soft matter 
between the rows of piles to as great a depth as possible, 
and to fill in the excavated space with clay puddle, for 

although the timber-work of the dam must be constructed 
BO as to resist pressures, it will generally be found that the 
greatest risk of failure arises from the filtration of water 
under the bottom o£ *he sheeting piles and puddle. 

Fio. 2. — Coffer-dam used at Thames Embankment. 

The coffer-dams described illustrate the general constmc- 
tion of such works, but various arrangements of the timber 
work have been adopted to suit particular situations, such as 
Mr James Walker's cofiFer-dam for coustructing the founda- 
tions of the river terrace of the Houses of Parliament at 
Westminster (vide Min. of Proc. of Inst, of C. E., vol L), 
and Sir John Hawkshaw's dam for the middle level drainage 
of Lincoln (J/i'k. of Proc. of Inst, of Civil Etigineers, vol. 

All the examples that have been given are applicaU" 
to situations where the bottom is sufficiently soft to aumit 
of piles being driven. But cases occur where this ia 
impossible. Such, for example, as the removal of obstruc- 
tions from the beds of rivers where it may be necessary to 
lay di-y a. large area of solid rock, and in that case it is 
necessary to adopt a totally different construction of dam. 
The accompanying cut (fig. 3) shows a coffer-dam designed 
by Mr D. Stevenson, which is specially adapted to a hard 
bottom where piles cannot be driven.' It is formed of two 
rows of iron piles placed 3 feet apart and jumped into 
the rock, which supports two linings of planking, the inter- 
mediate space being filled with puddle and the whole 
structure properly .stayed. This dam has been successfully 
employed on many works, and on the Kibble navigation, 
where it was first introdnced, it was used to excavate a bed 
of rock 300 yards in length and of a maximum depth of 
13 feet C inches. The Jiiaximum depth at high water 
against the dam was 16 feet, but in high river floods the 
whole dam was completely submerged, and on the water 
subsiding it was found that the iron rods, although jumped 
only 15 inches into the rock, were not drawn from their 

Dams must be designed with a special regard to their 
sufficiency to resist the water pressures they have to bear, 
and Professor Rankiue' gives the following formulae, in his 
Manual of Civil Eiigiiieering, p. 612, for calculating the 
pressure which the struts may-have to bear. 

Let 6 - brtadth in foet of the Hivision of Iho dam sustained by one 
« — the depth of water in feet, 
w — the weight of a cubic foot of water in lbs. 
P — the pressure of water og-.iinst tlint division of dam; 

' Tran9af:Utm3 itf /nstftution (ifj^ioil Htvjincers^ vul. ill, d. 337. 


C G — C I 


«nd the moment of that pressure relative to a horizontal axis at the 
level of the f;round is 

Iiet A be the height above the ground at which the strut abuts 
ngainst the dam, and i its inclination to the horizon ; the thrust 
along the strut is 

T-J[soc. i-^li, 
from which the scantling required, depending on tho sort of timber 
employed, can be calculated. 

In conclusion it may be noticed that the introduction of 
iron cylinders and compressed air for founding the piers of 
bridges has not on)y sunerseded the use of timber coffer- 



J. ^ 1_ 


i?firt 1 ; s * s e 7 9 9 30 n isrecr 

i"—' ' I I 'll I I I -l-H 

Fig. 3. — Cofferdam for Hard Bottom. 
A. High Mater ; B, Low Water. 

dams for pier.s in soft bottoms, but has enabled bridges to 
he securely placed in situations where no timber dams could 
hive answere 1 tlio purpose. On the other hand, there are 
ouny cDgineeriajj works connected with river, harbour, and 

dock improvements, to which the cylinder system is quite 
inapplicable, and for which extensive and costly coffer-dams 
of the kind we havo described must continue to be 
employed. The method of founding by iron cylinders has 
been described in the article 'Bridge, to which the reader 
is referred. (d. s.) 

COGNAC, a town of France, at tho head of an arrou- 
disaement in the department of Charente, on the left bank 
of the River Chareute, about 32 miles by rail west of 
Angoulfime. It has a tribunal of commerce, a communal 
college, a prison, a hospital, a church of the 12th cen- 
tury dedicated to St Leger, and an old castle, now used 
as a wine-store, in the park of which is a bronze statue of 
Francis I., marking the spot where, according to tradition, 
he was born in 1494. The most important industry of 
Cognac is the distillation and exportation of the celebrated 
brandy to which the town gives its name (see Brandy). 
Iron is also manufactured, and a considerable trade is main 
tained in grain and cattle. Cognac is probably to be 
identified with one of the many places that bore the narai^ 
of Condate ; it was known as Coniacum in the Middle Ages, 
At an early period it was governed by lords of its own, but 
in the 12th century it became subject to the counts of 
Angoumois. In 1238 it was the seai of an ecclesiastical 
council summoned by Gerard of Bordeaux ; and in 1526 
it gave its name to a treaty concluded against Charles V. 
by Francis L, Henry "VIII. of England, the Pope, Venice, 
and Milan. In 1562 the town was captured by the 
Huguenots, and in 1651 it defied the prince of Cond^. 
Before the Revolution it possessed a fine Benedictine 
monastery and two other convents. Tlie population, which 
was only 4000 about the middle of the Ibth century, had 
increased by 1872 to 12,950. 

COHESION. See Attraction, Capillary Aotioh, 
and Constitution of Bodies. 

COHOES, one of the most important manufacturing 
centres in the United States, is situated in Albany County, 
in the State of New York, at the confluence of the 
Mohawk with the Hudson, just below the famous Cohoes 
fall on the former river, to whicK it is indebted for its 
prosperity. It contains seven churches and twenty-two 
public schools, the most remarkable of the churches 
being the Roman Catholic St Bernard's and the Episcopal 
St John's. The manufacturing establishments comprise 
six cotton mills with 4000 looms, eighteen knitting mills, 
a roOing mil!, a pin factory, a knitting-needle factory, two 
foundries, three machine shops, a paper-mill, and a bedstead 
factory. In 1870 there were produced 54,342,000 yards 
of cloth, 33,600,000 knitting-needles, and 350,000 pack- 
ages of pins ; while the turn-out of hosiery formed a third 
of the^hole amount manufactured in the United States. 
The' whole water-power of the river for some distance both 
above and below the falls is the property of the Cohoes 
Company instituted in 1826; and the various manu- 
factories obtain their share at a fixed annual charge for 
each horse-power. The supply is regulated by a dam 
erected above the falls in 1S65, and by a system of five 
canals. Cohoes owes its rise to the incorporation of the 
Cohoes Manufacturing Company in 1811. It obtained 
the rank of a village in 1848 and that of a city in 
1869. Its population in 1850 was 4229 ; in 1860, 8800 ; 
and in 1870, 15,357. A large number of French 
Canadians are to be found among the operatives. 

COIMBATORE, a district of British India, in the Pre- 
sidency of Fort St George or Madras, situated between 
10' 45' and 11° 48' N. !at. and between 76° 50' and 78° 10' 
E. long. It is bounded on the N. by Jlysore, on the E. by 
the district of Salem, the Cauveri River marking the entire 
boundary line, on the S. by Madura and Travaiicnre State, 
and ou the W. by Cochin State, Malabar Diilrict, and the 

C I — C 1 


Nilgirl HiUs. Coimbatore may beticsciibcd asa flnt. open 
country, hemmed in by mountains on the north, wtst, and 
Bouth, but opening eastwards on to the great plain of tbc 
Carnatic , the average height of the plain above sea-level 
IS about 900 feet. The principal mountains are the Anamali 
Hills, in the south of the district, rising at places to a 
height of between 8000 and 9000 feet. In the west, the 
I'alghAt and Vallagirl Hills form a connecling link between 
the Ananiiili range and the Nilgiris, with the exception of 
a remarkable gap known as the Palgh.-M Pass. This gap, 
which completely intersects the Ghrits, is about twenty 
miles wide. In the north is a range of primitife traphills 
known as the Cauveri (Kaverl) chain, extending eastwards 
from the Nilgiris, and rising in places to a height of 4000 
feet. The principal rivers are the Cauvcri, BhAwanl, Noyel, 
and Amr.lwatl Numerous canals are cut from the rivers 
for Iho ])uipose of affording artificial irrigation, which has 
proved of immense benefit to the country. Well and lank 
uiter IS also largely used for irrigation purposes. The 
tvilal area of Coimbatore is 7432 square miles, of wliuh 
38" 7 J square miles or 2,488,000 acres were returned as 
under cultivation in 1874-75, viz., 2,089,000 acres under 
food grams or corn crops, 80,000 acres oilseeds, 61,000 acres 
green and garden crops, 5000 acres orchards, and 253,000 
acres under special crops Excellent cotton and tobacco of 
a superior quality are produced. Extensive teak forests 
exist in the neighbourhood. Coimbatoie is subdivided 
iiiio 10 tOliiks or sub-d;stricts, and contains 1515 villages. 
The census reporx of 1872 returns llie population of the 
district as follows — Hindus, 1,715,081 ; Muhanimadans, 
30.026, Native Christians, 11,443; Europeans and 
Eurasiaus,. 595 ; Buddhists, or Jains, 56 ; others, 73 , 
ii'ial. 1.763.274 The principal town is Coimbatore, situ- 
.ited in 10" 59 41" lat. and 76° 59 4G" long.; it forms a 
station on the line of railway between Bcypur and Madras. 
Population 111 1872— Hindus, 30,801 , Muhanimadans, 
:599 , Chiislians, 18(^2. Buddhists, 18; total, 35,310. 
The municipal revenue of the town amounted in 1874-75 
to £3720, and the e.vpenditure to £3307. Two other small 
towns — Karur and Erode — are also constituted municipali- 
ties. The 'otal district revenue in 1874-75 amounted to 
£304,818, of which £253.536 was derived from land. 
Coimbatore district was acquired by the British in 1799 at 
ihe closo of the war which ended with the death of Tippu. 
COIMBR.\, a city of Portugal, capital of the province 
nf Beira, on the north bank of the Mondego, 115 miles 
N N E. of Lisbon, in 40" 14 N 1st. and 8' 24' W. long. 
It 13 Vuilt for the most part on rising ground, and presents 
from the other side of the river a picturesque and imposing 
iippearance ; though in reality its houses have individually 
but little pretension, and its streets are, almost without 
exception, narrow and mean. It derives its present 
importance from being the seat of the only university in 
the kingdom, — an institution which was originally estab- 
lished at Lisbon in 1291, was transferred to Coimbra in 
1 306, was ngain removed to Lisbon, and was finally fixed at 
Coimbra in 1527. There are five faculties, — theology, law. 
medicine, mathematics, and philosophy, with fifty two pro- 
fessors and twenty-one substitutes, and in 1874-5 the 
oumtcr of students was 667, of whom 15 came from the 
Azores and 1 1 from Brazil The library contains 80,000 
volumes, and the museums and laboratories are on nn 
ixtensive scale In connection with ih;; medical faculty 
there ore regular hospitals ; the mathematical faculty 
maintains an observatory from which an excellent view can 
be obtained of the whole valley of the Mondego, and 
outside of the town ihtrc is a botanic garden (especially 
rich in the flora of Brazil), which also serves as a public 
; Among the other educational establishments 
.re a iiiilitary "oUege. a royal college c' arts, fit.ii in 

episcopal seminary. The city is the seat of a bishop, 
Eutlragan to the archbishop of Braga ; and it possessed 
two cathedrals, eight parish churches, and several con- 
veotual buildings. The new cathedral is of little interest, 
but the old 13 a fine specimen of the Romanesque style, 
and retains portions of the mosque which it replaced. The 
principal churches are Santa Cruz, of the 10th century, 
and San Salvador, founded by Esterio Martinez in 1169. 
On the bank of the Mondego stand the ruins of the once 
splendid monastery of Santa Clara, established by Don 
Mor Dias in 1286; and on the other side of the river, 
crossed by a fine bridge of .several arches, is the celebrated 
Qiciiita das tagrima}, or Villa of lears, where Inez do 
Castro 13 believed lo have been murdered. The town la 
supplied with water by means of an f^queduct of 20 arches. 
The trade is purely local, as the nver is navigable only in 
flood, and the port of Figueira is 20 miles distant ; but 
there are roanulactures of pottery, linen, cloth, and articles 
of horn ; and a three days' market is held yearly m front* 
of the Clara monastery. The country to the south is the 
most fertile and salubrious in Portugal, aud the neighbour- 
hood is accordingly thickly studded with farin-houses and 
villas. The population of the city m 1864 wa^ 1S,147. 

Coiailira is iJcntifud «itli the ancirnt Conrniinco, the site of 
which, however, seems to have been a little to llie south. Tho 
city was for a long lime a Moorish stronghold, but in 1064 it wa« 
cafiturc'l by Ferdinand the Great .ind the Cid Prerious to the 16th 
ceutury it was the capital of the country, and no fewer than seven 
[ kings— Sancho 1. and II., Alphonso I., II , and 111 . Pedro. ..nj 
Ferainand— were born within its walls. In 1755 itsufTeied con- 
siderablv from the earthquake. In 1810 a division of the FreDrb 
army, under Massena, were made pnsonei-s by the Eu^Ush in tlic 
neighbourhood. In 1834 Don Miguel made the city his headquai» 
ters ; and io 1846 it was the scene oi a iliguelist loiunectioo. 

COIN, a town of Spain, in the province of Malaga, and 
20 miles west of the city of that name. It is well built, 
and has two large churches, an episcopal palace, and a towD 
hall. Population, 8000. 

COINAGE AND COINS. See Bullion, Mi.nt. Mo.ney 
and Numismatics. 

COIR, a rough, strong, fibrous substance obtained from 
the outer hu.-ik of the cocoa-nut See Cocoa-Nut Palm. 

COIRE (the German Clnu, Italian Coira, and Qvfra 
of thtf Romance language spoken in (he district), the 
capital of the .Swiss cantvn of the Grisons or Giaubunden, 
at the foot of the valley of the Plessur, a short distance 
above the confluence of that nver with the Rhone, in 
46° 50 54' N. lat. and 9' 31' 26" E. long. It lies 
1830 feet above the level of tLe sea, and is o^er^hadowed 
by tho Mittenberg and Pizokelberg. The streets are 
r.arrow, and the general appearance of the place bespeaks 
Its antiquity The upper part of the town, or Bishop's 
I Quarter, was once surrounded with walls, and it is still 
distinguished from the lower portion as the almost exclusive 
residence of the Roman Catholic population. The cathedral 
church of St Lucius is its most remarkable building, ascribed 
in part to Bishop Tello of the 8th century, and deriving it5 
name from a legendary British king, who is reputed to- 
have suffered ma tyrdom in the town. Of antiqaatiaO' 
interest are the statues of the Four Evangelists, the aocieot 
wood earnings, and several monuments by Holbein aod 
Diirer. The episcopal palace on the other side of the court 
IS believed to occupy the site of a Roman castle ; and two 
ancient towers, probably dating from the lOtb century, »re 
popularly regarded as of Roman construction, the opinion 
being si'7 ported by deriving their names, Marsoel and- 
Spinoel. from the Latin j\fars in Ocvtu and Sptna in Oculu. 
The epiKopal .school is now administered by the canton, 
and contains a rich collection of native literature. In the 
lower town are situated the great town-house, w'th a public 
library and three stained-glass windows of the IGtb century;. 


C J — C K 

the churches of St Maftiii and St EcgiJia j the administra- 
tive buildings ; and the hospital founded by Theodosius, a 
supeiior of the Capuchins. The prosperity of Coire is 
chiefly maintained by its transit trade between Germany 
and Italy ; but it also engages in the manufacture of cotton, 
wool, leather, and pewter wares, has dye-works and 
breweries, and deals in cattle ani grain. The population, 
which is mainly Protestant, numbered 7552 in 1870. 

Coiro 13 iJcntincd with Curia Ehtrtornm, a late Roman city, first 
nieHtioued about the 4th century. * "Its bishopric, which held sway 
over An extensive district, seems to have been founded in 470 by 
Asimo. In the I5lh century the town made itself free from epis- 
copal control, and in 1460 obtained from the emperor, Frederick 
IV., the rank of an imperial city ; hut before the beginning of the 
next century it split with the empire and joined the confederacy of 
the.Grisons. In 1526 the Reformation was introduced ; and a con- 
spiracy for the restoration of the former ecclesiastical regime was 
vigorously suppressed. In the 17th century the city was fret^uently 
the centre of the great struggle between the Cantons and the 
Austrian empire which raged with such fury and so many altema- 
t tions of success. In 1802 the French general Jfassena occupied the 
towDj and from that date the hishoDS have had no territorial pos- 

^ COJUTEPEC, a town of Central America, in the 
reptrblic of San Salvador and the department of Cuscatlan, 
about 15 miles cast of the capital. It has a popvdation of 
abbut'15,000, and frgm lS5i to 1858 it served as the seat 
of government instead of San Salvador, which had been 
mined by an earthquake. In 1872 it took part in a 
revolutionary outbreak against the existing Government, 
and the Indian population unsuccessfully attacked the 
garrison. -The town gives its name to a neighbouring 
volcano, which rises to a height of 5700 feet, and also to 
the extensive lake, otherwise known as the Lake of Ilopango, 
which lies a few miles to the south and gives rise to the 
Rio Jiboa. 

'. COKE, the caroonaceous residue produced when coal is 
subjected to a strong red heat, out of contact with the air, 
until the volatile constitueuts are driven off It consists 
essentially of carbon, the so-called fixed carbon, together 
with the incombustible matters or ash contained in the 
coal from which it is derived. In addition to these it 
almost invariably contains small quantities of hydrogen, 
oxygen, and nitrogeu, the whole, however, not exceeding 
2 or 3 per cent. It also contains water, the amount of which 
may vary considerably according to the method of manu- 
facture. When produced rapidly and at a low heat, as iu 
gas-inaking, it is of a duU black colour, and a loose spongy 
or pumice-like texture, and ignites with comparative ease, 
though less readily than bituminous coal, so that it may be 
burnt in open fire-places ; but when a long-continued heat 
is used, as in the preparation of coke for iron and steel 
inelting, the product is hard and dense, is often prismatic in 
structure, has a brilliant semi-metallic lustre and silvery- 
grey colour, is a good conductor of heat and electricity, and 
can only be burnt in furnaces provided with a strong 
chimney draught or an artificial blast. The strength. and 
cohesive properties are also intimately related to the nature 
end composition of the coals employed, which are said to 
be caking or non-caking according to the compact or frag- 
mentary character of the coke produced. 

The simplest method of coking, that :n open neaps or 
piles, is conducted in a very .similar manner to charcoal 
burning. The coal is piled in a domed heap about 30 feet 
in diameter and 5 feet high, with a chimney of bricks 
arranged in open chequer work, in the centre, around which 
the largest lumps of coal are placed so as to allow a free 
draught through the mass. The outside of the heap is 
covered with a coating of wet coke dust, except' a ring 
about a foot high at the bottom. Fire is coinmuaicated by 
l>utting a few live coals near the top of the chimney, or 
irom the interior by throwing theui dowu the chimney, 

ani the combustion proceeds downwards and oittwards by 
the draught through the uncovered portion at the bottom. 
Whenever the fire takes too strong a hold and burns out to 
the surface it is damped by plastering over the spot with 
wet coke dust and earth, this being a point requiring con- 
siderable skill on the part of the coke burner. When flame 
and smoke are no longer given off, which usually happens in 
from five to six days, the whole surface is smothered with 
coke dnst, and the chimney is stopped for three or four days 
longer, when the heap is sufficiently cooled to allow of the 
coke being broken up and removed, or, as it is called, 
drawn. The cooling is usually expedited by throwing 
water upon the heap before drawing. The principle of 
coking in rectangular pUes is generallv similar to the fore- 
going, but chimneys are not used. The dimensions 
generally adopted are a height of from 31 to 5 feet, and a 
breadth of 12 feet at the base. 

In coking by clamps or kilns a rectangtilar pue ot coai 13 
enclosedbetween upright walls, having a system of vertical 
and horizontal passages traversing them at intervals, which 
serve as chimneys to conduct the combustion through the 
])ile. This system has been used at ditferent times in South 
\V'ales, Germany, and other places, but is now generally 
abanddned, as the draught holes have a tendency to consume 
the coal unnecessarily unless very carefully watched. 

The largest proportion of the coke used for industrial 
purposes is made in close kilns or ovens. These vary very 
considerably in form and details of construction, but the 
same general principles are observed itfall, the object being 
to effect the coking as much as possible by the consumption 
of the volatile inflammable gases given off above the surface 
of the coal, and to protect the latter from the direct access 
of currents of air. A further object is the utilization of the 
heat given off by the waste gases, which may be employed 
to heat the oven by circulating them in flues round the 
outside, and further by employing, them for the accessory 
objects of raising steam, heating air, &c., in collieries and 

In its oldest and simplest form, the coke oven consists of a round 
chamber from 7 to 10 feet in diamet:iT, with a low cylindrical wall, 
and a domed roof rising about 20 inches in height above the floor. 
A hole about 1 foot in diameter in the crown of the roof serves 
for charging, and the finished coke is drawn through a door in the 
wall, about 2h feet square. "When cleared for a fresh chaige, 
the oven being red-hot, small coal is introduced through the hole 
in the roof, and spread uniformly over the floor, until it is filled 
up to the level of the springing of the roof, when the doorway 
is iilled up with loose bricks which give a sufficient passage between 
tbem for the admission of air to ignite the gases given off by thei 
distillation of the heated coal. After a few hours these air-ways 
must be closed by plastering up the brickwork, except the top layer, 
which is left open for twenty-four hours. The heat developed by 
the burning gases causes the coking to proceed downwards until the 
entire cliarge is converted, this taking from three to four days, 
according to the quantity of coal. \Vhen the escape of £ame 
from the hole in the roof ceases, all apertures are stopped whereby 
air can enter to the incandescent mass, .which being no longer pro- 
tected by an atmosphere of combustible gases, would bum to waste 
if brought in contact with the atmosphere. At this point, there- 
fore, all holes in the oven and chimney' aro completely closed for 
about twelve hours, when the door is opened, and the coke, which 
forms a coherent mass, somewhat less in size than the original 
charge, and divided by a system of columnar joints, is removed by an 
iron drag, or cross-bar, insertcfl at the far end of the floor, and moved 
by a chain and windlass, a stream of water fi'om a hose being 
used to quench the glowing coke as it is brought out. This 
class of oven, which is now not much used, was adopted by most of 
the railway companies, when coke was burnt exclusively in loco- 
motives, and is also common in the l)urham ooal-field. They are 
generally known as beehive ovens, also as bakers' ovens. Usually 
from six to ten, or twelve, or more ovi-ns are placed side by side in 
one block of brickwork^ which is supplied with a tail chimney, tho 
individual ovens being connected by pillars, with well-regulated 
dampers. A railway is generally laid along the top of the range of 
ovens, so that the charging can be effected directly from' the collieiy 
trucks. Tho yield of coke by this method may he from C5 to 65 
per cent., according to the nature of the .With chnrgrs vary-' 

c o K i: 


Srth^coko fs effected by >.ater.nj ',%rmelh:5%s U,e steam 
certain amount of sulphur removeaDy ^^ .^j^ „f ,,^„ 

g.a.mted U-ing brought '"f «°°^;; *t„ i„ the coal, rroduccH 
i„ the heated mass, formed from pyr.^e ,j.^^ ^„j„u„t of 

Idnhuretted hydrogen and magneUc «'^»;; "^ Ueally 
Uesulphurizatioa'by lh,3 '"''^hf >^ howeve , P ^,^^^ ^ 

cant, a, the ofcraUoa does "°Ti rproporlion of sulphur in finished 
,„««of U.efueho be affected. T prog ^^^^^ ^ ,„„„,ay 

coVe. a. compared ^^",V''%\ ^ J tt,„ Bought to reduce the amount 
suted at about onehalf, » ''" ^^°Buiptide in various ways, as 
by decomposing th* "^'*"»i„ X^f soia, lime, &c., to the coal 
bj the addifio,. of »"!'. 7 ^°7'^ahods i^ found to be practioally 
Uforc coking but none of these memo 

U'eful. „ , , «„,,, ,»,„ ordinary form of coke oven is 

In the South ^Vales coal.fie d t^o "J'^'"^'? 5 ,,,t „ia„ at the 

nearly rectangular, being about J*;"^ ' "^^l,' the height to the 

back,\nd 6 feet at the front or ng e^ ^^^. ^,^^ i, ,,v„ 

crown of the <=yl>"'l"'^''V?.., are worked weekly, the first, of 4i 
charging holes f^o char^ s re « ^.^^^^ ^^^^^ 

IZv^d ir'dt" oaslo r:j,ain in the ovea over Sunday. The 
yield in both cases is about the same. ^^ ^j^^ ^^^^ 

^ ,-he addition of heating flues exterior ^oj^'^^,^^^^^^^^ Of the 
allows the time of coking '» ^,^/,S "pose, that of a Belgian 
numerous ^o^*"''''?^'" PrSriV come inCLvo'ur in many places, 
engineer. Mr Coppee. has ""'"7. ™„ ° „„..ti„eiv dry coal. The 
l"°v'ery ;.!! «da^tod [or us. J ^t^ , o" of fire'bric^. measuring 
coking chamber IS a long "''"""j^^ytt at the front, a«d about 
about 30 feet in length 17 '"*" '°J .^arge is pushed out. with 
2 inches more at the back, where the cnarg ^ ^^^^^^ ^^^j 

vertical walls about, Si feet ' f • '"^^^ %„tains twenty-eight 

One of tnese walls is ^°/''^>'^y,''l°J,u^^^ 

vertical descending fl""^' "^.^^^""itU the large flue of the same 
the springing of the roof, an^ below wit .^^ ^b^.^^ ^^^^^^_ ^ 

,vidth as the oven, »"t„f?.rv includes about thirty ovens, whjch 
ranL^^KSsTinX^i^eff ro\which it wm be seen 

\. 1. 1 knn» and the yield 
diawing a slide. The rtu^rReu about Jton.^^ ,oal op*"t«i 

from 3d to 14 '"'•^»"°r^"^„ra , ri^niatic mass. 30 feet long, 
upon. The fio'»l'^'l '^?'"! '°T' » 1 ? it is pushed out by a ram. 
3' feet high, and 16 inches broD.d it >s^ ^ ^^^^ ^y steam 
Bhaped like the cross »«;;f°° »f^*^^ ^ This apparatus, together 
power acting "P»".\'T^ f'^^ovine it. is mounted on a carnage 
1; ith the engine and ^o. e' for mov^g 'I. ^^^„,_ ^ jtat it can 
moving on a railway in front '"''^"^S i„d. The mas, of coke 
bo brought up to any one of them M requ.r ^^^^^ 

is pushed out on to a floor ^'^'^'"8^' hefvily watering the frag- 
immediately broken, and q}«°-^^'^^iX^\\e drawing and recharg- 
ments. The ->'°'« °f \f X'.^d in ai>ut eight minutes. Ihe 
?f '>'' .="'?.'l?! "■ W ' nroxfrnates to that obtained by , 

t7oven. is effecUd '» »^" J ofeta^ by experi- 
■■;^ld"ot"coke Ve'ry closely approximate^ *;„r«uh ont-d» beiting 
ments in crucibles. A similarkind oj oven^ _^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

Coppie's Coke Oven, 
the left hand oven (A) is heated by the joint current oE^g^^es on 
both sides, while B u heated on one ^'^^^J "° f,,^ current 
the other by that of the next oven to U^« "8" ^ . t^t 
then passes 'along tka bottom flu, of A -^f^^^^^* ma/ be led 
of H, whence it escapes by a ""« t''/.''^,':°V°° ^'i. eenerally the 
to a steam boiler if the waste beat ^"^f'a^eent^pair of ovens 

cxse, for raising steam The ^''^'"S ,f^^'°,\^i7"t exactly inter- 
is BO arranged that they are draw^ aeriiat ly a ,^ 

mediate periods; thus supposing »>'» tm.e ot c" ^^ 

eight hours, A is drawn ^enty-foui hoars alter b^^ ^^^ 

\\ while the Utter is in fuU activity. ""^ .^"P'^P „in" hydrocar- 
e^pty oven during ^bargmg. vh.le nece^^^ „p 

bon gases given o&during *« ^'^^^fj.'i^^Vale. in Monmouthshire, 
, the heat in the adjoining oven. At EbbwVaiei ^^^^^ ^^^ 

where the coking reou.ros "?'>• »"«3°in„ d^au-^ and recharged 
numbered consecutive y, the odd number being u .^^^^ ^^^^^ 

i,. the morning, ani>bo even ones twelve hou„^^^^^^ _^ ^^ 

bnstlon of the gases is ff'^^^^^^ ^^^^'.^^^i^icating with the gas 
special channels (f) in tue oricKworij p^ssa'-e The object 

ll'ues at the ton, and becomes heate^nth passa„^. ^ ^^^^ ^^ 

"""^Meln'^he ;r and tt the'Tn ifseU. T^he oven is closed 


together or '^l"^'",^^,* ^"V"^,,ee hoks (D D) in the roof, the coal, 
'''V-^'lrroT slack -mgontained in hoppcr-shaped trains 
';„„'uTnfe°™on°Lilsrwhicha?e run over the holes and emi.tied by 

nents in crucible^. A ^'-''".ftsten'nsef-r several years on 
flues, that of the Brothers APP"" baa ^en "» ^^^ {^^^^ . 

the Continent, more particularly in France, u ^^^^j .^^^^ 

,1 the position of the coking 'bambcs, whicn a ^^^^^ 

o hoii^ntal, the coal beuig ^bargedfrom the top a^^^ ^^^^^ 

coke dropped into ^.^'l'' JiT^ for^ he purpose of utUizing 
have been proposed at f'^^ent times l^rt^e^ v^ ^^ _ ^^^^ 

the condensible producU. ™^b as tar ammoni ^^^ 

off during the earlier «^f„ ° *^ .CthTmanufactureof metaUur. 

bo coked alone, --ay be converted mto a u^et „^ ,'„i,ture of 

with a.pioportion of bituminous »^'^ " ^^0^ ^/^ent. of antl.ra- 
both. At Swansea, a mixture of «» to ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^ 

cite with from 30 to 3? P^^ ;°^- "'"^ents in one of Can's disin- 
gas pitch, made by 8""'^.'"? '•be jng-^'" ^ y^^^^^ o,en3, a thin 
tegrator "'"^ i^ "^^VL n^ paceTZbove the charge before it is 
layer of bituminous coal .be'J'f P^"^ ^ to waste. The yield of 
lighted, to prevent the P'tch fiom bu nmg ^ ^^. 

co\e is about 80 per cent of the ^^ gl^t ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ 

also for producing strong °=f '^^^^^■^,^i,'3%„ air furnaces, 
(gold. ^ilj">^^-;°;,tf)dpenTupu the difficulty of 
lu blast, furnaces f ^/^'^^ ^"'f [teir form until they 
combustion, so tha *e particles kep t ^^ 

reach the proper place of «°'^^^"f °° f^.^^ee The great 
°^ ^'^ '''11 JlleUh rhLCalf^e'ctedrthe proce'. of 


Sle^sr te^tuinl-d also for.filUng the hearths 
fKW furnaces in many German smelting works. . 

Apart" omits convenience for special Purposes, coke iB 
„of an economical fuel, the useful Seating effect bein^ 

iX^j Jir«" ilvt; * »-'wjv, ^>™. 

^^oniv'F Sib Edward (1552-1633 , one of the must 

the grammar school of JNor«icn uo ^ 

b.lo.gcd. To .h. ..a<ly ol 1.. ■» d.v.t.d l..m«H I"" 



tlie 6rst with tbu iiiteusest apijiicatiun ; lie slept only six 
hours, and from three in the morning till nine at night he 
read or took notes of the cases tried in Westminster Hall 
with ao little interruption as possible. In 1578 he was 
called to the bar, end in the next year he was chosen reader 
ot Lyon'a Inn. His extensive and exact legal erudition, 
and the skill with which he argued the intricate cases of 
Lord Cromwell and Edward Shelley, soon brought bmi a 
practice never before equalled, and caused him to be 
universally recognized as the greatest lawyer of his day. 
In 158G he was made recorder of Norwich, and in 151*2 
recorder of London, solicilor-general, and reader in the 
Inner Temple. In 151)3 he was returned as member of 
parliament for his native county, and also chosen speaker 
uf the House of Commons. In 1594 be was promoted to 
the office of attorney-general, despite the claims of Bacon, 
who was warmly supported by the earl of Essex. As 
crown lawyer his treatment of the accused was marked by 
more than the harshness and violence common in his time ; 
and the fame of the victim has caused his behaviour in the 
trial of Raleigh to be lastingly remepbered against him. 
While the prisoner defended himself with the calmest 
dignity and self-possession, Coke bu st into the bitterest 
invective, brutally addressing the great courtier as if he had 
been a servant, in the phrase, long remembered for its 
insolence and its utter injustice, — " Thou hast an English 
ffice, but a Spanish heart ! " 

In 1582 Coke married the daughter of John Paston, a 
gentleman of Suffolk, receiving with her a fortune of 
i'30,000 ; but iu six months he was left a widower. 
Shortly -after ho sought the hand of Lady Elizabeth 
Hatton, daughter of Thomas, secoud Lord Burghley, and 
granddaughter of the great Cecil. Bacon was again his 
rival, and again unsuccessfully ; the wealthy young widow 
became — not, it is said, to his future comfort — Coke's 
second wife. 

In 1606 Coke was made chief-justice of the Common 
rieas, but in 1613 he was removed to the office of chief- 
justice of the King's Bench, which gave him less oppor- 
tunity of interfering with the court. The change, though 
It brought promotion iu dignity, caused a diminution of 
income as well as of power ; hut Coke received some com- 
pensation in being appointed a member of the Privy 
Council. The independence of his conduct as a judge, 
though not unmixed with the baser elements of prejudice 
and vulgar love of authority, has partly earned forgiveness 
for the harshness which was so prominent in his sturdy 
character. Full of an extreiae reverence for the common 
law which he knew so well, be defended it alike against 
the Court of Chancery, the ecclesiastical courts, and the 
royal prerogative. In a narrow spirit, and strongly in- 
fluenced, no doubt, by his enmity to the chancellor, Egerton, 
lie sought to prevent the interference of the Court of 
Chancery with even the unjust decisions of the other 
courts. In the case of an appeal from a sentence given 
in the King's Bench, he advised the victorious, but guilty, 
party to briqg an action of praemunire against all those 
who had been concerned in the appeal, and his authority 
was stretched to the utmost to obtain the verdict he 
desired. On the other hand, Coke has the credit of hav- 
ing repeatedly braved the anger of the king. He freely 
gave his oi)inion that the royal proclamation cannot make 
that an otfonce which was not an offence before. An 
vquatly famous but less satisfactory instance occurred 
during the trial of Peachani, a divine in whose study 
i sermon had been found containing libellous . accusa- 
tious against the king and the Government. There was 
nothing to give colour to the charge of high treason with 
Which he was charged, and the sermon had never been 
preached or published ; yet Peacham vaa put tn the 

torture, and Bacon was ordered to confer with the judgcr 
individually concerning the matter. Coke declared such 
conference to be illegal, and refused to give an opinion 
except in writing, and even then he seems to have saio 
nothing decided. But the most remarkable case of all 
occurred in the next year (1616). A trial was held before 
Coke in which one of the counsel denied the validity of a 
grant made by the king to the bishop of Lichfield of a 
beneCce to be held tii commendam. James, through 
Bacon, who was then attorney-general, commanded the 
chief-justice to delay judgment till he liimsell should 
discuss the question with the judges. At Cuke's request 
Bacon sent a letter containing the same coniniand to e.icb 
of the judges, and Coke then obtained their signatures to o 
paper declaring that the attorney-general's instructions were 
illegal, and that they were bound ib proceed wiib the casi 
His Majesty expressed his displeasure, and summoned 
them before him in the couucil-cbamber, where he insisted 
on his supreme prerogative, which, he said, ought not to be 
discussed in ordinary argument. Upon tins all the judges 
fell on llitir knees, seeking pardon for the form of their 
letter, but" Coke ventured to declare his continued belief 
in the loyalty of its substance, and when asked i[ he would 
111 the future delay a case at the kiiiy's order, the only repl\ 
he would vouchsafe was that he would do what became hiin 
as a judge. Soon after he was dismissed from all his 
offices on the following charges, — the concealment, as 
attorney-general, of a bond lielonging to the king, a charge 
which could not be proved, illegal interference with tbe 
Court of Chancery, and disrespect to the king in the cas* 
of commendams. He was also ordered by the council to 
revise his bouk of reports, which was said to contain maii\ 
extravagant opinions (June 1C16V 

Coke did not suffer these losses with patience. He 
offered his daughter Frances, then little more than a 
child, ill marriage to Sir John Villiers, brother of the 
favourite Buckingham. Her mother, supported at first by 
her husband's great rival and her own former suitor. 
Bacon, objected to the match, and placed her in conceal- 
ment. But Coke discovered her hiding-place, and she was 
forced to wed the man whom she declared that of all others 
she abhorred. The result was the desertion of the husband 
and the fall of the wife. It is said, however, that after his 
daughter's public penance in the Savoy Church, Coke had 
heart enough to receive her back to the home which he had 
forced her to leave. Almost all that he gained by his 
heartless diplomacy was a seat in the council aud in the 

In 1G20 a new and more honourable career opened for 
him. -He was elected member of parliament for Liskeard 
and henceforth he was one uf the most prominent of the 
constitutional party. It was he whu proposed a remon- 
strance against the growth of Popery and the marriage of 
Prince Charles to the infanta of Spam, and who led the 
Commons in the decisive step of entering on the journal of 
the House the famous petition of the IStli December 1621, 
insisting on the freedom of parliamentary discussion, and 
the liberty of speech of every individual meniber. In con- 
sequence, together with Pym and Sir Bohert Philips, he 
was thrown into confinement ; and, when in the August 
of the next year he was released, he was commanded to 
remain in Ins house at Stoke Pogcs during his Majesty's 
pleasure. Of the first and second parliaments of Charles I 
Coke was again a member. From the second he was 
excluded by being appointed sheriff 6f Buckiughamshiie 
In 1628 he was at once returned fur both Buckinghamshire 
and Suffolk, and he took his seat for the former count} 
After rendering other valuable support to the popular caust-, 
he took a most important part in drawing up the gre;ii 
Petition of Risht The last act of his public career was t. 



bewail with tears llio ruin which Lc declared the dulic 
</i Buckingham was briniring upon the country. At the 
Close of the session he retired into private life ; and the 
eix years that remained to him were spent in revising and 
improving the works upon which, at least as much as upon 
his public career, his fame now rests.. He died on the 3d 
September JG33. 

Coke publishcj Institutes, of which the first is also known as 
"Coke upon Littleton," Jieporls, A Trtattsc of Bail and Mainpritt, 
The Complete Copyholder, A Picadiiig on fines and Hccovcries. 

COLBERG, or Kolberg, a fortified seaport town of 
Prussia, in the former province of Pomcrania.and the govern- 
ment of Kij.slin, on the right bank of the Persantc, which 
falla into the Baltic about a mile below the town. It has a 
handsome market-place, adorned since 18C4 with a statue 
of Frederick William IV. ; and there are several pretty 
extensive suburbs, of which the raost important is the 
Munde, in great measure the growth of the present century. 
The principal buildings are the cathedral of St Mary's, one 
of tho most remarkable churches in Pomerania, dating 
from 1316, the council-house erected after the plans cf 
Zwirner, the citadel, and the aqueduct by which the town 
is supplied with water. Colbcrgalso possesses several hos 
pitals, a workhouse, a house of correction, an orphan 
asylum, a gymnasium, a preparatory school of navigation, 
and an exchange. Its bathing establishments are largely 
frequented and attract a considerable number of summer 
visitors. Woollen cloth and spirits are manufactured ; 
there is an extensive salt-mine in the neighbouring 
Zillenberg ; the salmon and lamprey fisheries are important ; 
and a fair amount of commercial activity is maintained. 
Population in 1872, 13,106. 

Colbcrg was the seat of a bishop as early as the 10th century, 
though it not long after lost tliis distinction. Till 1277 it was the 
chief town of the Cabsubian WenJs, and after that date it ranked 
K9 the most important place in the episcopal principality of Kamin, 
with wliich it passed in ,]6-18 to Brandenburg. In the Thirty 
Years' War it was captured by the Swedes, after a protracted siege 
in 1031 ; and in the Seven ^'ears' War it was one of the centres of 
the conilict. In 1758 it withstood the attacks of General Talmbach 
and his army of 10,000 men, and in 1760 it held out against the 
Russian and Swedish forces, both by sea and land, till it w.ijj 
relieved by the advance of Werner;- but in 1761 it was compelled by 
{amine to yield to Komanzoff after a four months' investment and 
Tiolent bombardment. In 1807 it was surrounded by 18,000 men 
under the command of Fenli^, Loison, and Mortier ; but the burgher 
Kettclbcck within and the free-fighter Schill without succeeded in 
defending it till the peace of Tilsit brought the war to a close. • 

COLBERT, Jean Baptiste (1G19-16S3), one of the 
greatest among the great statesmen of France, was born on 
the 29th of August 1619, at Eheims, where his father and 
grandfather were merchants. He claimed to be the 
descendant of a noble Scottish family, but those who have 
investigated the matter have almost without jexception 
decided against the pretension. His youth is said to have 
been spent in a Jesuit college, in the office of a Parisian 
banker, and in that of a Parisian notary, Chapelain, 
the father of the poet. But the first fact on which we 
can rely with confidcnco is that, when not yet twenty, he 
obtained a post in the war-ofiice, by means of the influence 
that he possessed through the marriage of one of his 
«mcles to the sister of Michel Le Tellier, the secretary 
of state for war. During some years he was employed 
in the inspection of troops and other work of tho kind, 
but at length his ability, his extraordinary energy, and 
his untiring laboriousness induced Le Tellier to make 
him his private secretary. These qualities, combined, it 
mtist be confessed, with a not over-delicate readiness to 
aeiie every opportunity of advancement, soon brought 
Colbert both wealth and influence. In 1647 we find him 
deceiving the confiscated goods of his uncle Pussort, in 
.1648 obtatDiDg 40,000 crowns with his wife Marie Charron, 
in 1649 appointed couQcillor of state. 

It was the period of the wars ui the Fronde , aiid 
in 1651 the triumph of the Cond6 family drove Cardiiial 
Mazarin from Pari.s. Colbert, now aged thirty-two, was 
eng.iged to keep him acquainted with what should happen 
in the capital during his absence. At first Colbert's position 
was far from satisfactory ; for the close wary Italian 
treated him merely as an ordinary agent. On one occasion, 
for example, he ofl'cred him 1000 crowns. The gift was 
refused somewhat indignantly; and by giving proof of the 
immense value of his services, Colbert gained all that he 
desired. II is demands were not small ; for, with an ambition 
mingled, as bis letters show, with strong family aflfecticn, 
he aimed at placing all his relatives in positions of aBlueiicu 
and dignity ; and many a rich benefice and important 
public oflSce was appropriated by him to that purpose. For 
these favours, conferred upon him by his patron with no 
stinted hand, his thanks were expressed in a most remark 
able manner ; he published a hitter defending the cardinal 
from the charge of ingratitude which was often brought 
against him, by enumerating the benefits that he and bis 
family had received from him (April 1605). Cofbert 
obtained, besides, the higher object of his ambition , the 
confidence of Mazarin, so far as it was granted to any one, 
became his, and he was intru.sted with matttis of the gravest 
itrportance. In 1659 he was giving diiections as to the 
suppression of the revolt of the gentiy which threatened 
in Normandy, Anjou, and Poitou, with characteristic 
decision arresting those whom he suspected and arrang- 
ing every detail of their trial, the immediate and arbitrary 
destruction of their castles and woods, and the execution 
of their chief, Bonnesson. In the same year we have 
evidence that he was already planning his great attempt at 
financial reform. His earliest tentative was the drawing 
up of a mimoire to Mazarin, showing that of the taxes paid 
by the people not one-half reached the king. The fiaper 
also contained an attack upon the superintendent, Fnuquct, 
who, first recommended to Le Tellier by Colbert himself, 
had since developed into the most shameless of extortioners , 
and being opened by the jiostmaster of Pans, who hap- 
pened to be a spy of Fouquet's, it gave rise to a bitter 
quarrel, which, however, Mazarin repressed during his 

In 1661 the death of Mazarin allowed Colbert to take 
the first place in the administration It was some time 
before he a.ssumed official dignities ; but in January 1664 
he obtained the postof superintendent of buildings, in 
1665 he was made controller-general : in 1669 he became 
minister of the marine ; and he was a?toap{'ointed minister 
of commerce, the colonies, and the king's pahice. In short, 
he soon acquired power in every department except that 
of war. 

A great financial and fiscal reform at once claimed all his 
energies. This he saw was the first step toward raising 
France to the lofty position he intended her to occupy 
The country was in economic chaos. Those who had the 
fiscal administration in their hands, from the superintendent 
to the meanest of the tax-farmers, robbed and misappro- 
priated almost as they pleased. The Government loans 
were arranged, not so as to be most advantageous to the 
state, but so as most to aggrandize the individuals who 
were interested in them. Not only the nobility, but many 
others who had no legal claim to exemption, paid no taxes ; 
the weight of the burden fell on the wretched country-folk. 
Colbert sternly and fearlessly set about his task. Supported 
by the young king, Louis XIV., he aimed the first blow at the 
gr°alest of the extortioners — the bold and powerful superin- 
tendent, Fouquet. He was accused of high treason, not 
without sufficient grounds, for it was known that he had 
prepared to meet an arrest formerly contemplated by an 
Bnt>cal to force. The most minutely careful precautions 



were taken by Colbert lor bis neizure, and he was tried 
before a specially prepared chamber of justice. Neverthe- 
less thet.ial was protracted during three years, and the 
sentence passed was not death but banishment. The 
Government, however, carried out its plans. The superin- 
tendent was safely disposed of in the state prison of Pigne- 
rol; just disgrace fell upon Councillor d'Ormesson and the 
other judges who had averted the punishment Fouquet 
richly deserved; and many minor officials, convicted of 
peculation, were treated with great severity, some being 
banished, some sent to the galleys, some even hanged. 
^' The office of superintendent and many others dependent 
upon it being abolished the supreme control of the finances 
■ was vested in a royal council. The sovereign was its presi- 
dent ; but Colbert, though for four years he only possessed 
the title of intendant, was its ruling spirit, great personal 
authority being conferred upon him by the king. The 
career on which Colbert now entered must not be judged 
without cpnstant remembrance of the utter rottenness of 
the previous financial administration. His ruthlessness in 
this case, dangerous precedent as it was, was perhaps 
necessary ; individual interests could not be respected. 
Guilty oflicials having been severely punished, the fraudu- 
lent creditors of the Government remained to be dealt with. 
Colbert's method was simple. Some of the public loans 
were totally repudiated, and from others a percentage was 
cut ofi', which varied, at first according to his own decision, 
and afterwards according to that of the council which he 
established to examine all claims against the state. 

Much more serious difficulties met his attempts to intro- 
duce equality m the pressure of the taxes on the various 
classes. To diminish the number of the privileged was 
impossible, but false claims to exemption were firmly 
resisted, and the unjust direct taxation was lightened by 
an increase of the indirect taxes, from which the privileged 
could not escape. The mode of collection was at the same 
time immensely improved. 

Order and economy being tlms Introduced into the 
working of the government, the country, according to 
Colbert's vast yet detailed plan, was to be enriched by 
•commerce. Manufactures were fostered in every way he 
xould devise. New industries were established, inventors 
protected, workmen invited from foreign countries, French 
Workmen absolutelyprohibited to emigrate. To maintain 
the character of French goods in foreign markets, as well 
as- to afford a guarantee to the home consumer, the quality 
and measure of each article were fixed by law, breach 
of the regulations being punished by public exposure 
of the delinquent and destruction of the goods, and, on 
the third offence, by the pillory But whatever advantage 
resulted from this rule was more than compensated by the 
disadvantages it entailed. The production of qualities 
'which would have suited many purposes of consumption 
was proliibited, and the odious supervision which became 
necessary involved great waste of time and a stereotyped 
regularity' which resisted all improvements. And other 
parts of Colbert's scheme deserve still less equivocal con- 
,demnation. By his firm maintenance of the corporation 
system, each industry remained in the hands of certain 
privileged bourgeois ; in this way, too, improvement was 
greatly discouraged ; jrhile to the lower classes opportunities 
of advancement were closed. With regard to international 
commerce Colbert was equally unfortunate in not being in 
advance of his age ; the tariffs he published were protective 
to an extreme. The interests of internal commerce were, 
however, wisely consulted Unable to abolish the duties 
on the passage of goods from province to province, he did 
what he could to induce the provinces to equalize them. 
The roads and canals were improved. The great canal of 
Languedoc was planned and constructed by Riquet under 

his patronage. To encourage trade with the Levant, Senegal, 
Guinea, and other places, privileges were granted to com- 
panies; but, like the more important Fast India Company, 
all were unsuccessful. The chief cause of this failure, 
as well as of the failure of the colonies, on which he 
bestowed so much watchful care, was the narrowness and 
rigidity of the Government regulations. 

The greatest and most lasting of Colbert's achievements 
was the establishmcut of the French marine. The royal 
navy owed all to him, for the king thought only of military 
exploits. For its use, Colbert reconstructed the works 
and arsenal of Toulon, founded the port and arsenal of 
Rochefort, and the naval schools of Rochefort, Cicppe, and 
Saint-Malo, and fortified, with some assistance from Vaubaat 
(who, however, belonged to the party of his rival Luvois), 
among other ports those of Calais, Dunkirk, Brest, and 
Havre. To supply it with recruits he invented his famous 
system of classes, by which each seaman, according to the 
class in which he was placed, gave six months' service 
every three or four or five years For three months after 
his term of service he was to receive half pay ; pensions 
were promised ; and, in short, everything was done to make 
the navy popular. There was one department, however, 
that was supplied with men on a very different principle. 
Letters exist written by Colbert to the judges requiring 
them to sentence to the oar as many criminals as possible, 
including all those who had been condemned to death ,\ 
and the convict once chained to the bench, the expiration 
of his sentence was seldom allowed to bring him release. 
Mendicants also, against whom no crime had been proved, 
contraband dealers, those who had been engaged in insur- 
rections, and others immeasurably superior to the criminal 
class, nay, innocent men — Turkish, Russian, and negro 
slaves, and poor Iroquois Indians, whom the Canadians 
were ordered to entrap — were pressed into that terribla 
service. By these means the benches of the galleys were 
filled, and Colbert took no thought of the long unrelieved 
agony borne by those who filled them. 

Nor was the mercantile marine forgotten. Encouragement 
was given to the building of ships in France by allowing a 
premium on those built at home, and imposing a duty on 
those brought from abroad ; and as French workmen were 
forbidden to emigrate, so French seamen were forbidden to 
serve foreigners on pain of death. 

Even ecclesiastical affairs, though with these he had no 
official concern, did not altogether escape Colbert's atten- 
tion. He took a subordinate part in the struggle between 
the king and Rome as to the royal rights over vacant 
bishoprics ; and he seems to have sympathized with tho 
proposal that was made to seize part of the wealth of (he 
clergy. In his hatred of idleness, he ventured to suppress 
no less than seventeen fetes, and he had a project fort 
lessening the number of those devoted to clerical and 
monastic life, by fixing the age for taking the vows some 
years later than was then customary. With heresy he 
was at first unwilling to interfere, for he was aware of 
the commercial value of the Huguenots , but when the 
king, under the influence of Mme de Maintenon, resolved 
to make all France Catholic he followed his Majesty, and 
urged his subordinates to ^^ all that they could to promote 

In art and literature Colbert took much interest. Ho 
possessed a remarkably fine private library, which he 
delighted to fill with valuable manuscripts from every part 
of Europe where France had placed a consul. He has the 
honour of having founded the Academy of Sciences (now 
called the Institut de France), the Observatory, which ho 
employed Perrault to build and brought Cassini from Italy 
to superintend, the Academies of Inscriptions and Medals, 
of Architecture, and of Music, the French Academy at 

C L — C L 


Rome, and Academies at Aries, Soissons, Nimea, and 
many other towns, and he reorganized the Academy of 
Painting and Sculpture which Richelieu had established. 
He was a member of the French Academy ; and one very 
characteristic rule, recorded to have been proposed by him 
with the intention of expediting the great Dictionary, in 
which he was much interested, was that no one should be 
accounted present at any meeting unless he arrived before 
the hour of commencement and remained till the hour 
for leaving. In 1673 he presided over the first exhibition 
of the works of living painters; and he enriched the Louvre 
with hundreds of pictures and statues. He gave many 
pensions to men of letters, among whom we find Molit-re, 
Comeille, Racine, Boileau, Huet, and Varillas, and even 
foreigners, as Huyghens, Vossius the geographer, Carlo 
Dati the Dellacruscan, and Heinsius the great Dutch 
scholar. There is evidence to show that by this munificence 
he hoped to draw out praises of his sovereign and himself ; 
but this motive certainly is far from accounting for all the 
splendid, if in some cases specious, services that he rendered 
to literature, science, and art. 

Indeed to everything that concerned the interests of 
France Colbert devoted unsparing thought and toil Be- 
sides all that has been mentioned, he found time to do 
something for the better administration of justice (the 
codification of ordinances, the diminishing of the number 
of judges, the redaction of the expense and length of trials), 
.'or the establishment of a superior system of police, and 
even for the improvement of the breed of horses and the 
increase of cattle. As superintendent of public buildings 
he enriched Paris with boulevards, quays, and triumphal 
arches ; he relaid the foundation-stont of the Louvre, and 
brought Bernin from Rome to be its architect ; and he 
erected its splendid colonnade upon the plan of Claude 
Perrault, by whom Bernin had been replaced. He was not 
permitted, however, to complete the work, being compelled 
to yield to the king's preference for residences outside 
Paris, and to devote himself to Marly and Versailles. 

Amid all these public labours his private fortune was 
never neglected. AVhile he was reforming the finances of 
the nation, and organizing its navy, he always found time 
to direct the management of his smallest farm. He died 
a millionaire, and left fine estates all over France. For 
his eldest son, who was created Marquis de Seignelay, 
lie obtained the reversion of the office of minister of 
marine ; his second son became archbishop of Rouen ; and 
a third son, the Marquis d' Ormov, became superintendent 
of buildings. 

In estimating the value of Colbert's ministry, two 
distinct questions must be considered — What its results 
would have been in the absence of counteracting influences, 
ever which ho had no control, and what they actually 
were. To the first it may be answered that France, peace 
ful, enriched by a wide-spread commerce, and freed from 
the weight of taxes, alikeheavyand intrinsically mischievous, 
would probably have developed powers that would have 
enabled her to throw aside what was harmful in his policy, 
and possibly to attain liberty without the frenzied struggle 
of the Revolution. To the second question a very different 
reply must be given. What the great " miuistre de la paix" 
built xfp was torn down, even as he built it, to erect the 
unholy fabric of his master's military glory. The war 
department was in the hands of Colbert's great rival, 
Luvois ; and to every appeal for peace Louis was deaf. He 
was deaf 'also to all the appeals agamst the other fftrms of 
his boundless extravagance which Colbert, with all his 
deference towards his sovereign, bravely ventured to make.' 

* S«e capecialty a mfmoire presented to the king in 1666. puolished 

'ii-x Lettrts, etc., de Colbert, vol. u. 

Thus it came about that, only a few years after he bad 
commenced to free the country from the weight of the 
loans and taxes which crushed her to the dust, Colbert was 
forced to heap upon her a new load of loans and tixes more 
heavy than the last. Henceforth his life was a hopeless 
struggle, and the financial and fiscal reform which, with 
the great exception of the establishment of the navy, wai 
the most valuable service to France contemolated by him. 
came to nought. 

Depressed by his failure, deeply wounded by the kingli 
favour for Luvois, and worn out by overwork, Colbert's 
strength gave way at a comparatively early age. In 
1680 he was the constant victim of severe fevers, from 
which he recovered for a time through the use of quinine 
prescribed by an English physician. But in 1083, at the 
age of sixty-four, he was seized with a fatal illness, and 
on the 6th of September he expired. It was said that 
he died of a broken heart, and a conversation with the 
king is reported in which Louis disparagingly compared 
the buOdings of Versailles, which Colbert was superintend- 
ing, with the works constructed by Luvois in Flanders. 
He took to bed, it is true, immediately afterwards, refusing 
to receive all messages from the king ; but his constitutiou 
was utterly broken before, and a post-mortem examination 
proved that he had been suffering from stone. His body 
was interred in the secrecy of night, for fear of outrage 
from the Parisians, by whom his name was cordially de- 

Colbert was a great statesman, who did much for France, 
and would have done vastly more had it been possible. Yet 
his insight into political science was not deeper than that 
of his age ; nor did he possess that superiority in moral 
qualities which would have inspired him to bring in a reign 
of purity and righteousness. His rule was a very bad 
example of over-government. In popular liberty he did not 
believe; the parliaments and the States-General received 
no support from him. The technicalities of justice he 
never allowed to interfere with his plans ; justice herself he 
sometimes commanded to stay her course, and beware of 
crushing any friend of his who happened to lie in her way. 
He trafficked in public oflBces for the profit of Mazarjn and 
in his own behalf. He caused the suffering of thousands 
in the galleys ; he had no ear, it is said, for the cry of the 
suppliant. There was indeed a more human side to his 
character, as is shown in his letters, full of wise advice and 
afiectionate care, to his children, his brothers, his cousins 
even. Yet to all outside he was "the man of marble. ' To 
diplomacy he never pretended; persuasion and deceit were 
not the weapons he employed ; all his work was carried 
out by the iron hand of authorily. He was a great states- 
man in that he conceived a magnificent yet practicable 
scheme for making France first among nations, and in that 
he possessed a matchless faculty for "work, neither shrink- 
ing frcm the vastest undertakings tor scorning the most 
trivial details. 

Numerous vifs and ^oges of Colbert have been published ; but 
tiiC most thorough student of his life and .dministratioa was Pierre 
Clement, member of the Institute, who in 1846 published his Vie 
de Colbert, and :ti 1 861 the first of the 9 vols, of the Le'.tra, instruc- 
tions, el mtmcires de Colbert. The historical introductions prefixed 
to each of these volumes have been published by Mme. Clament 
under the title of the Histoire de Colbert et de son administralion 
(1874). Among Colbert's papers are Mimoires sur les aj^aira de 
finance de France (written about 1663), a fragment entitled Fariir.-- 
lariles secrites de la rie dn Soy, and other accounts of the earlier pa: t 
of the reign of Louis XIV. (T. M. W.) 

COLCHESTER, a market-town, municipal and |«rlia- 
mentary borough, and river-port of England m the county 
of Essex, CI miles from London by the Great Eastern 
Railway, on the Colne, which is there cros.'ied by thre-; 
bridges. The town within the walls forms an oblong cf 


C L — C O L 

about 103 acres; tut new streets stretch liir beyond these 
limits. Large alterations have taken place since the 
accession of Queen Victoria : the Middle Kow and various 
other districts have been abolished or rebuilt ; the streets 
have been repaved, and a new supply of water obtained 
for me town. Of the buildings in Colchester of interest 
for their antiquity the first is the castle or keep, which 
occupies an area of 21,168 square feet (or nearly twice that 
of the White Tower of London), and thus forms the largest 
apecimen extant of this department of Norman architecture. 
It was founded in 12th century by Eudo, the steward of 

Anns of Colchester. 

Henry I., to whom the town was also indebted for the 
Benedictine abbey of St John's now almost totally 
demolished. Of the churches the oldest is St Peter's, which 
like several others has been restored vnthin recent years ; 
the remains of the church of St Botolph's priory, founded 
in the early part of the 12th century, present fine examples 
of Norman workmanship; and St James's, St GUes's, and 
St Leonard's at the Hythe are all of antiquarian interest. 
The last preserves some early frescoes. The present century 
has addedlargely to the number of the churchesand chapels, 
and many of the newer buildings are not unworthy of the 
town in which they stand. Of secular structures the most 
important are the town hall, the county police station 
(formerly the county jail), the borough jail, the theatre, two 
corn exchanges, the Eastern Counties asylum for idiots 
and imbeciles, the Esses and Colchester hospital, and the 
assembly rooms. The town possesses a free grammar- 
school, in connection with which is a scholarship at St 
John's College, Cambridge ; it has also a literary institute 
with a library attached, a literary, a medical, and other 
societies. Colchester is the centre of a large agricultural 
district, and has very extensive corn and cattle markets. 
Baize was formerly the principal manufacture ; but 
this Las been superseded by silk, more especially the 
kind employed for umbrellas. The minor industrial 
establishments include flour-mills, vinegar-works, found- 
ries, engineering-works, rope-yards, printing offices, and 
lime-works. The import and export trade is conducted at 
the suburb of Hythe, to which vessels of 150 tons can 
come up the river. In 1874 the value of the imports was 
£48,367, and of the*exports £9173. The oyster fishery, 
for which the town has been famous for centuries, is not so 
extensive as it once was ; but it is still carried on under 
the control of the Colchester town council, and measures 
are taken for its maintenance and development. The 
borough, which returns two members to parliament, has an 
area of 11,314 acres ; the population was in 1871 26,343, 
an increase since 1861 of 2534, and since 1801 of 14,823. 
Colchester is the head-quarters of the Eastern Military 

That Colchester oconpi«d the site of some important Koman city 
was all along abundantly evident ; but it is only within the present 
c^jatury that it has been definitively identined with Camulodunum. 
This Roman settlement was established by Claudius, to assist in 
the reduction of the fierce Silurians ; but its existence was jeopardized 
t y the sudden rise of the Iceni to avenge the wrongs of Boadicca. 
The colonists were massacred, their houses burned, and the site left 
a mass of ruins. The Boman f;;cncral, Suetonius PauUinus, how- 
ever, soon after recovered possession of the place ; strong fortiUca- 

tions were erected, and the colony soon attained a high degree o! 
pro-sperit^'. To the present day the walls then erected remain airiest 
intact, and form one of the noblest specimens of Roman architecture 
in the island. Minor antiquities — such as Samian pottery, coins, 
articles of ornament — occur in the greatest profusion ; and, both 
within the city and in the neighbourhood, numerous villas have 
been discovered, with tesselated pavements, hypocausts, and baths. 
The coins belong to all periods, down to the secession of the Romans 
from the island. On the ai-rival of the Sa.xons the old name of 
Camulodunum gave place to that of Colneccastor, or the Castrum 
on the Colue, which is still preserved in the present modification. 
In 921 the town was recovered from the Danes by Edward the 
Elder, and its fortifications were strengthened. At the time of the 
Domfsdaij Book it was a place of decided importance, and in the 
reign of Edward 111. it sent five ships .ind 140 seamen to the siege 
of Calais. In 1348 and 1360 it was ravaged by the plague, which 
again visited it in the dreadful year of 1665. Jleanwhile it, was 
the scene of a memorable siege; having in 1C4S declared for the 
Royalists, it was captured by Fairfax, after an investment of eleven 
weeks, its gallant defenders, Sir C. Lucas and Sir C. Lisle, were 
put to death, and the castle was dismantled. See Jlorant's Essex; 
Rev. Henry Jenkins's "Observations on the Site of Camulodunum" 
in vol. xxix. of the Archccologia, 1842, and the same author's 
Colchester Castle built as a Temple of Claudius Casar, 1852'; 
Rev. Edward A. Cutts's Colchester Castle not a Monum Temple, 

COLCHESTER, Chaeles Abbot, Lord (1757-1829), 
born at Abingdon, was the son of Dr John Abbot, rector 
of AU Saints, Colchester, and, by bis- mother's second 
marriage, half-brother of the famous Jeremy Bentham. 
Erom Westminster School, Charles Abbot passed to Christ 
Church College, Oxford, where he gained the chancellor's 
medal for Latin verse and the Vinerian Scholarship. In 
1795, after having practised twelve years as a b.irrister, 
and published a treatise proposing the incorporation of the 
judicial system of Wales with that of England, he was 
appointed to the oflSce previously held by his brother of 
clerk of the rules in the King's Bench ; and in June of the 
same year he was elected member of parliament for Helston, 
through the infiuence of the duke of Leeds. In 1796 
Abbot commenced his career as a reformer in parliament, 
by obtaining the appointment of two committees, — the one 
to report on the arrangements which then existed as to 
temporary laws or laws about to expire, the other to devise 
methods for the better publication of new statutes. To 
the latter committee, and a second committee which he pro- 
posed some years later, it is owing that copies of new 
statutes were thenceforth sent to all magistrates and 
municipal bodies. To Abbot's efforts were also due the 
establishment of the Royal Record Commission, the reform 
of the system which allowed the public money to lie for 
some time at long interest in the hands of the public 
accountants, and, most important of all, the Act for taking 
the first census, that of 1801. On the formation of the 
Addington ministry in March 1801, Abbot became chief 
secretary and privy seal for Ireland ; and in the February 
of the following year he was chosen speaker of the House 
of Commons — a position which he held with universal 
satisfaction tDl 1817, when an attack of erysipelas com- 
pelled him to retire. In response to an address of the 
Commons, he was raised to the peerage as Baron Col- 
chester, with a pension of X4000, of which £3000 was 
to be continued to his heir. On the 8th May 1829, he 
died of erysipelas. His speeches against the Roman 
Catholic claims were published in 1828i 

COLCHICUM, the Meadow Safl'ron, or Autumn'Crocus 
{Colckicum aulnmnale), is a perennial plant of the natural 
order ilelanthacece or Colchicacece, found wild in rich 
moist meadow-land in England and Ireland, in Middle and 
Southern Europe, and in the Swiss Alps. It has pale- 
purple flowers, rarely more than three in number ; the 
perianth is funnel-shaped, and produced inferiorly into a 
long Blender tube, in the upper part of which the Eiz 
stamens are inserted. The ovaiy is three-celled, and lies 
at the bottom of this tube. The leaves are three or four in 

C L — C L 


number, flat, lanceolate, erect, and sheathing ; and there 
13 no stem. Propagation is by the formation of conn? from 
Ihe parent bulb, and by seeds. The latter are numerous, 
round, reddish brown, and of the size of black mustard- 
seeds. The bulb of the meadow-saffron attains its full size 
in June or early in July. A smaller bulb is then formed 
from the old one, close to its root ; and this in September 
and October protiuccs the crocus-like Sowers. In the 
succeeding January or February it sends up its leaves, 
together with the ovary, which perfects its seeds during the 
summer. The young corm, at first about the diameter of 
•he flower-stalk, grows continuously, till in the following 
I lily it attains the size of a small apricot. The parent 
i.ulb remains attached to the new one, and keeps its form 
and size till April in the third year of its existence, after 
which It decays. In some cases a siugle corm produces 
several new plants during its second spring by giving rise 
to immature cornis. 

Colchicum owes its medicinal properties to an alkaloid, 
na.ned colchicine, which is present in all parts of the 
plant It was discovered by Pelletier and Caventon, and 
was identified as distinct from veratrine by Geiger and 
Hesse in 1S33. According to Oberlin, colchicine is 
a complex body, containing a crystallizablo neutral sub- 
stance, colchiceine. Hiibler assigns to colchicine the 
formula C^HuXOj, and considers it to be isomeric with 
Tolchiceine (Arch, der Pharm., torn. cxi. 194; Journ. de 
tharm. et de Chim., lorn. ii. 490, 4th ser). It is an intensely 
bitter body, soluble in alcohol and water, but insoluble 
in ether, and is a powerful poison, small quantities causing 
violent vomiting and purging , tannin, which precipitates 
it from solution, has been recommended as an antidote for 
It. Colchicino is present in smaller quantity in the seeds 
than in the bulbs ; and in the latter, according to Stolzo, 
it 13 more abundant in spring than in autumn ; Shroff, 
uowover, states that the corms for medicinal use should bo 
collected after or during the time of flowering. The 
preparations of colchicum employed as medicine are the 
extract, made by macerating dried shreds of the bulbs in 
sherry or acetic acid, the expressed juice of the bulbs, 
purified and concentrated by heating, straining, and 
evaporation at a temperature below 160° Fahr., and an 
alcoholic tincture of tho seeds Whether swallowed or 
inj:cted into the veins colchicum acts as an irritant of tho 
stjmach and intestines and a nervine sedative ; small doses 
stimulate the secreting and excreting functions, but when 
continued they impair the ap|)etite. and much disturb the 
stiimach Large quantities produce vomiting, profuse 
perspiration, heat in tho abdomen, considerable reduction 
of the rate of the p'llse, and dysenteric symptoms, and may 
cause death f''om exhaustion. 

Colchicunr • A3 known to the Greeks under the name of KoXx'^i", 
from KoAx'r. or Colchis, a country in which tho plant grew ; and 
it is described by Dioscorides as a poison • In the 17th century 
the corms wr-'e worn by some of the German peasantry as a charm 
against the plague. The drug waa little used'till 1763, when Baron 
Storck of Vienna introduced it for the treatment of dropsy. In 
lebrile di3e;ise.s it was first extensively employed by Mr Haden. 
As a specific for gout colchicum waa early employed by the Arabs ; 
and the preparation known as «au vUdkinaU, much resorted to in 
the last century (or the cure of gout, owes its therapeutic virtues to 
colchicum ; but general attention waa first directed by Sir Everard 
Home to the use of the drug in gout. Full doses are apt to provoke 
sickness and diarrhcca. bnt give immediate relief from the sulTerings 
caused by arthritic disease; whereas small quantities are not 
effectual for several days According to Dr A B Garrod, tho 
beneficial efTects of colchicum are not explicable either by its 
purgative properties, or by its sedative influence on the vascular 
system ; nor is there evidence that it produces any of its effects by 
causing an increase in the elimination of urea and uric acid by the 
kidneys. Dr Graves considers that colchicum operates in gout by 
lessening the formation of uric acid in the system. 

Colchicum m.iv often be employed in acute rheumatism, in the 
'.ri'.itment of bronchitis, asthma, oi'uptions of the skin, an>l of 

dyspepsia in goaty patisstJ) ; Mao as a cholafogue initesd of mer- 
curials. The "hermodnctjl" 0. iticiontwr.tcrs is supposed to be th« 
same as the modem drug of th>t i.. me, ivliicu consiitj of the cormi 
of a species of colchicum 

.Sm Chrialson, TrMlium Pcaciu, Mb w).. pp 3S1-6 (18«J); flUcklser lad 
Hinbary. Phamuagraphui, p. 636 (ItnC Gftm)4. Oou'. ctd R^eumatu 0«^ SI 
ed. c)»p ll. (1870: eaglult Bounty, «1 <>. < Boiwell Sjrme. 3d oil., vol. II. p 2U 
(1869) ; Biltour. C/oji Boot »/ Bolanii. 3<I ed , p. 931 (1871) on Cokhlcioe, M* 
W»ttj'5 Chrmicil DKlmnary, vol L: Wurtu- Oiclionnairi ilt Chm^, L 11 

COLCHIS, in ancient geography, a nearly triangular 
district of Asia Minor, at tLe eastern extremity of the 
Black Sea, was bounded on the N. by the Caucasus, which 
separated it from Asiatic Sarroatia, E. by Ibsria and the 
Jlontes Moschici, S. by Armepii. and part of Pontus, and 
W. by the Euxine. The ancient district is represented by 
the modern province of Mingrelia, and part of Abasia. 
The name of Colchis is first found applied to this country 
by the Greek poets .iEschylus and Pindar. It w^s 
celebrated in Greek mythology as the destination of the 
Argonauts, the residence of Medea, and the special domain 
of sorcery. At a remote period it seems to have been 
incorporated with the Persian empire, though the iobabi-' 
tants ultimately erected their territory into an independent 
state ; and in this condition it was found by Alexander 
the Great, when he invaded Persia. From this time till 
the era of the Mithridatic wars nothing is known of the 
history of Oolchis. At the time of the Roman invasion it 
seems to have paid a nominal homage to Mitbridates, and 
to have been ruled over by Machares, the second son of 
that monarch. On the defeat of Mithridates by Pompey, 
it became a Roman province. After the death of Pompey, 
Pharnaces, the son of Mithridates, rose in rebellion agains- 
the Roman yoke, subdued Colchis and Armenia, and i.iad-: 
head, though but for a short time, against the Roman arras. 
After this Colchis was incorporated with Pontus, and the. 
Colchians are not again alluded to in ancient history till 
the Gth century, when, along with the Abasci, they joined 
Chosroes I., king of Persia, in his war against Justinian. 
Colchis was inhabited by a number of tribes whose settle- 
ments lay chiefly along the shore of the Black Sea. Tha 
chief of these were the Lazi, Moschi, Apsidse, Abasci. 
Sagadae, Suani, and Coraxi. These tribes differed so 
completely in language and appearance from the surrounding 
nations, that the ancients themselves originated various 
theories to account for the phenomenon. Herodotus, for 
example, believed them to have sprung from the relics of 
the army of Sesostris, and thus identified them with the 
Egyptians. Though this theory was not generally adopted 
by the ancients, it has been defended, but not with 
complete success, by some modern writers. Frcm the 
first^named of these tribes, the Lazi, the country was latterly 
known as Terra Lazica. 

COLDSTREAM, a town of Scotland, in Berwickshire, 
15 miles west of Berwick, on the north bank of the Tweed, 
there crossed by a bridge of five arches. It is situated on 
the principal thoroughfare between England and Scotland, 
and in the neighbourhood of the ford by which the Scutch 
and English armies were wont to cross the river in olden 
times. In the period before the Reformation it was the 
seat of a priory famous in history as the place where the 
Papal legate, in the reign of Henry VIII., published a bull 
against the printing of the Scriptures ; and in the present 
century, by a curious irony of fate, the very site of the 
building was occupied by an establishment under Dr Adam 
Thomson for the production of Bibles at a low rate. Cold- 
stream, like Gretna Green, was formerly celebrated for its 
irregular marriages. The regiment of Foot Guards known 
as the " Coldstream Guards " was so named from General 
Monk having set out with it from the town on his marcU 
into England in 1659. Population in 1871, 2619. 

COLEBROOKE, Henry Thomas (1765-1837), an 
eminent Oriental scholar, the third eon of Sir George, the 


C O L — C L 

Becond baronet of that name, was boi n in London. He was 
educated at home ; and wlien only fifteen Le had made 
considerable attainments in classical and mathematical 
studies. From tlie age of twelve to sixteen he resided in 
France, and in 1785 was appomted to a writersbip in 
India. About a year after his arrival there he was placed 
in the Board of Accounts in Calcutta ; and three years later 
be was removed to a situation in the revenue department 
at Tirhoot, where he pursued his studies in Eastern science 
and literature. In 1789 he was removed to Puiiicah, 
where he investigated the resources of that part of the 
country, and published his l\'i;marh nn tlie Htisbuiulri/ and 
Commerce of Bengal, in which he advocated free trade 
between Great Britain and India, After eleven years' 
residence in India, Colebrookc began the study of Sans- 
krit ; and to hiin was confided the translation of the great 
digest of Hindu law, which had been left unfinished by Sir 
William Jones. After filling a number of important 
offices, and publisliing some works on Oriental literature, 
including a Sanskrit grammar and dictionary, he returned 
to London, where he died, March 18, 1837. He was a 
director of the Asiatic Society, and many of the most 
valuable papers in the Society's Transactions were com- 
municated by him. 

COLEOPTERA, or Beetles, a vast and remarkably 
homogeneous order of Insects, characterized, as the name 
implies (/<o.\to's. a sheath, and nr(pa, wings), by the struc- 
ture of the upper'wings, or elytra, as they are called, which 
are so modified as to form shields for the protection of the 
undec wings — the true organs of flight in those insects. 
The name was given, and the principal characters of the 
order defined, by Aristotle; and owing doubtless to their 
singular and varied forms and habits, the brilliant colouring 
and great size of numerous species, and that solid consist- 
ence which renders their collection and preservation com- 
paratively easy, Coleopterous insects have since the days of 
theStagirite received the special attention of entomologists. 
The body in Coleoptcra is enclosed in a chitinous integu- 
ment of a more or less rigid consistence, and is somewhat 
oval in form, although in most cases greatly longer than 
broad. ' In this respect, however, the utmost diversity pre- 
vails even amnng the members of the same family, the form 
being modified- to suit the habits of the insect. Thus, 
according to Bates, among the South American forms of 
Dermestid<:e, the species of one group are cubical in shape, 
and live in dung ; those of another, inhabiting the stems 
of palm trees, are much flatter; those of a third, only found 
nuder the bark of trees, are excessively depressed, som& 
species being literally " as thin as a wafer;" while the 
members of a fourth group of the same family are cylindri- 
cal in shape, and are woodborers, " looking," says Bates, 
"like animated gimlets, their pointed heads being fixed in 
the wood, while their glossy bodies work rapidly round so 
as to create little streams of saw-dust from the boles " 
{Naturalist on (he Amazons). The body, in common with 
that of all other insects, is divided into three parts, — head, 
thorax, and abdomen. The head, which is usually rounded 
or somewhat triangular in shape (except in the Weevil tribe, 
where it is produced into an elongated rostrum or snout), 
bears the organs of the senses. The eyes of beetles are 
two in number and compound, and in predaceous species 
are somewhat protuberant, thus affording greater range of 
vision. The simple eyes, or ocelli, common among butter- 
flies and moths, are almost unknown among beetles, 
although present in the larvae. In many species, especially 
of Lamellicorn Beetles, these organs are more or less com- 
pletely divided by a process known as the canthus: and in 
the (rj/rmi(/ce, or Whirligigs, the intersection is so complete 
as to give the appearance of a pair of eyes on each side. 
In burrowing and cavc-dwcUing species, "those lives are 

spent in almost total darkness, the eyes, alttough distinctly 
visible in the young, become more or less atrophied in th« 
adult forms. The two anteniiiB, supposed by some to b« 
organs of hearing, and by others of smell, are placed be- 
tween or in front of the eyes, and usually consist of 1 1 
joints. These dilTer greatly in form and site, not only ic 
difl'erent species, but in the two sexes of the same species, 
the most prevalent forms being the setaceous, moniliform, 
serrate, pectinate, clavate, and lamellate. lumany groups 
the antennae are exceedingly short, while in such forms as 
the Longicorn Beetles they, in a few cases, measure foui 
times the length of the body. 

The parts which go to form the mouth are typically de 
veloped in beetles, and for this among other reasons tlit 
order Coleoptcra has generjlly been placed at the head ol 
the cjass of insects. It is known as the masticatory mouth, 
and consists of the four parts (Plate VI fig. 1). (I) The 
labrnm, or upper lip, is usually a continuation of the upper 
surface of the head. (2) Ihe rnandMes, or true mastica- 
tory organs, consist of two powerful arched jaws generally 
dentated, moving horizontally and opposed to each other, 
the teeth in some cases interlocking, in others, as in the 
Tiger Beetles, crossing like the blades in a pair of scissors 
In many species they are so small as to be almost concealed 
within the'^vity of the mouth, while in such forms as the 
Stag Beetles they measure half the length of the entire body. 
The form and texture of the mandibles are largely depen- 
dent on the nature of the insect's food, being acute and 
sharply dentated in predaceous species, and ihiik and blunt 
in vegetable feeders. Their margins are soft and flexibla 
m those which feed on decaying animai and vegetable 
matters. While the entire mandibles are soft and flattened 
in those which live on fluids. (3) The majdice, or lesser 
jaws, placed beneath the mandibles, and like them moving 
horizontally, serve to hold the food and guide it to the 
mouth. Their extremities are in many cases furnished 
with a movable claw, and their inner surfaces with a series 
of bristles, which are probably of use in straining the juices 
from their food. The maxilla are provided with a pair of 
appendages called maxillary palps — delicate organs that 
vibrate intensely, and are supposed to be principal organs 
of touch. (4) 'The labium, or lower lip, also provided with 

The thorax bears the organs of locomotion, consisting of 
three pairs of legs and two pairs of wings (Plate VI. fig. 2). 
The legs vary in their structure and development accord- 
ing to the habits of the species ; thus in running and 
walking bee'tles these organs are usually of equal length, 
and generally similar in other respects, the anterior pair, 
however, being often stronger in the male than in the 
female; and in a few species, as the Harlequin Beetle, 
the anterior legs are enormously elongated and propor- 
tionately thickened. In burrowing beetles the anterior 
legs are developed into fossorial organs with broad and 
strongly dentated tarsi, and in arboreal forms the under 
side of the tarsi is usually covered with hair, forming a 
cushion-like sole terminating in toothed claws, by which 
they are enabled to keep their footing on the leaves and 
branches of trees. Water beetles generally have the 
posterior pair of legs elongated, flattened, and ciliated, 
60 as to form swimming organs; those known as Whirligigs 
using the middle and posterior pairs for this purpose, 
while the anterior limbs are employed as rudders; and 
jumping beetles, as Ilahicidae, have the thighs of the 
posterior pair of legs greatly thickened for saltatory 
purposes (Plate VIII. fig. 10)' The two anterior wings 
become solidified in beetles, and are thus rendered useless 
as organs of flight. They are termed elytra {tXxrrpov, t 
shieU), and serve to protect the delicate wnngs beneath. 
as well as the stigmata, or breathing pores, placed along 



the side* of the abdomen. The elytra are always present 
except in the females ot a few species, as the Olow-worm, 
and are generally large enough to cover the upper surface 
«( the abdomen and to conceal the under wings when 
at rest In Brachelylrous Beetles, however, they 
are exceedingly short, and the wings in these are only 
tiwMed by beiiig folded more than once beneath them. 
"Bbe eJytra when at rest meet on the middle of the back, 
thew internal margins forming a straight longitudinal line 
or suture highly characteristic of the Coleoptera , but even 
this character is not universal, as in the Oil Beetles (Meloe) 
and a few others the one elytron partly folds over the 
other. The posterior wings are large, veined, ami 
membranaceous and form the true organs of flight, but 
they are much more frequently absent than the elytra, and 
where this occurs, as in manv^arabideous Beetles, the latter 
are more or less soldered together. During flight the elytra 
are either extended horizontally or merely raised without 
being separated, as in the Rose-Chafers (Cetonia) , and 
as mislit be expected from their general stoutness of body 
and comparative deficiency of wings, the flight of beetles is 
heavy and seldom long sustained. Their weakness in this 
respect is further shown in the apparent inability of 
many species suddenly to alter their course so as to avoid 
collision with any object that may unexpectedly come in 
their way, a defect popularly but erroneously attributed, 
in the phrase "as blind as a beetle," to weakness of sight 
rather than of wing. In certain water beetles {Dt/tiscidas) 
a pair of alula:, or winglets, are developed at the inner 
angle of the elytra. 

The colouring of the cLitinous integument of beetles is 
often exceedingly brilliant, and the elytra and other parts 
of many species are largely used in the manufacture of 
personal ornaments. Tbis colouring can in many instances 
be s'hown to bear a close resemblance to that of surrounding 
nature , thus burrowing beetles, and those which dwell in 
subterranean caves, are generally black or brown ; Weevils, 
found on the ground, are earlh-coloured ; while arboreal 
species of this and other groups are of various shades of 
green. Bates found a species of beetle, on a particular tree 
in South America, which so resembled the bark on which 
it spent its existence a.* to be, wlicn motionless, no longer 
visible. This assimilation in colour to surrounding nature 
18 probably useful in assisting them to elude their enemies ; 
and when the markings are such as to render the beetle 
conspicuous it is often provided with, and nodoubtprotccted 
by, an ofi"ensive odour or nauseous juices , thus the 
naturalist already mentioned found on a sandy beach two 
species of Tiger Beetles, the one of a pallid hue like the 
sand it ran upon, the other of a brilhant and conspicuous 
copppr colour, but having " a strong, offensive, putrid, and 
musky odour." from which the other was entirely free. 
Fireflies, a group of Coleopterous insects, are also exceed- 
ingly conspicuous, but are similarly protected. The 
ph«nomena of mimicry, or the imitation of one animal by 
another for protective purposes, have been observed in 
several instances among beetles Mr Belt, in his interesting 
work. The Naturalist in Nicaragua, states that he 
captured what he supposed was a hairy caterpillar, but 
on closer inspection he found it to be a Longicorn 
Beetle, the being concealed among the hair. 
Hairy caterpillars are almost universally rejected by insect- 
eating animals, and thus probably this beetle shared in the 
immunity from attack accorded to its model. A species 
of beetle found in South America closely resembles a bee 
found in the samo locality, its body being covered with 
hair and its legs similarly tufted ; another, with yellow 
banded abdomen, sufTiciently resembled a "wasp as to make 
its captor both cautious and timid in handling it at first. 
One of the Chrytomdidoe {Crioceris merdiffera) is said to 

disgrnai: ii-seU by covering its upper surface ».:h its own 
dung; while many species to be afterwards noticed, when 
m danger, simulate death. Brilliant colouring in beetles 
13 not as in some orders of ammals a characteristic mainly 
of the male sex, both sexes being usually similar in tbit 
respect, while in those cases in which they diffef, the female 
is generally the more gaudy insect. The chief external 
difference, however, between the sexes in many beetles is 
to be found m the presence of horns on the head and 
thorax of the males. These vary exceedingly m their 
development even in individuals of the same species, while 
in their form they resemble the horns of the rhinoceros, and 
the antlers of the stag , and as among mammals the reindeer 
IS exceptional in the possession of antlers by both sexes, 
80 among beetles there is at least one species, Phanceui 
lanci/er, in which both male and female are similarly 
equipped. The male beetle has not been observed to use 
its horns either for purposes of oB'ence or defence, some of 
the most pugnacious species being entirely destitute of 
them ; and lu Darwin's opinion these appendages have 
been acquired merely as ornaments. 

The abdomen of Coleopterous insects is sessile, that is, 
attached to the thorax by its largest transverse diameter. 
On the under side it is always of a firm horny consistence, 
while the upper surface is generally soft, being protected 
by the elytra and wings , when these, however, are absent 
or abbreviated, it is as hard above as below It bears 
the organs of generation as well as the respiratory openings, 
or ttigmata, which form the apertures of the tracheae by 
means of which air is disseminated through all parts of 
the insect system. Beetles belonging to several distinct 
families possess stridulating organs, and these are generallv 
found in both sexes. The apparatus by which the sound, 
loud enough to be heard in many cases at some y.arda 
distance, is produced, consists of a conple of delicate rasps 
placed on the upper surface of the abdomen, on the elytra, 
or on the prothorax, and a scraper formed by the margins 
of the elytra, the edges of the abdominal segments, or the 
mesothorax, the rapid motion of the latter over the rasps 
producing the sound. In many cases, according to Darwin, 
the males only stndulate, the females being destitute of 
those organs, and in such cases the sound is employed as 
a call to the female ; with most bejtles, howerer, the 
stridulation proceeds from both sex* and serves as a 
mutual call. Beetles are entirely destitute of stinging 
prgajis, but a few are furnished with a retractile tube, or 
'ovipositor, at the extremity of the abdomen, by means of 
which they deposit their eggs in the cracks of wood and 
other suitable localities. 

The eggs of beetles are deposited in a great variety of 
situations, and in the case of a certain group of 
Slaphylintdoe found in the nests of white ants in South 
America, it was recently discovered by Schbdte that the 
eggs are not deposited at all, but remain in the abdomen 
until they are hatched. These ovo-%'iviparous beetles are 
only one-tenth of an inch in length, and have the abdominal 
region enormously distended and turned over so as to rest 
on the back. Dung beetles deposit their eggs in the midst 
of the manure on which the future larvx feed ; the Sacred 
Beetle of Egypt rolling each of hers about until a globular 
pellet is formed, when the whole is buried in the ground ; 
while the Sexton Beetle finds an appropriate ni-ius fbr her 
eggs in the dead bodies of animals. One species of 
Cleridce selects the nest of the solitary bee, another (Plate 
Vn. fig. 31) that of the hive bee, while several species of 
Rose Beetles choose the nest of the ant for this purposa 
The water beetles belonging to the genus H ydrophilwi 
deposit their eggs in a single mass, which they surround 
with a cocoon, formed of a silky substance secreted by 
certain glands in the abdomen, and then either fix this to 



the Itfi! M an nquatic plant or kave it to float on the surface 
of ibe vraiei. Certain species of the Weevil tribe deposit 
their eggs on the leaves of trees, splitting the median 
r.ervures in several places, and afterwards roiling them up. 
In its progress from the egg to the perfect insect the beetle 
uudergoes complete metamorphosis, passing from the larval 
to the pupa stage, and recaining totally quiescent during 
the latter. Coleopterous larvae generally consist of 13 
segments, of which those forming the head and thorax are 
usually of a hard horny texture,— ,the mouth, aa in the 
perfect insect, being masticatorj', and the eyes, when 
present, simple, or ccflli. They have usually six legs, and 
prolegs, as in caterpillars, are occasionally present; but the 
larvie of many species are legless grubs, while in others the 
limbs are but feebly developed. In those groups in which 
the elytra are abbreviated, the larva; are exceedingly active 
snd closely resemble the perfect insect. Like their parents 
llie larva; of beetles feed on living animals, on plants, or 
on decaying animal and vegetable substances, but greatly 
exceed the perfect insect in the quantity of food which 
they consume, and it is in this condition that beetles do 
most injury to field crops and forest trees. The larvae of 
burrowing beetles, known as " White Worms," spend their 
existence in the earth, and are destitute of eyes; those of the 
Stag Beetles and other wood-boring groups live in the trunks 
of decaying trees; mealworms — the larva of 2'enebrio 
molitor — liveenveloped in flour,andthose of the Corn Weevil 
in the heart of the wheat grain ; while those of another 
species of Weevil make their homes in the fleshy parts of 
the receptacles of ccDiposite flowers. The larvae of Oil 
Buetlcs (ilclo'c), or at least certaiji species of them whose 
life history has been observed, after leaving the egg, which 
the perfect insect has deposited just beneath the surface of 
the ground, climb upon the stems of plants, and take the 
first opportunity of attaching themselves to any insect that 
may happen to alight near them, and in this way they are 
occasionally conveyed into the hives of bees, in which alone 
they meet with their appropriate food. Only a few of them 
are thus fortunate, the majority of the larva; getting attached 
10 the wrong insect, and so perishing of hunger. The 
species probably owes its" preservation to the great number 
of eggs, amounting to upwards of 4000, deposited by a 
single female. The larva: of one group of water beetles, 
Uydrophilus, swim readily by means of their ciliated legs, 
those of another group, Dt/nscvs, make use also of their 
flexible abdomen provided at its extremity with a pair of 
leaf-like appendages (Plate VII. fig. C) ; while the Whirligig 
larvae (Gi/rinus), in addition to ciliated swimming organs, 
are provided with four movable hooks on the posterior 
6e"ment, by which they are enabled to take extensive leaps 
(Plate VII. fig. 17). The duration of the larval state varies 
in diB'erent groiijjs of beetles, being comparatively short in 
leaf-eating species, but lasting for three or four years in 
those which burrow in the earth or in wood. The larvie 
in the latter case pass the winter in a torpid state, abstain- 
ing almost entirely from food, until awakened from their 
temporary trance by the return of genial weather, when 
they greedily attack their favourite food, and grow rapidly. 
In passing from the condition of a larva, the beetle does 
not, like the butterfly, assume a form altogether di0"erent 
from that of the perfect insect, but in the pujia or nymph 
etate shows all the parts of the future insect, only in a condi- 
tion of almost complete immobility. In preparing for this 
quiescent period, the larva; of many species surround 
themselves with a cocoon, consisting, in the case of the 
Scarahceidce, of earth and small pieces of wood glued 
together with saliva, and in that of the Goliath Beetles, of 
mud Others resemble the larvae of moths in constructing 
tubes in which to undergo theit trajisformations, while the 
larvae of Lady-Birds- -Coccfnf//o — suspend themndlves bv 

the tail and make use of their larrat covering as a pro!ec- 
tion to the nj-mph within. When Vhe condition of nym; !i 
is assumed in autumn, no further change takes place ti.l 
the ensuing spring, but under suitable conditions of hes; 
this .stage does not last usually for more than three or four 
weeks, after which it emerges a full-blown beetle. 

The number of known species of beetles is estimated at 
70,000, and these arc probably not more than one-half of 
the total number in existence — Great Britain alone 
possessing 3C14 indigenous species. They occur in greatest 
abundance in the wooded parts of tropical regions. " A 
large proportion of the beetles of the tropics," says Wallace, 
" are more or less dependent on vegetation and particularly 
on timber, bark, and leaves in various stages of decay. In 
the untouched virgin forest the beetles are found at spots 
where tress have fallen through decay and old age." The 
number gradually decreases towards the poles, only a few 
species occurring as far north as Greenland, The six 
zoological provinces proposed by Mr Sclater in 1859 as 
applicable to the existing distribution of birds, have lately 
been shown by Mr A. R. Wallace, in his adniirable work on 
the Geographical Distriintwn of Animals (1876), to mark 
off e<iually characteristic groups of Coleopterous insects, a 
conclusion arrived at from a study of the distribution of the 
following ^ix important families ; — 

CicindeliJa; or Tiger Beetles, coDtaining 35 genera and 803 species 
Car;;bida or GrouDd Beetles, „ 620 „ 8500 

Cctoniidie or Rose C.liafers, ', 120 „ 970 ,, 

Luc.inidie or Stag Beetles, ' ,, 45 ,, 629 ,, 

Buprestida; or Jlctallic Beetles, „ 109 ,, 2686 „ 

LoDgicorciaar Long- horned Beetles, ,, 1488 ,, 7576 

The Pala;arctic Region, which comprises Europe, Africa 
north of the Sahara, and Northern Asia, possesses about 
20,000 species of beetles, and is specially characterized by 
abundance of Carabida:, nearly two-fifths of the entire 
number belonging to this region ; Lnngicorns are also well 
represented by 196 genera, of which 51 are peculiar to it. 
The Coleoptera of the Canary Islands, Madeira, and the 
Azores are Patearctio, but are peculiar in the total absence 
of such forms as the Tiger Beetles, the Chafers, and the 
Uose-Chafers, also in the great number of wingless species. 
The latter are specially numerous in groups of beetles 
peculiar to those islands, but they also occur in other cases, 
22 genera which either usually or at least sometimes are 
winged in Southern Europe having only wingless species in 
Madeira, while at k-ast three species winged in Europe 
occur in those islands in an apterous condition. On the 
other hand, those species in Madeira which possess wings 
have them more largely developed than they are among 
allied continental forms ;' the strong-winged and the wing- 
less thus appearing best suited to live in islands exposed, 
as theso Atlantic groups are, to froijuent storms. The 
Ethiopian Region, which includes Africa south of the 
Sahara and Madagascar, is specially rich in Cetoniido!, 
possessing 76, or more than half of the known genera, vitb 
C4 of these peculiar to it, of which no less than 21 are 
found exclusively in Madagascar. It has also 262 genera 
of Longicorns, 216 of which are peculiar. The Orienta'. 
Region, comprising Southern Asia and the islands adj'aceut, 
contains some of the most remarkable forms of Carabidw, 
as Mormolyce phyllcdes, and is rich in gorgeous metallic 
beetles (Buprestida) and in Longicorns, having 36X1 
genera of the latter, with 70 per cect peculiar to it. The 
Australian Region shows affinity with the Oriental in its 
Coleoptera ; it is equally rich in peculiar forms of Longi 
corns, and is the richest of all the regions in Bvprestida, 
having 47, or more than one-half of the known genera, and 
20 of these confined to it. Several genera belonging to 
this and other famdies have their species divided belwee^ 
t»'.- .Australian and Neotropical or South Americin RegioD'- 

roL> vi 



i&ainont JftkrtVo.t& 


VOL. rr 



riATE m 

* S- 



Prpo. crs^iuo'- 

,StT>/h/luill) ^ 


jii.uJ,M Aiar. T^ Ztata- pLifUuur. Citrus opiariM. BfJn;Jiilus puen.t. 




jpzATE mr 


EiuJvua/c/uu cufdiuiiT. ^T,v"u Tf.rimtDn,v^ C<rrruTtn,7 mrnn/n. Ci.r.riJ,, l,<nirteanti.r. 



and thia resemblance has given riso to the supposition that 
at some distant period a land connection existed between 
the two continents ; it is more probable, however, as 
Wallace holds, "that it may have arisen from intercom- 
munication during the warm southern period when floating 
timber would occasionally transmit a few larvje from island 
to island across tho Antarctic seas." The Neotropical 
Uegion comprehends southern and Central America and 
the West Indies, and is enormously rich in Longicorn 
Beetles, having no fewer than 516 genera, of which 487 
are found nowhere else. The most remarkable fact in the 
distribution of the Stag Beetles (Lucanidae) is their almost 
total absence from tho tropical part« of this region, and 
their presence in North America, while in the old world 
they are specially characteristic of the hottest parts of the 
Oriental and Australian Regions. The Nearctic Region 
comprises the northern and temperate parts of America, 
and is comparatively poor in Coleoptera, showing greater 
atUnity, however, with the Palsearctic than with the con- 
tiguous Neotropical Region. 

The insects belonging to this extensive Order comprise 
numerous weUdefined and generally recognized families, 
but great diversity of opinion exists as. to tho best mode of 
grouping theso together so as to exhibit their natural 
affinities. Qeolfroy, a French naturalist, was the first to 
make use of tho number of joints in tho tarsi for this 
purpose, a method adopted and extended by Olivier, and 
brought into general use by Latrcille. According to the 
tarsal system tho Coleoptera arc divided into tho following 
four sections : — (1) Pentamera, in which all tho tarsi are 
five-jointed ; (2) Heteromeea, with five articulations to 
the first four tarsi and four to the posterior pair ; (3) 
Tetramera, with four articulations to all the tarsi ; and 
(4) Trimeba, with all the tarsi three-jointed. Slaclen.y, an 
English naturalist, altogether rejected the tarsal system of 
OeofTroy, and founded his fivo primary divisions on 
characters derived from the larvae of those insects — a system 
adopted by Stephens in his Classification of British Insects, 
and by several other English writers on this subject. Tho 
tarsal system is to a large extent artificial, and when slavishly 
followed brings together forms which in other respects 
differ very widely, while separating many that are as 
obviously related. Its simplicity and consequent easiness 
of application have, in the absence of a more natural system, 
led to its very general adoption by both British and foreign 
naturalists, who do not, however, apply it where obviously 

Pentamera. — The majority of the beetles in this section 
have the tarsi of the feet five-jointed, and they comprise 
fully one-half ot all the known species of Coleoptera. It 
is subdivided into tho following 8 groups : — . 

I. Geodephaga, or Predaceous Land Beetles, resemble the 
succeeding group and differ from other Coleoptera in having 
tho outer lobe of tho maxilL-e distinct and articulated, thus 
appearing to possess six palpi. They are extremely active, 
their legs being admirably adapted for running; tho majority 
ore nocturnal in their habits, secreting themselves under 
stones and clods of earth ; and all are carnivorous, feeding 
on other insects and occasionally devouring individuals of 
their own species, while their larvae are equally predaceous. 
They are exceedingly numerous in temperate regions, and 
are eminently serviceable in checking the increase o£ insecta 
which feed on fruit and grain. The mandibles, by which 
they seize and tear their living prey, are long horny organs, 
booked and sharp at tho points, and toothed on the inner 
edges. This group includes the Tiger Beetles, Cicindclidce 
(Plate VI. figs. 4, 9-12), so called from the fierceness of their 
disposition, and probably also from the spots and stripes 
with which tho elytra are generally adorned. Most of the 
cpecies are diurnal, frequenting hot sandy districts, enioying 

the bright sunshine, and flying for short distances with 
great velocity. They are elegant in form and'adomsd with 
brilliant metallic colours, the prevalent hue being a golder 
green. The habits of the larvie of these insects are ve - 
remarkable. Unfit, from the softness cf their bodies .-oC 
tho slowness of their motions, effectually to protect them- 
selves from the attacks of their enemies, or to capture their 
prey on the surface of the ground, the larvae of tho Tigef 
Beetles have recourse to stratagem in order to effect these 
purposes. By means of their short thick legs, assibted by 
their powerful sickle-shaped jaws, they dig burrows in the 
sandy banks which they frequent, vertical for some distance, 
and afterwards curving so as to become horizontaL These 
are about a foot in depth, and within them the Tiger Beetle 
remains during its larval and pupa stages. In seeking its 
food the creature makes its way from the bottom of its den 
until the head segment, which is broad and flat, reaches the 
level of the ground, and thus blocks up the aperture of its 
tunnel. It remains^ fixed in this position by means of two 
bent hooks placed on the upper surface ot the eighth 
segment, which is considerably thicker than the others, until 
an unsuspecting ant or other insect passing over or close to 
it is seized by its formidable jaws and speedily conveyed to 
the bottom of the pit-fall, where it is greedily devoured. 
Should the tunnels of different individuals happen to come 
in contact, the more powerful larva is said to devour its 
weaker neighbour. When full grown it closes the mouth of 
its burrow and there undergoes metamorphosis. The best 
known and most beautiful of British species is the Tiger 
Beetle, Cicindela campestris, of a sea-green colour with 
six whitish spots on the elytra. When handled it exhales, 
according to Westwood, a pleasant odour like that of roses. 
Ground beetles (Carabidce) are generally less brilliant in 
colour than the Tiger forms, being more nocturnal in their 
habits, and with the jaws less formidably toothed. Many 
of the species are entirely apterous, with the elytra more or 
less soldered together, and the majority of. them secrete an 
acrid juice which they expel when menaced or attacked. 
Of the latter tho most remarkable are the Bombardier 
Beetles, Brachimis (Plate VI. fig. 8). These congregate 
together under stones, and when disturbed discharge a 
caustic fluid of an extremely penetrating odour, and so 
volatile that no sooner does it come in contact with the 
atmosphere than it passes into a vapour, accompanied by 
a considerable explosion, during which they seek to escape. 
When placed on the tongue this fluid causes a sharp pain 
and leaves a yellow spot somewhat similar to that produced 
by a drop of nitric acid. The Bombardiers are said to be 
capable of giving off as many as 18 of such discharges at a 
time. One of the most beautiful of European beetles is the 
Calosoma sycophanta (Plate VII. fig. 2), belonging to this 
group. Its body is of a deep violet colour, and tho elytra, 
which are striated and punctured, are of a rich grec: and 
gold tint. Both in the larva and perfect states theso beetles 
frequent the trunks and branches of tho oak, whera they 
find their favourite food — the largo caterpillars ci the 
Processionary Moth {Bombyx proccssionea), of whicl; they 
devour enormous numbers, apparently undeterred by the 
hairs which clothe the body of the caterpillar, and which 
when seized by the human hand cause considerable pain. 
One of the most curious of Carabideous Beetles, Momolyce 
pht/Uodes (f\&tB VI. fig. 5), is a native of Java. Its body is 
about 3 inches long and 1| inches across the elytra. Tho 
latter are flat, thin, and greatly dilated, while the other 
parts of the body are remarkably depressed, the beetle thus 
somewhat resembling the Orthopterous leaf-insects, anc 
hence the specific name pkyUodes, or leaf-like. Many ol 
the ground beetles, such as the typical Carabi (Plate VI. 
figs. 6, 7) and the Calosoma, live in the sunshine and arc 
generally brilliant in colouring ; others spend their existence 

VI — ir 



in subterranean cares, and are both colourless and blind ; 
while sueb forms as Blainis artolatus, found on the coast 
of Normandy, live for the most part under water, being 
only found when the tide is low, 

• II. II ydradephaga, or Carnivorous Water Beetles, are 
oval and somewhat depressed in form, with the two 
posterior pairs of legs thittened and otherwise fitted for 
fiwimming. They include the Diving Beetles {Dytiseus) 
and the Whirligigs (Gyrinus). The former (Plate VII. figs. 
3-7) occur in all quarters of the globe, and are truly 
amphibious, for although water is their favourite element, 
they surtive for a long time on moist land, and most of 
them fly about in the evening and morning twilight with 
groat power and speed. When needing to breathe they allow 
themselves to float on the surface of the water, raise their 
elytra, and expose their stigmata to the atmosphere, thus 
getting quit of exhausted air and obtaining a fresh supply, 
which is stored up by closing the elytra. They are 
exceedingly voracious, devouring aquatic insects, as 
Ilydroplulus piceus, much larger than themselves, and doing 
considerable damage in fish ponds hy devouring the young 
fish. They are readily kept in confinement, having been 
known to live thus for 3i years, feeding on raw beef and 
insects. The larvs are even more voracious than the perfect 
insects, sucking the juices of their prey through perforated 
mandibles, and protected from attack by their horny 
integuments. Whirligigs (ffj/ri'nijs) (Plate YII. figs. 10,11) 
differ from the Diving Beetles in the antennae, which are 
short and stout, and are so placed as somewhat to resemble 
ears. They are sociable creatures, and may be seen in 
ponds and ditches, congregated in groups varying from 2 
to 100, swimming upon the surface with their backs above 
the water, and chasing each other in circles or darting 
about in more irregular gyrations. Unlike other water 
beetles their backs show a brilbant metallic lustre, and 
when darling about in the sunshine they look like pearls 
dancing on the- surface. Their eyes are so divided as to 
appear to consist of two turned upwards and another pair 
looking downwards. The larvce (Plate VII. fig. 17) are long, 
jlender creatures somewhat resembling small centipedes, 
having each of the abdominal segments provided with a 
pair of slender ciliated appendages employed as organs of 
respiration as well as of locomotion, while the last segment 
is provided witt four hooked organs by means of which 
they leap about. 

III. Fhilhydrida, or Water-loving Beetles, are aquatic 
jr subaqiiatic in their habits, being found in tho water or 
)n the moist margins of ponds and marshes. Along with 
the two following groups they feed on decaying animal and 
vegetable substances, and for this reason those insects have 
seen classed together as Rhypophaga, or Cleansers. The 
mtennae are short and clavate, and they are specially dis- 
linguished from other aquatic forms by the great length of 
■,he maxillary palps, a feature which has procured for them 
,he name Palpicomes, often applied to them. The best 
cnown forms belong to the family Hydrophilidce, of which 
)ne species, and that tbe largest, Hydrophihis piceus (Plate 
^11. fig. 32), is an inhabitant of Europe. This beetle is oval 
n foTm, and of a dark olive colour, and measures H inches 
n lungth It uses its hind legs for swimming or rather 
jaddling, moving them not together, as the true water 
jeetlos do, but alternately. Its movements in the water are 
ihus slower than those of the former, but speed in this case 
B less neces.sary, their principal food consisting of aquatic 
eaves. In the larval stage, however, H. piceus makes an 
ipproach to the true water beetles in its food, and is so 
'erocious as 'o have earned the name ver assassin on the 
Continent. The mode of respiration in the perfect insect 
8 curious ; unable to raise its upper surface above the 
(rater, it merely protrudes its bead, and folding its club- 

shaped antenna?, the ends of whicli are sligutly hollow, il 
thus conveys little bubbles of air beneath the surface of the 
water, where it brings them into contact with the tracheal 
openings. The larvoe swim with facility, and are provided 
at the posterior extremity with two appendages which serve 
to maintain them at the surfacewhen they ascend to breathe. 

IV. Necrophaga are the beetles of most service in re- 
moving decaying animal matter, although a few species live 
on putrescent fungi, and others resemble the carnivorous 
groups in attacking and devouring the larvae of other 
insects. They are chiefly marked by the form of the an- 
tenn£B, which are not much longer than the head, and get 
thickened or club-shaped at the extremity. This group 
comprises the Sexton Beetles *(A'ecro;;Aorus), of which 
Necrophorus vespillo (Plate VII. fig. 27) may be taken as the 
type. These insects have thick bodies and powerful 
limbs, and owe their popular name to the peculiar manner 
in which they provide a nidu$ for their eggs. Their 
sense of smell is exceedingly acute, and no sooner does 
one of the smaller quadrupeds, as mice or moles, die, 
than several of those burying beetles, gathering about, 
begin to remove the earth from beneath the dead animal, 
and in a few hours succeed in sinking the carcase beneath 
the level of the ground, which they then cover over 
with earth. Having thus prevented the body from being 
devoured by other carnonepting animals, or from having 
its juices dried up by exposure to the sun, they make 
their way into the carcase and there deposit their eggs. 
Several individuals generally work together in this 
grave-digging operation, although Kecropkorus germanictit 
is said to labour alone, and they have been known to show 
considerable intelligence in performing this.operation ; thus 
Gleiditsch states that in order to get possession of the 
body of a mole, fixed on the end of a stick, they under- 
mined the latter and thus brought the dead body to the 
ground. The larvae on leaving the egg thus find them- 
selves surrounded by an abundance of food ; and when 
full grown they bury themselves fully a foot beneath the 
surface of the ground, where they form an oval chamber, 
the walls of which are strengthened by a coating of a gluey 
liquid, and in which they undergo metamorphosis. Shield 
Beetles (Sdpha) (Plate VII. fig. 22)— so called from the 
flattened form of their bodies, feed chiefly on carrion ; 
some, however, climb upon plants, particularly the stems 
of wheat and other grain, where they find small helices on 
which they prey ; while others, as SUpha punctata, dwell 
on trees and devour caterpillars. They exhale a disagree- 
able odour, probably arising from the nature of their food, 
and when they are seized a thick dark-coloured liquid exudes 
from their bodies. The Dermestidce are a family of small 
but widely-distributed beetles, which work great havoc 
among skins, furs, leather, and the dried or stuffed animals 
in museums. The perfect insects are timid creatures, 
which when disturbed fold their short contractile feet 
under their bodies, and, remaining perfectly motionleaa, 
admirably counterfeit death. The mischief is mainly 
wrought by the larva. These shed their skins several 
times, and take nearly a year in attaining their full growth. 
One of the most common and injurious species of this 
family is the Bacon Beetle {Dermestes lardarius) (Plate VII, 
fig. 14) — so called from its fondness for lard, but equally 
ready to attack the furrier's wares. Their tastes are 
exceedingly general, as they have been known to destroy a 
whole cargo of cork and even to perforate asbestos The 
larvae of Anlhrenus nniseorum, a species not exceeding one- 
tenth of an inch in length, is exceedingly injurious to 
collections of insects, among which it eludes observation by 
its minuteness and by working in the interior of the speci- 
mens, which are thus ruined before the damage is observed. 

V. BracMytra (Plate VTI. figs. 12, 15, 20) are readily 



distinguisbcd from the other groups of beetles by having 
the elytra much shorter than the abdomen, although they 
still suffice to cover the long membranous wings, which 
when not in use are completely folded beneath. The abdo- 
men is long and exceedingly mobile, and is employed 
in folding and unfolding the wings. It is furnished at its 
cxtreinity with two vesicles which can be protruded or 
withdrawn at pleasure, and from which, when irritated, 
many species emit a most disagreeable odour, although in 
a few the scent is more pleasing ; " one species, " says 
Kirby, " which I once took, smelt precisely like a fine high 
scented pear, another like the water-lily, a third like water- 
cresses, and a fourth like saffron." They are very 
voracious both in the larval and perfect states, feeding 
chiefly upon decaying animal and vegetable matters, 
although a few species devour living prey. Many of the 
smaller forms reside in and feed on mushrojms, some are 
found abundantly under putrescent plants, others in 
manure heaps, where they feed upon the maggots of flies, 
while there are a few forms whiclrmake their homes in the 
nests of the hornet and the ant. The larvae bear a con- 
siderable resemblance to their pirents in form and habits, 
and have the terminal segment of the abdomen prolonged 
into a tube with two conical and hairy appendages attached. 
The Brachelytrous beetles form an exteusive group, almost 
entirely con6iied to the temperate regions of the northern 
hemisphere. Great Britain alone possessing nearly 800 
spucies. They are familiarly known in this country as 
Cock-tails, one of the largest and most familiar species 
being that known as the Devil's Coach-horse {Goerius 
otens) It is about an inch in length, of a black colour, and 
its eggs are larger than those of any other British insect. 
It may often be seen crossing garden walks ; and when 
approached or otherwise threatened, it immediately assumes 
a most ferocious aspect and attitude, elevating its head 
and opening wide its formidable jaws, raising and throwing 
back its tail after the manner of the scorpion, protruding 
its anal vesicles, and emitting a disagreeable odour. It is 

V[. Clavicornea have the antenna terminating in a 
solid or perfoliated club, and include the Pill Beetles 
(Byrrhidie) and the Mimic- Beetles (flisleridx). The 
former are small insects, generally short, oval, and highly 
convex, although a few species found under the bark of 
trees are flattened. TSiey most frequently occur in sand- 
pits and on pathways, and when in danger withdraw their 
highly contractile legs into cavities prepared for them on 
the under side of the body, at the same time folding up 
their antenna and remaining motionless. In this condition 
they may readily be mistaken for oval seeds or pills, 
hence the common name. The Mimic Beetles (Plate VII. 
fig. 13) seldom exceed one-third of an inch in length, and 
are of very solid consistence, their elytra being so hard 
that the pin of the entomologist is with difficulty made to 
enter. They are somewhat square in form, with the upper 
surface highly polished, feeding chiefly on putrid substances 
and found in great abundance in spring ou the dnng of 
oxen and horses. Like Pill Beetles they roll themselves 
up on the approach of danger and feign death with great 
perseverance, and to this they owe their generic name 
Hisler, from histrio, a stage mimic. 

VII. Lamellicomes comprise a vast assemblage of beetles, 
many of which, especially such as feed on flowers and 
living plants, are remarkable alike for beauty of form 
and splendour of colour. They are distinguished by the 
form of their antennae, which always terminate in a club 
composed of several leaf-like joints, disposed like the spokes 
of a fan, the leaves of a book, or the teeth of a comb, or in a 
series of funnels placed above and witlin each other. The 
males often difl^er from the females 1 1 having horn-like 

projections on the head and thorax, and in tae greater size 
of their mandibles. . They are all winged insects, although 
somewhat dull and heavy in their flight ; and alike in the 
larval and